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Covenant of Grace from the Sacred Records.





To which is subjoined,







This TREATISE, and the MEMORIAL adjoined, be­ing pophomous Works of my Father's, 'I thought it necessary to treatise to the world, that they are published as he left them, being printed from his own Manuscript, prepare: for the Press, without any addition or Alter­atives whatsoever.



Psalm 89:3

I have cut a covenant with My chosen:

1 Corinthians 15:45


AS man's ruin was originary owing to the brcz1;:ng of the covenant of works, so his recovery, from the firlt to the laft Rep thereof, is ow ing purely to the fulfilling of the covenant of gracewhich covenant, being that wherein the whole my flery of our falvathat lies, I am to effay the opening of, as the L"rd fhall be pleafed to alTii+. And there is the more need of humble dependerce en the Father of lights, through Jefus Chrifi his Son, for the manifestation of his Spirit in this manner, that whereas the &ft covenant is known, in part by the light of uaturc, the knowledge of this fecund is owing entirely to revelation.

It was from this covenant the Pfalapift, in the verfe im­mediately preceding the firfl text, took a comfortalle view of a glorious building, infallibly going up in the midlt of ruins; even a building, of mercy: For I have (,rid, filer. cy Lilt up forever : the ground of which confident afTertion is, iu our text, pointed out to he God's covenant with his Chofen. From the type of the covenant of grave, namely the covenant of royalty made unto David, he faw a building up of mercy for the royal famdy of Judah, when they were brought exceeJing low. From the fob. fiance of it, he faw a building of mercy for !inners of rnm.ri­kind, who were laid in ruins by the breach of the firit co­venant. This is that new building free gracel-ctoa foot [[4]] for us ; into which they that believe are instantly there upon received, and where once received, they shall dwell forever: a building of mercy, in which every house, from the bottom to the top, from the foundation hope to the cope-hone, is pore mercy, rich and free mercy to us.

Of this building of mercy I shall drop a few words.

And, 1. The pars of it was drawn from all eternity, in the council of the Trinity : for it is according to the eter­nal purpgfe purpofed in gefus Eph. iii. i t. The objeas of mercy, the time and place, the way and means of conferring it on, them, were defigned particularly, be­fore man was miferable, yea, before he was at all. 2. The builder is God himfelf, the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, 1 Cor.3:9. re are God's building. All hands of the glorious Trinity are at work in this building. The Father chore the objects of mercy, and gave them to the Son to be redeemed: the Son purchafed redemption for them; and the Holy Ghoft applies the purchafed redemption unto them. But it is fpecially attributed to the Son, on the account of his fingular agency in the work : Zech. vi. 12. Behold the man whofe name is the BRANCH—He /hall build the temple of the Lord. V erfe 13. Even he /ball build the temple of the Lord, and he fiall bear the glory. 3. The foundation was laid deep in the eternal council ; beyond the reach of the eyes of men and angels. Paul confider-jug' it, cries out, 0 the depth ! Rom. xi. 33. For who bath mown the mind of the Lord, or who bath been his counfiPor ? li verfe 34. 4. It is more than five thoufand years fince this luilding rofe above ground. And the firft hone of it hat appeared, was a ffromife, a promife of a Saviour, made

Paradife after the fall, Gen. iii. 15. namely, That the i,ed of the womanfhoil d bruife the head of the ferpent. Here was mercy. And mercy was laid upon mercy. Upon promifing mercy was laid quickening mercy, whereby our loft firft parents were enabled to believe the promife : and upon quickening mercy was laid pardoning mercy to them ; and upon tha sanctifying and eflablifhing mercy : afsicl at lening mercy. 5. The cement is blood: tag-rift the Mediator, which is the blood Na faring mercy for finners could mercy lie firm upon another in the [[5]] building, without being cemented with that precious LLod : but by it the whole building con( s, and flands firm for ever, Heb. ix. 22, 23. and vii.' 24, 25. 6. Ever lince the tin.e, it appeared above ground, it has. been going c n. Ard many hands have been employed, to ferve in carrying on the work. In the firfl ages of the world, Patriarchs were employed in it, fuch as Adam, Enoch, and Notl : in the middle age:, prophets, priefls and Levites : in thefe the !aft ages, the apoales, and other extraordinary officers, and ordinary minifters of the gofpel. Great has been the oppofition made to the building from the beginning, by Satan and his agents, both in the way of violence and de­ceit; yet has it all along been going on flill. And now it is come far above mid height ; it is drawing towards the top, and the time when the laa fkOne (ball be laid there­on ; for it is evident, we are far advanced in the days of the mire of the feventh argel,wherein the "'God is to be firlified, Rev. x. 7. 7. The cope-acne t% ill be laid on it at the laft day : at what time the promife will receise its full accomplifhment, in the complete falvation of all the objetls of mercy, then to be advanced unto the meafure of theflatore of the ftiln.-fs of Chris?, Eph. iv. 13. In that day our Lord Jefus Chrifl tt e great builder, Anil 1ring forth the hes:lc/Aire 1.1.'erof with shootings, even the laft and crowning mercy, laying, Come ye hhfed of my -Father, inhe­rit the kingdom pr:psred for you from the foundation rnfr the world. And then (hall they dwell in the building of mer­cy perfetfled, and fr',g of mercies for ever and ever. 8. Lofty, The foundation en which it flands, is a firm one. It is neccfrary that it be fo ; for a building of mercy to Enner:, from a holy jna God, is a building of huge we isrt, more weighty than the whole fabric of heaven and earth: and if it fhould fall, all is ruined a fecond time, without any more hol e cf relief. Eta it is a Pure foundation, be in God's everl..air:g covenant : 1 h.ve Mad( a co,r,r,a cab my Cli•?frrs.

In which words, together with tile fecond newt-; are four things to be confidered. t. The fsmriss.ti,?. which the boildir g of mercy flares; to wit, A a. The fart•,'s contraSors in that c.;:venanz. 3. The making of it. 4. The nature of it.

[[6]] I. The foundation on which the building of mercy {lands, is a covenant, a divine covenant, a Pure one. Th firft building for man's happinefs was a building of bounty and goodnefs, but not of mercy ; for man was not in mi­fery, when it was a rearing up. And it was founded oa a covenant too ; namely on the covenant of works, made with the firft Adam : but he broke the covenant, and the whole building tumbled down in an inftant. But this is another covenant, and of another nature. In the type in. deed and fhadow, it is the covenant of royalty with Da­vid, 2 Sam. vii. i z,-17. which was a foundation of mercy to his family, fecuring the continuance of it, andthat as a royal family. Howbeit, in the antitype and truth, it is the covenant of grace, the covenant of eternal life and falvation to finners the fpiritual feed of the head thereof, to be given them in the way of free grace and mercy, Pfalm lxxxix. 24, 29, 36. and in which they arefreed from the curie, fo that it cannot reach them, not. witbftanding of their failures: but the Lord deals with them as his children (till, though offending children ; ver. 30,—.-53. and all by the means of Jefus Chrift the Sa­viour, the mighty One, ver. 19. This is the foundation of the whole building of mercy to finners in their low e. Rate, into which they were brought by Adam's fall. The revelation, promulgation, and offer made unto the fons of men, of this covenant which lay hid in the depths of the eternal coqncil, is called the gofpel ; the glad tidings of a new covenant for life and falvation to tinners.

II. The parties contratIors in this covenant are, GOD, and his Chofen, the latt Adam : for it is evident from the nature of the things here fpoken of ver. 3, 4. and from 2 Sam. vii. 8. that thefe words, I have made a covenant with my Chofen, are the Lord's own words. Both heaven and earth were concerned in this covenant ; for it was a covenant of peace between them ; and accordingly the in­tel efts of both are feen to by the parties contraaors. 1. On heaven's fide is God himfeli, the party propofer of the cpsenant, I have made a covenant with my Chofen. He was the offended party, yet the motion for a covenant of peace comes from him : a certain indication of the good will of the whole glorious Trinity towards the [[7]] recovery of loft finners. The God and Father of our Lord Jefus Chrift, the Father of mercies, beholding a loft world, his mercy feeks a vent, that it may be fhown to the miferable : but juftice ftands in the way of the egrefa and building of mercy, without there be a covenant whereby it may be fatisfied. Then faith the Father, " The 4, &it covenant will not ferve the purpofe of mercy : there

muft be a new bargain : but the loft creatures have no­" thing left, to contra& for themfelves : unlefs another " take the burden upon him for them, there is no remedy ig in the cafe: they cannot chufe fuch an one for them­" (elves ; I will make a choice for them, and make the co­" venant,with my Chofen." 2. On man's fide, then is God's Chofen, or chofen One ; for the word is fingular. This chofen One, in the type, the codtnant of royalty, is David : but in the antitype, the covenant of grace, it is the Son or God, the laft Adam, even Chrift the chofen of God, Luke xxiii. 35. The truth is, fuch great things are faid of this party with whom, this covenant was made, of his feed, and of the efficacy of this covenant, as can fully agree to none but Chrift and his fpiritual feed, verfe 4, 27, 29, 39, 37. The royal family of Judah, the houfe of David never recovered their ancient fplendor, after the Babylonifh captivity ; with a view to which time, this Pfalm' feems to have been penned. Their kingdom is extina many ages ago ; and the grandeur of that family, according to the flefh, is quite funk. But the pr?nnife made to David in the covenant of royalty, Rill flourifheth, and will flourifh for ever in Jefus Chrift, the topbranch of the family of David. How then can it be, but that, in the perpetual building of mercy, mentioned verfe 2. and the eftablifhing of David's feed, and luilding tip his throne to all generation',verfe 4. Chrift himfelfis chiefly aimed at ? And indeed he only was the mighty One, fit for the vaft undertaking in this covenant, verfe 19. and him the Fa­fter points out to us, as his elea or chofen One, Ifa. x'


III. As to the making of this covenant between eontraEting parties : The Father made it with his Sop, I have made a covenant with my Chofen, and that fore the world beg- an, Tit. i. 2. By their mutual [[8]] agreement thereto, this covenant was completely made from e­ternity, even as the covenant of works with the firft Adam was, before we were in being. The original text calls it rutting ofa covenant ; which phrafe is taken from that ancient ufagc of cutting off a beall, by cutting it afunder, at the making of a covenant, Jer. xxxiv. 18. It intimates this covenant to be a covenant by facrifice ; wherein the rarty.contraaor on man's fide was the factifice, and di­vine Juflice the fword that cm it afunder, according to Zech. xiii. 8. Awake, 0 poorti, againfl myfiepherd, and a~ air fl the man that is my fellow, faith 14 Lord of holis ; finite the fiepberd. And withal it imports. the invio• lablenefs and perpetuity of the covenant made :. no more for ever to be diffolved, than the parts of the beat} cut off one from the other, to be joined together as form­erly.

IV. For the nature of he covenant : There are five things belonging thereto that appear from the texts ; namely, 1. The being of a reprefentation in it ;2. The defign for which it was fet on foot ; 3. That there are in it a condition, and 4. A promife ; and 5. Into whofe hands the adminiaratian' of it is put.

t. There is a reprefentation taking place in this cove­nant. As it was in the &ft covenant, fo it was likewifein the fecond ; the party-contractor and undertaker on man's fide, was a reprefentative, reprefenting and fuflaining the perfons of others. This appears, in that the chofen One with whom the covenant was made, is called the !aft Adam : for it is plain, he is fo called in relation to the &ft Adam, who was the figure (or type) of him, Rom. v. t4. namely, in that likeas the fira Adam reprefenting his feed in the covenant of works, brought fin and death on them ; fo he reprefenting his, brings righteoufnefs and life to them : as the apo(llc teaclieth at large in that chapter.

2. The defign of this covenant was life, the molt valu­able intereff of mankind. The lel Adam was made a quickening Spirit, to wit, to give life to his feed. So it is a covenant of life, as the covenant of Levi, a t) pe thereof, is exprefsly called, Mal. ii. 5. The Ina covenant was a c,,venant of life too ; but there is this difference, to wit, that the fire was for life in perfation- to upright man

The Introduetion and general Scheme. ()-

baring life before ; the fecond, for life in perfeaion to fin­ful man legally and morally dead. The parties contraI­ed for in this fecond covenant, were confidered as under the bands of death, abfolutely void of life : and therefore utterly incapable to a& for helping themfelves. They lay like dry bones fcattered about the grave's mouth, before the partics.contraaors; juttice forbidding to give them life, but upon terms confifient with and becoming to,its honour.

3. The condition of the covenant, the terms of that life agreed to by the reprefentative, is implied in that he was the fail Adam, namely to go through with what the firft Adam had Ruck in. Adana, in the covenant of works, Rumbled in the courfe of his obedience, and fell ; and by his fall was quite difabled to begin it anew : he thereby came under the penalty of that covenant alfo, but was ut­terly unable to difcharge it. So the left Adam comes in the room of the firft, not as the firft Adam Rood in his integrity; for in that cafe there was no place for a fecond Adam ; but as he lay a broken man under the firft bargain. And coming in his room in this cafe, his bufinefs was to fatisfy the demands of the firft covenant, in behalf of his feed. Thefe demands were now run up high, quite be­yond what they were to innocent Adam: the penalty was become payable as well as the principal fum. Wherefore, the firft covenant being ingroffed in the fecond, is declar­ed broken ; and the principal and penalty being fummed up together, the clearing of the whole is laid upon the laft or fecond Adam, as the condition of the fecond covenant.

4. The promife of the covenant to be, upon that con­dition, performed by the part y-contraaor on Heaven's fide, is implied in thefe words, I have made a covenant nigh (in the original to) my Chofen ; that is, 44 I 'have "made a covenant, binding and obliging myfelf by folemn "promife to my chofen One, for fuch and fuch benefits, "upon the condition therein Rated and agreed to." Com­pare the following claufe, I have (worn unto David my fir­vont. The nature of this promife will be enquired into the due due place.

5. Leflily, The adminiftration of this covenant is r
Into the hands of the party-contractor on man's fide: 7 i
I, 11 Edam was made a quic4ening Spirit. Each of the con‑

10 - A view cf the Covenant of Grace.

traaing parties being God, it was not poffible that either party fhnuld fail, or that the laft Adam fhould break, as the &ft had done. Whereupon the time of Chrift's ful­filling of the condition of the covenant being prefixed by the Father, God took. Chrift's fingle bond for fufficient fecurity, and thereupon conftituted him adminiftrator of the covenant. Thole whom he reprefented were confi. tiered as being under death, which in the language of the covenant,:is a very extenfive term ; the Spirit and life were to be purchafed by him, and did belong to the promife of the covenant. So upon the credit of his fulfilling the con dition of the covenant in due time, the fulnefs of the Spi­rit, and eternal life were lodged in him, to be communi­cated by him : Rev. iii. 1. Thefe things faith he that bath the feven Spirits of God. t John v. t t. God bath given to us eternal life, and this life it in his Son. John xvii. 2. At thou Aall given him power over all/ell.', that he/hould give eternal life.Thus Was he made a quickening Spirit.

Now the Dalt ine of thefe texts thus compared and ex­plained, is,

That the covenant cl grace, for life. and fivation to loft 'inners of mankind, was made with Jefus Chrift, the laft Adam ; and he coal ituted ildminifirator of it.

In handling of this weighty fubjeet, I deem it not ne. ceffary to infifi, to prove that there is a covenant of grace; the being of which is obvious from the texts, and many other scriptures, such as Isa. xlii. 6. xlix. 8. and liv. to. Heb. viii. 6. and xiii. zo. But the following account of it (hall be ranged under thefe fix heads, namely,

1. The parties in the covenant of grace.

2. The making'of that covenant.

3. The parts of it.

4. The adminiftration of it.

S. The trial of a faving perfonal inbeing in it.

6. The way of inflating [Inners perfonally and ravingly in it.


The Parties in the Covenant of Grace.

IN all covenants, of whatfoever nature they be, whether covenants of abfolutt promife, or conditional ones,

there mull needs be diftina parties : for howbeit one may decree, refolve,.or purpofe with himfelf, without another party ;' yet one's covenanting or bargaining, vowing or promifing, fpeaks an obligation thence arifing to another diftina party. Accordingly, in the covenant of grace there are three parties to be confidered : a. The party-con­traaor on Heaven's fide. 2. The party-contraaor on man's fide. And 3. The party-contraaed and undertaken for. Of which in order. And,

I. Of the Party contrafior on Heaven's fide.


S it was in the covenant of works, in this point; fo it is likewife in the covenant of grace ; the party upon the one fide is God himfelf, and he only. - There was no need of any other, to fee to the interefts of Hea­ven, in this covenant : and there was no other, when it was made, being made from eternity, before the world be­gan, Tit. i. 2. This is plain, from the words of the co­venant, I will be their God, Jer. :taxi. 33.

But, whether God is-herein to be confidered perfonally or effentially, is not quite fo clear. Some divines think, that the Father, perfonally confidered, namely, as the firft Perfon of the glorious Trinity is the party-contraaor on Heaven's fide. Others, that God effentially confidered,that is, as Father, So.!), and Holy Glioft, is that party­contraaor. But, however we conceive of that matter, we are affured from the holy oracles, that thefe three are one God ; and judge, that according to the fcripture, it may be fafely Paid, that God, effentially confidered, was the party contra for in the perfon of the Father. Here­by it is owned, that the Son and Holy Ghoft have their part in the covenant on Heaven's fide, as the party offend­ed by man's fin ; and is the mean time, a peculiar agen­cy in this great work of power and authority, on that fide,

12 The Parties in the Covenant of Grace.

is attributed to the Father ; as there is unto the Son, on mart's fide.

And that, of the party-contra6tor on Heaven's fide, we may conceive aright in this matter ; thefe two things are, in the first place, to be taken notice of. r. He, from all eternity, decreedthe creation of man after his own image, and the making of the covenatt of works with him, in time. All things, brought forth in time, lay from eterni­ty in the womb of God's decree ; in virtue whereof, they have their being in time ; for which caufe, the decree isPaid to bring forth, as a woman cloth a child, Zeph. ii. 22. And the creation of angels and men, with the providence about them, made many lines in the volume of the fealed book of the decrees. God felt-fufficient needed neither man nor angel ; but for the manifeftation of his own glo­ry, he purpofed from eternity to create them, and more. over, to enter into fuch a covenant with man, as one fhould therein reprefent the whole family ; fovereign pleafure meanwhile, taking another method with the angelic tribe; but withal purpofing to give both the one and the other a fufficient ability to stand in their integrity, if they would. Thus, from eternity, the covenant of works, in all the parts and appurtenances thereof, was before the eternal mind : though being made with a mere man, it could not aekually be entered into, till once man was created. But, Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world, Aets xv. 18. 2. He decreed alfo from eternity, to permit the first math the reprefentative of the whole fa. mily, to fall, and fo to break the covenant, and involve himfelf and all his pofterity in ruins. It is evident from the fpotlefe hands of God, and the nature of the thing, that the divine permiffion.was not the caufe of man's fall: and from the necefl'ary dependence of the creature upon the Creator, that without it he could not have fallen. But the fovereign Lord of the creatures permitted the fall of man, for his own holy ends, purpofing to bring about good from it.

Now, God, the partycontra&or on Heaven's fide in the covenant of grace, is to be confidered in that matter in a threefold view.

z. He is to be confidered in it as an offended God; of‑


Of the Parly-tontratgor an Heaven's fide. 13

fended with all the fins of all mankind, original and afloat. Looking upon the children of men, the whole atafs of mankind appeared in the eye of his glory corrupt and loathfome, the-very reverie of his hand's ; he law them all gone glide, altogether become flay, none doing good, no not one, Pfal. xiv. 2, 3. In the firft covenant, God contra6t­ed with man himfelf as a friend, without the interpolition of a mediator : but in the fecond covenant it was not Co, and it could not be fo ; for in it man was confidered as a fallen creature : a tranfgreffor of the law, and an enemy to God ; and it is a covenant of reconciliation, a covenant of peace for thofe who had been at war with Heaven. ,

But withal God is to be confidered herein as a God purpofing and decreeing from eternity to manifell the glo­, ry of his free grace, love, and mercy, in the falvation of fame of mankind loll. Accordingly we are laid to be fa. ved in time, according to his own purpofe and grace given to us in Chrifl Jefus, before the world began, 2 Tim. i. 9. Without fuch a purpofe of grace in God, there could ne­ver have been a covenant of grace. But the fovereign Lord of the creatures, overlooking the fallen angels, as to any purpofe of mercy, entertained thoughts of love and peace towards fallen mankind, purpofing in him felf, to make fome of them everlafting monuments of his free grace and-mercy, partakers of life and falvation, and fo let on foot the cove­nant of grace.

Lelly, Yet we are to confider him an in this mat­ter as a juft God, who cannot but do right, give fin a jolt recompeoce,. and magnify his holy law, and make it ho­nourable, Gen. xviii. 25. Heb. ii. 2. 15. xlii. 2 z. Upon the motion for extending mercy to finners of mankind, the juftice of God interpofeth, pleading that mercy cannot be !hewn them, but upon terms agreeable to law and justice. And indeed it was neither agreeable to the nature of God, nor to his truth in his-word, to erea a throne of grace on the ruins of his exaft juftice, nor to Phew mercy prejudice of it. Now the juftice of God required, that the law which was violated, ihould be fully fati5fied, and the honour there. of repaired by fuffering and obedience.; the former fuch as might fatisfy the penal fan&ion of the law, and the lat­ter the cummanding part of it. The which being quite

14 The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head a.

beyond the reach of the {inners themfelves, they behoved to die without mercy, unlefs anottrer, who could be ac¬cepted as a fufficient furety, fhould undertake for them, as a fecond Adam, coming in their room., and bead, as they lay ruined by the breach of the covenant of works.

Thus flood the impediments in the way of mercy to fallen man quite infuperable to him, or any of his fellow-creatures; and the covenant of grace was made for remov¬ing thofe impediments out of the way, and that it might be the channel wherein the whole rich flood of laving mer¬cy might flow freely, for the quickening, purging, fanEti

I. and perfeEling of loft (inners of mankind, who were under the bands of death and the curie; through the breach of the firft covenant by the firft Adam.

From what is faid on this point, we may draw this in¬ference, to wit, That the redemption of the foul is precious. The falvation of loft (inners was a•greater work than the making of the world: the- powerful Word commanded, and this laft was done, but the former was not to be corn-paged, but with more ado.

II. Of the Party contra8or on Man's fide. ANTE have feen, that upon one fide, in the covenant of V grace; is God himfelf. Now, upon the other fide is Jefus Chrift the Son of God, with his fpiritual feed, Heb. ii. 13. Behold I and the children which God hatb given me : the former as the party- contraaor and undertaker: -the latter, as the party contraEted and undertaken for : A good reafon for his name Immanuel, which being inter¬.preted, is, God with us, Matth. i. 23.

The party-contraElor then with God, in the covenant of _grace, is'our Lord Jefus Chrift. He alone managed the interefts of men in this eternal bargain : for at the mak¬ing of it none of them were in being ; nor, if they had -been, would' they have been capable of affording any help.

°Now, 4efus Chrift, the party-contraEloron man's fide, iu the covenant of grace, is, according to our texts, to be confidered in that matter as the laft or fecond Adam, head and reprefentative of a feed, loft Goners of mankind, the party contraEted for. And thus he fisted himfelf Media- ;tor hem .eeu an offended juft God, and offending men gni'. ty before him. In which point by one main

Of the Party7cantraflor on Man's fete. 15

difference betwixt the firft Adarh and the lafi Adam : For there is one Mediator between God and men, the man Chrifl Mt! ; wbo gave himfelf a ranfim, t Tim. ii. 5, 6. And fo the covenant of grace, which could net be made immediately with finners, was made with Chrift the loft Adam, their head and reprefentative, mediating between God and them; therefore called, gefus the Mediator of the new covenant, towhom we come by believing, Heb. 12:22, 24.

The term Mediator is not, to my obfervat ion, applied in the.holy fcripture to any other, except Moles, Gal. iii. 19. The law—was ordained by angels in the h..nd of a media. tor. And of him, a typical mediator, it is worth c,bferv. ing, that he was not only an inter-me frenger between God and Iliad ; but, in God's renewing hi, covenant, in a way of reconciliation, after the breaking of the tables, the cove­nant was made with him, as their head and reprefentative. Exod. xxxiv. 27. And the Lordfaid unto Mops, write tin;u 'bele words ; for after the tenor of theft words I have mode .4 covenant with thee and with Ifrael. This refers unto the gracious anfwer made to Mofes's prayer, verfe 9.Pardon our iniquity, and our fin, and take us for Mine inheritance ; verfe to. And he (namely the Lord) faid, Behold I make a covenant: before all thy people I will do marvels, &c. ver. 28. And he wrote upon the tables (to wit, the new ones) the words of the covenant, the ten commandments. Now Moles was alone on the mount with God during the whole time of this tranfaclion ; and in it the Lord (peaks of him and the people as one all along.

For clearing of this purpofe anent the party-contraElor on man's fide, I (hall r. Evince, That the covenant of grace was made with Chrift as the loft Adam, head and reprefentative of a feed ; and 2. Shew why it was fo made.

Fir), That the covenant of grace, the fecond covenant, was made with Chrift as the hit or fecond Adam, head and reprefentative of a feed, to yvit, his fpititual feed, appears from the following confidetations.

I. Covenants typical of the covenant of grace were m: or eftablifhed with perfons reprefenting their refpeclive Thus it was in the typical covenant in our text, the c rant of royalty made with David, an undoubted tn.

16 The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head T.

the covenant of grace. In it David was God's servapt,

having a feed comprehended with him therein, Psa. 89:3-4. He was an eminent type of Chrilt ; who is therefore called David, Hos. 3:5. Afterwards 'ball the children of Ifrael re:urn, and feek the Lord their God, and,Davkl their ling. And the bent fits of the covenant of grace are called the fare mercies of David, Ifs. lv. 3. Thus vas it alto in the covenaot of the day and night, (Jer. 33:20.) ellahli flied with Noih and his foils, reprefeutatives of their iced, the new world, Gen. ix. 9. Beh'old I eflablilb my co venant with you, and with your feed after you. And that this covenant was a type of the covenant of grace, appears, from its being made upon a facrifice, chap., viii. 20, 21, 22. and from the fign and token of it, the rainbow, chap.ix. t 3. appearing round about the throne, Rev. iv. 3. but especially from the nature and import of it, to wit, that there flt.udd not be another deluge, Gen. ix. i /. the fubltance of which is plainly decIsi'ed, Ifa. liv. 9. As I have fworn that the water, if 11/4ah fball no more go over the earth; fo have I fworn, that I would not It wroth with thee, nor relule thee. ver. to. For the mountains fall depart, and the hills be removed, but my blau,/Vim/I not depart from thee, neither /hall the covenant of my pace it removed, faith the Lord, that bath mercy on thee. And fuel' alfo was the covenant of the land of Canaan, made with Abraham, reprefenting his feed, Gen. xv. 18. and afterwards confirmed by oathfctup- xxii , 16, 17. In all which he was an eminent type of Chrift, the true Abraham, father of the multitude of the faithful, who, upon God's call, left heaven, his native country, and came and fojourned among the curled race of mankind, and there offered up his own flefh and blood a facrifice unto God, and fo became the true heir of the world, and rerived the promifes for his fpiritual feed ; the fum where of is given by Zacharias, in his account of the covenant with Abraham, Luke i. 72. To remember his holy-covenant, 73. the oath which he fware to our father Abraham, vet-, would grant unto us, that we being delivered cut Is of cur enemies, might ferve him without fear-) holinefr and righteoufm/s before him, all the days of A ndfinally, thus it was in the covenant of ever priefthood made with Phinehas, another type of the

Of the Parly-eonira8or on Man's fide. 17

covenant of grace. In it Phinehas flood a reprefentative of his feed, Numb. xxv. 13. And he /Jail have it, and his fled after him, even the to.venant of an ewrIefting priejihood; becaufe be was zealous for his God and made an atonement for the children of Ifrael. And therein he typified jefus Chtift, reprefenting his fpiritual feed in the covenant of trace; for it is evident,. that as in Chrift, who made the great atonement for finners, the everlafling prieflhood pin. mifed to Phinehas, bath its full accomplifhment, his fpiri¬tual feed partaking of the fame in him: according to Pfal. ex. 4, Thou art a priefi for ever. Rev. i. 6. And hair made us kings and priefts unto God and his Father.

Now, forafmuch as thefe typical covenants were made or eflablifhed with parties handing therein as public perfons, heads, and reprefentatives of their feed; it natively follows, that the covenant of grace typified by them, was made with Chrift as the head and reprefentative of his fpiritual feed ; for whatfoever is attributed to any perfon cr thing as a type, bath its accomplifhmeut really and chiefly in the perfon or thing typified.

2. Our Lord Jefus Chrift being, in the pbrafeology of the Holy Ghnfl, the laft Adam, the reafon hereof cannot be taken from the natt.re common to the fit ft Adam and him, for all mankind partake of that; but from their com¬mon office of federal headfhip and reprefentation, in the re¬fpeEtive covenants touchirg man's eternal happir efs ; the which is peculiar unto Adam, and the man Curt: T. , A ccordingly, Adam is called the fiat n.an, and Chriit the fe¬cond man, r Cur. xv. 47. ;. but Mill is no otherwife the fecond man, than as he is the fecund federal head, Cr.

reprefentative in the fecund covenant ; as Adam was the firfl federal head, or the representative in the Lift covenant. Agreeable to which, the apuftle reprefents Adam ar the head of the earthly men, and Chrift as 't he head if tuc h(.4. venly men, ver. 48. ; the former being thole v.ho bear A¬dam's image, namely, all his natural feed ; the fatty-r, thole who partake elute image of Chrift, namely, bizi

ritual feed, ver. 49. All this is confirmed from A dJm's being a figure or type of Chrift, which the A Fog!: ex; ;el's¬Iy afferts, Rom. v. 14. ; and from the paral1,1 he dta,%3 betwixt them two, namely that as Ly Adam's c.Lenar,t

8 The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head t.

breaking, fin and death came on all that were his, fo by Chi ili's euvenant•keeping, righteoufnefs and life came to all that are 'his, ver. 17, 18, 19. Wherefore, as the firft covenant was made with Adam, as the head and reprefen. tative of his natural feed, In the fecond covenant was made with Chriii as the head and reprefentative of his fpiritual feed.

3. As the firit man was called Adam, that is to fey, man; he being the head and reprefentative of mankind, the perfon in whom Godtreated with all men, his natural feed, in the lira covenant ; and on the other hand, all men there­in reprefented by him, do, in the language of the Holy Gholt, go under the name of Adam, Pfal xxxix. 5, t a. Surely every man (in the original it is, all Adam) is vani­ty: fo Chrifi bears the name of his fpiritual feed, and they, on the other hand, bear his name, a plain evidence of their b ing one in the eye of the law, and of God's treating with him as their reprefentative in the fecond covenant. Ifrael in the name of the fpiritual feed, Rom. ix. 6. and our Lord Jefus Chrift is called by the fame name, Ifa xlix. 3. Thou art my fervant, 0 'frail, in whom I will be glorified; as fe­veral learned and judicious commentators do underhand it ; and is evident from the whole context, verfe If 2, 4f-9. The truth is, Chrift is here fo called with a peculiar folem- , pity ; for the original text hands precifely thus : Thou art my fervant, in whom I will glorify myfilf: that is, thou art Iirael's reprefentative, in whom I will glorify my­felf, and make all mine attributes illuftrious ; as I was dif‑yir,..d, and they darkened, by Ifrael the collective body spiritual feed. And this leads us to a natural and un-interpretation of that paffage, Pfal. xxiv. 6. This aeration ff them that fed him, that Leek thy face, 0 that is, in other words, that long for the appear‑:1ov. vii. 15. Gen. xxxii. 39.) of the Meffias, the whom the Old Tellament church did fo Leek ; a P Ishofe coming to his temple, (Mal. iii. t.) was Mt in of the ark into the tabernacle that David For it, on which occafion that Pfalm was pen- , ingly it follows immediately, ver. 7. Lift up gates, and be lift up ye everlafting doors, and all come in.. And in another Pfalm pen.

Of the Party-contraSor on Man's Pe. 19

lied on the fame occafion, and exprefsly faid to have been delivered on that very day into the hand of Afaph, I Chron. xvi. 1, 7. is that expreilion found, ver. 11. Seel his face continually; juftly to be interpreted agreeable to the circutnftances of the main thing which David through the Spirit had in view that day, namely, the coming of the Meffias. Thus Chrilt bears the name of his fpiritual feed ; and they, on the other hand, bear his name too ;

Cor. xii. 12. For a: the body is one, and bath many mem. tiers, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body : fh alfa is Chrifi.

4. The promifes were made to Chrilt as the fecund A­dam the head and reprefentative of his feed ; Gal. iii. 16. Now td Abraham and his feed were the promifes made. Hs faith not, And to feeds, as of many ; but as of one, And to thy feed, which Is Chrilt. I own, that here, even as in the text immediately before cited, is meant, Chrilt my. Itical, the head and members. It is to them that the promifes are here faid to be made ; but primarily to the head, fe'candarily to the members in him ; even as the pro. mire of life in the firft covenant, was primarily, made to Adam as the head, and fecondarily to all his natural feed in him., Thus; in the typical covenant with Abraham, the promifes of the earthly inheritance were primarily made to Abraham himfelf, and fecondarily to his feed according to the flefh. And even fo the prornife of the eternal in. heritance plainly Rands made to Chrift, Tit. i. 2. In bops of eternal life, which God that cannot lie, promiftd before the world began ; when there was none but Chita to whom that protnife could be made perfonally. Accordingly the covenant is faid to be made with the houfe of lirael, namely, the fpiritual Ifrael ; yet are the promifes of it directed, not to them, but to another perfon, Heb. viii. 10. I willbete them a God, and theyfhall be to me a people. The rea.: fon of which plainly appears, in the promifes being made to Milt as their head and reprefentative. Now, forafmuch as thefe promifes belong to the covenant of grace, which is therefore called the covenant of promife, Eph. Ia. it is manifett, that if they were made to Chrilt as the head and reprefentative of a feed, the covenant of grace w made with him as fuch ; and he to whom they weremanly made, was furely the party•contraanr therein.

20 , The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head i.

5. Lafily, This federal headfhip of Chrift, and his re. rrefenting his fpiritual feed in the covenant of grace ap¬Pears from his furetifhip in that covenant, the better te¬ftament whereof Jefus was made a furety, Heb. vii. 22. Now, he became furety for them in the way of fatisfaaion for their debt of punifhment and obedience ; and that tak¬ing the whole burden on himfelf, as for perfons utterly un¬able to anfwer for themfelves. This will afterwards fall in to be cleared. Mean-while, fuch a furety, is a true re-prefentative of the party he is furety for, and one perfon with them in the eye of the law. Hence not only is Chrift faid to have been made•fin for us, 2 Cor. V. 21. to have had the iniquity of us all laid on him, Ifa.liii. 6. and to have died for us, Rom. v. 8. but alto we are,:faid to have been crucified with Chrift, Gal. ii. zo. to be made the righteoufnefs of God in him, 2 Cor. v. 21. yea, to be raifed up together, and glorified, being made to fit loge¬t!ler in heavenly places in Chrift Jefus, Eph. ii. 6. and to be made alive in Chrift, as we die in Adam, t Cor. xv. 22. All which neceffarily requires this his headfhip and repre¬fentation in the covenant. •

And thus it appears, that the fecond covenant was made with Chrift as the laft or'fecond Adam, head and repre¬fentative of his fpiritual feed.

Secondly, We are to enquire, wherefore the fecund co¬venni., the covenant of grace, was fo made ? And this (hall be accounted for in the following particulars.

a. The covenant of grace was made with Chrill as the laft Adam, head and reprefentative of his fpiritual feed,


that infinite love might have an early vent, even from e. amity. The fpecial love of God to the fpiritual feed Dok vent in the covenant of grace. And that love and ,hat covenant are of the fame eternal date: as the love Was everlafting or eternal, Jer. xxxi. 3. fo was the cove¬nant, Heb. xiii. 20. Tit. i. 2. But fince the feed are but of yefterday, the covenant of grace behoved to be like the covenant of works, a yefterday's covenant, a time cove t it %vas not made with Chrift as their represented nototherwife have been an eternal coro ,rnife of eternal life, which is undoubt of the covenant of grace, could not other.

Of the Party.tontrallor on Man's fide. 21

Wire have been of fu a7:cierit a date, as before the world be­gan, as the apoftle lays it is, Tit. i. a. How could an e­ternal covenant be originally made with creatures of tune, but in their eternal head and reprefentative ? Or how could an eternal covenant be perfonally made with them, by way of perfonal application to them, had it not been from eter­nity made with another as their head and reprefentative ? But in this method of infinite wifdom, free love took an early vent; not waiting the flow motion of its ol jeols creep­ing out of the womb of time, in which many of them lie wrapt..up, even to this day. But as princes fotzetimes do,• by proxy, marry young princeffes, before they are mar­riageable, or capable to give their confent ; fo God, in his infinite love, married to himfelf all the fpiritual feed, in and by Jefus Chrift as their reprefentative, not only before they were capable of contenting, but before they were at all. The which they do afterwards, in their effethial cal­ling, approve of by faith, and give their content perfonally to ; and fo tbey enjoy God as their God, and God hath them as his people : John xx. 17. 4 I afcend onto my Fa­ther and your Father, and to my God and your God.'

2. Otherwife it could not have been made-at all a con-- ditional covenant anfwering the defign of it. This cove­nant-taking place only upon the breach of the firft covenant, the great defign of it was, that dead' finners might have life, as was before obferved. Now, in order to this, a holy juft God flood upon conditions, without performing' of which that life was not to be given : and they were'high­conditions, Pfal. xl. 6. SacrIfice and of ring thou did fi not' Ore. i Theff. v. 9,_xo. gefus Chrift who died for us, that—we should live. But how could an effeaual

condi­tional covenant for life be made with dead finners, other-wife than in a reprefentative ? Dead fouls cannot perform any condition for life at all which can be pleafing to God. They muff needs have life before they can do any thing of that nature, be it never fo fmall a condition ; therefore a conditional covenant for life could not be made with finners in their own perform ; etpecially confidering, that the con­ditions for life were fo high, that man at his bell {late was not able to perform them.. Wherefore, if fuck a covenn1,-

22 The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head r.

was made at all, it behoved to be made with Chrift as their reprefentative, Rom. viii. 3, 4.

It was fo ordered, to the end it might be unto us poor finners a covenant of grace indeed. I: is evident from the holy fcriptures, that this covenant was defigned for exalting the free grace of God ; and that it is fo fram. ed, as to he a covenant of pure grace, and not of works, in refpeet of us, whatever it was in refpeet of Chrift : Rom. iv. 16. Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace. Eph. ii. 9. Not of works, left any man thotild boaft. And at this rate, indeed, it is a covenant Of pure grace ; and all ground of boailing is taken away from us : the Lord je¬fus Chrift himfelf as a reprefentative,"being fo!e undertaker and performer of the conditions thereof. Rut it is not fo, if it is made with the firmer himfelf, handing as principal party,contraaing with God, and undertaking and pel farm¬ing the conditions of the covenant for life : for how low foever thefe conditions, undertaken and wrought by the firmer in his own perfon, are fuppofed to be, the promife of the covenant is made to them : and fo, according to the fcripture.reckoning, it is a covenant of works, Rom. iv.14. Now to him that worketb; is the reward not reckoned ,y grace, but of debt ; and betwixt Adam's covenant and fuch a covenant, there, is no difference, but in degree, which leaves it fl ill of the fame kind.

This method was taken, that the communication of righteoufriefs and life might be in as compendious a way, as the cenntnunication of fm and death was : As by one man's difobedience many were made finners ; fo by the obedience of one ,hall many be made righteous, Rom. v. 19. The cove¬nant of works having been made with Adam as a reprefen¬tative of his natural feed, upon the breaking thereof, fin and death are communicate to them all from him as a dead¬ly head. This being fo, it was not agreeable to the me. thud of divine procedure with men, to treat with thufepre¬deftinated unto falvation feverally, as principal parties, each contraaing for himfelf in the new -covenant for life ; but to treat for them all as one public perfon, who through his fulfilling of the covenant, should be a quickening head to them, from whence life might be derived to them, in as compendious a way, as death was from the firft Adam. For his mercies are above all his other works.

Of the Party contraflor on Man's,fide. 23

5. Laffly, The covenant of grace was fo made, that it might be a fure covenant ; even to the end the promife might delure to all the feed, Rom. iv. 16. The firft covenant was made with a mere creature,, as a principal party and con. traelor : and though he was a holy and righteous man, yet-was he fo fickle and unflable, that he failed of performing the condition he undertook ; and fo the benefit of the pro­mife was loft ; wherefore fallen men were not at all fit to be principal parties, or parties•contra&ors, in the new co­venant, wherein the promife was to be fore, and not to inifs of an accornplifhment. They being then wholly a broken company, not to be trolled in the matter, Jefus Chrift the Son of God was conftituted head of the new covenant, to a& for, and in the name of the fpiritual feed : and that to the end, the covenant being in this manner fure in point of the accomplifhment of the promife. And this is the very hinge of the Liability of the covenant of grace, according to the fcripeure i'fal. lxxxix. 28. My mercy will I keep for hiM for evermore, and my covenant fiall Hand fall with him ; sr, as others read it, and I think juftly, the enemy !hall not beguile him, namely, as he did the firft Adam. The original phrafe is elliptical, q. d. The enemy {hall not beguile (his foul, Jer. xxxvii. 9.) in him.

Before 1 leave this point, I offer the following inferen­ces from it.

Inf. a. The covenant of redemption and the covenant of grace are not two diftin& covenants, but one and the fame covenant. I know that many divines do exprefs them­.felves otherwife in this matter ; and'that upon very diffe­rent views, fome of which are no ways injurious to the doe. trine of free grace. But thisI take to be fcripture truth and a native confequent of the account given of the cove­nant of grace in our Larger Catechifm, to wit, " That " the covenant of grace was made with Chrift as the fe­P cond Adam, and in him with all the ele& as his feed : " Gal. iii. 16. Now to Abraham and his feed were the ." promifcs made. He faith not, And to feeds, as of ma­" ny ; but as of one, And to thy feed, which is Chrift.' • Rom. v. 16, to the end.—Ifa. liii. so, 1 5.--$ When al thou fhalt make his foul an offering for fin, he null f, A' his feed, he !hall in:long his days, and the pleafure

24 The Parties in the Covenant of Grate. Head r.

g, the Lord (hall profper in his hand. He (ball fee of " the travail of his foul, and (hall be fatisfied,'.' &c. So the covenant of redemption and the covenant of grace are but two names of one and the fame fecond covenant, un­der different confiderations. By a covenant of redemp­tion, is meant a bargain of buying and felling: and fuch a covenant it was to Chrilt only ; forafmuch as he alone engaged to pay the price of our redemption, i Pet. i. 18, 19. By a covenant of grace is meant a bargain where­by all is to be had freely: and fuch a covenant it is to us only, to whom the whole of it is of free grace God him. felf having provided the ranfom, and thereupon made o­ver life and falvation to us, by free promife, without re­fpea toany work of ours, as the ground odour right thereto.

To confirm this; confider, ( a.) That in fcripture reck­oning, the covenants for life and happinefs to man, are but two in number, whereof the covenant of works is one: Gal. iv. 23. Thefe are the two covenants; the one from mount Sinai, lohich gendereth to bondage, namely, generat­ing bond children, excluded from the inheritance, verfe 3o. This is a dillingui thing charafter of the covenant of works; for Inch are indeed the children of that covenant, but not the children of the covenant of grace under any difpen• Portion thereof. Thefe two covenants are called the old covenant and the new covenant : and the old is called the firil, which fpeaka the new to be the fecond: Heb. viii. 13. In (bat be filth, if new covenant, he hatb made thefrji old. This is agreeable to the two ways unto life revealed in the fcripture ; the one by works, the other by grace, Rom. xi. 6. The one is called the law, the other grace, chap. vi. 14. The former is the law-covenant with the firtt Adam, reprefenting all his natural feed ; made firft in paradife, and afterwards repeated on mount Sinai, with the cove. naat of grace : the latter is the covenant of grace, made with the fecond Adam reprefenting his fpiritual feed :

Cor. xv. 47, 48. (2.) It is evident, that the falvation of finners is by the blood of the covenant, which is the blood or Chrift, Heb. x. 16. t Cor. xi. 25. And the fcripture -entions the blood of the covenant four times ; but ne­ver the blood of the covenants ; therefore the covenant

Ofthe Party-contrafor on Maier fide. 25

the blood whereof the fcripture mentions, and our falva­tinn depends upon, is but one covenant, and not two. N 7 \V, that covenant is Chrift's covenant, or the covenant of redemption : for it was through the blood of it he was brought again from the dead; namely, in virtue of the pro-mile made therein to he fulfilled to him, upon his perform­ing of the condition thereof, Heb. xiii. 20. And it is al o

people's covenant, or the covenant of grace, Exod. 'xiv. 8. ' Behold, the blood of the covenant, which the 'Lord hath made with you.' It is exprefsly called their covenant. Zech. ix. 11. As for thee alfo, by the blood 4 of thy covenant, 1 have fent. forth thy prifoners out of Lthe pit, wherein is no water.' The words expreffing the party here fpoke to,-being of the, feminine gender in the firft language, make it evident, that this is not direct­ed to Chrift, but to the church : In the covenant is pro­Tofed as their covenant. And the fpiritual prifoners are delivered, in virtue of this their covenant, which certainly mutt be the covenant of grace. By all which it appears, that the covenant of grace is the very fame, covenant that •was made with Chrift, in refpea of whom it is called the covenant of redemption.

Inf. 2. Likeas all mankind finned in Adam, fo believers obeyed and fuffered in Chrift the fecond Adam. For as the covenant of works was made with Adam as a public perfon and reprefentative, all finned in him, when he broke that covenant ; fo the covenant of grace being made with Chrift, as a public perfon and reprefentative, all believers obeyed and fuffered in him, when he fo fulfilled this cove­nant. This is the doctrine of the-apoftle ; Rom. v. 19. As by one man's difobedience many were made Inners fo by the obedience of one (hall many be made righte­ous. chap.-viii. 3. God fending his own Son, in the like­, nefs of finful flefh, and for fin condemned fin in the flair : -' verfe 4. That the righteoufnefs of the law might be tul­filled in us. 2 Cor.-v. 2 5. That we :night be made the 6 righteoufnefs of God in him. Gal. ii. 20. I am crucified 6 with Chriit.' And it affords a fad anfwer for bcliev. ers, unto the law's demand of obedience and fuffetiig forlife and falvation.

3. Believers are juflified immediately, by the

26 The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head i.

nefs of Chrift, without any righteaufnefs of their own in. tervenini; even as all men are condemned, upon Adam's fin, before they have done any good or evil in their own perfons: Rom. v. 18. )‘ As by the offence of one, judg. 4 meet came upon all men to condemnation ; even fo by

the righteoufnefs of one, the free gift came upon all mea 4 unto jollification of life.' And thus believers are righteous before God with the Pelf-fame tizhteoufnefs which was wrought by Jefus Chrift, in his fulfilling of the covenant. The which rigl,teoufnefe is not imputed to them in its eIfeas only ; fo as their faith, repentance and fincere obedience, are therefore accepted as their evange¬Leal righteonfnefs, on which they are juilified ; but it is imputed to them in itfelf, even as Adam's fin was.

4. The covenant of grace is abfolute, and not condi¬tional to us. For being made with Chrift, as reprefenta¬tive of his feed, all the conditions of it were laid on him, and fulfilled by him. Wherefore all that remains of it to •be accomplifhed, is the fulfilling of the promifes unto him and his fpititual feed, even as it would have been in the cafe of the firli covenant, if once the firft Adam had fulfilled the condition thereof.

S. The covenant of.grace is a contrivance of infinite avifdom and love, worthy to be embraced by poor finocrs, as well ordered in all things and fore, 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. admirable contrivance of help for a defperate cafe: woo• derful contrivance of a covenant of God, with them oho were incapable of danding in the prefense of his ho¬linefs, or of performing the leaft condition for life and fal¬vation I A new bargain fur the relief of loft finners made on the higheft terms with thofe who were not able to Come up to the lowed terms! Infinite Wifdom found out the way, to wit, by a reprefentative. The love of the Father engaged him to propofe the reprefentation ; and the love c.,f the Son engaged him to accept of it. Thus God had one, with whom he might contra with the fafety of:his honour ; and who was able to fulfil the cove-rant, to the reparation of the injuries done to his glory : . 'and finneri alto had one able to a6t f,,r them, and to poi-- chafe falvation for them at the hand of a holy and jolt Dud. Sc a lure covenant was made, and a. firm fQunda.

Of the Party.contratTor on Man's fide. 27

tion laid, upon which God laid the weight of his honour, and on which finners may faftly lay their whole weight : 6 Therefore this faith the Lord, Behold, 1 lay in Zion g fure foundation: 1.e that believeth, fhail not make 4 bark, lin; xxviii. 16. (hall not be afnarued,' Rom. ix. 33.

6. Lafily, The way to enter pelf,/ ally into the cove¬nant of grace, fo as to partake 0' chi:benefits thereof, tr.to falva:ion, is to unite with Chrift the head of the ck:veuant, by faith. Being thus_ingrafted into him, ye (hall partake Of all that ba.ppinefs which is feeured to Chrift ipyitical, in the everlatting covenant : oven as, through your be¬coming children of Adam, by natural generation, ye a,e perfonally entered into the hat covenan-, io as to fall un¬der that fin and death-which poled upon all men, by the breach thereof, Rom. v. 12.

III. Of the Party contracted and undertaken

AS the party-contractor and undertaker on man's fide, in the covenant of grace, was a reprefentative ; fo

the party contracted and undertaken for, was reprefented by him. And that thefe two, namely, the reprefented, and thofe contracted for, are of equal latitude, is plain from t1 nature of the thing : for thefe whom one reprefents in a covenant he contrads for in that covenant ; and tliGfe for whom one contrails for in a covenant made with him as reprefentative, are reprefented, by him in that covenant. Thus it was in the covenant of the firfl Adam, who was a figure of Chrift the head of the fecoad covenant. In it, thofe whom Adam contracted far, he reprefented ; aid thofe whom he reprefented, he contrasted for ; he repre¬fented his natural feed only., and fur them alone be coo-traded : Therefore thofe whom the fecond Adam con. traded for, he reprefented ; and whom he reprefented, eoatraEted for.

Now the party reprefented and contracted for, by our Lora Jefus Chrift, in the covenant of grace, was the tlzd of mankind ; being a certain number of mankind, eh' from eternity to everlaiting life ; children, partak, firth and blood, which God gave to Chrift, Heb.

ia their perfon he flood, making this covenant wi.

28 The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head I.

Father : in their nanie he aged, ftriking this bargain with Mm, as a turety to obey the law and fatisfy juttice.

And this I fhall, in the firtt place, confirm ; and then !hall enquire how ;he de& were confidered in this cove-nant and federal reprefentation.

frirft, That the elea were the party reprefented or contracted and uldertaken for, in the covenant, of grace appears from the following grounds.

t. The party with whom the covenant was made, is in the text called God's Chofen ; as reprefenting and con-tracting for all the chofen or elta : even as the firft man was called Adam or man, as rrprefenting and contrading for all mankind, in his covenant. For as the apoftle teacheth, Hcb. ii. t t. He—and they—are all of one ; not only of one nature, but alfo of one body, to wit, the leetion Chrilt is the head elea, Ifa. xlii. i. they the bo¬dy eled, Eph. v. 23. Therefore they gn under one name, principally belonging to him, and then to them by parti-cipation with him. Thus he alfo called Abram's feed, as reprefenting all the fpiritual feed of Abram, that is, the elea, Gal. iii. i6. "Ind to thy feed, which is Chrif ; and the feed of the woman, as oppoted to the lerpent's feed; and under that name alto the eled are comprehended;-they and they only, being the party betwixt whom and the kr¬pent with his feed,. God. puts the enmity, according to the promife, Gen. iii. is.

2. Thole whom Chrift reprefented and contraded for in the covenant of grace, are the heavenly men : i Cor. xv. 47, 48. The tirft man is of -the earth, earthy : the fecond man is the Lord from heaven. As is the earthy, fuch are they ah-c• that are earthy : and as is the heavenly, fuch are they alfo that are heavenly.-- Now, the heavenly men, belonging to Chritt the fecond man, are none other but the eled. For they are contradiftinguifhed to the earthy men, belonging to the firft man ; to wit, all mankind taken into the fruit covenant in Adam and therefore they are the eleet men, taken into the fecund covenant, in the fecond Adam; Again, the heavenly men are thole who (hall bear the image of the heavenly man, ver. 49. and fuch are the elea, and they alone.

And, finally, they ate thofe to whom Chrift is, in refpeet

Of the Party eeniratTed and undertalen for. 29

of efficacy, a quickening fpirit : for at is the heavenly fish are they alfo that are heavenly. As Adam's deadly efficacy goes as wide as his reprefrotation did in the firit covenant, reaching all mankind his natural feed, and there only: fo Chriff's quickening efficacy goes as wideas hie reprefentation did in the fecund covenant, reaching all the

his fpiritual feed, and them only : and if it did not, .tome woullbe deprived of the benefit, which was pur. chafed and paid for, by the furety in their name ; the which is not confiftent with the jullice of God.

They whom Chria reprefented and contraEted for in the covenant, are his feed, his fpiritual feed ; Gal. iii. 16. Now to Ahrabam and his feed were the promifes made. • He faith—And to thy feed, which is Chrift.' Pfalm Immix. 3, 4.' I have (worn unto David my fervent. Thy feed will I eflabliffi forever.' In the covenants typical of the covenant of grace, the parties reprefented were the feed of the reprefentatives they were made with, as was clearedbefore: and in the firft Adam's covenant, his na­tural feed were the reprefented. Wherefore, in the fecond Adam's covenant, his fpiritual feed are the reprefented. Wow, Chrift's fpiritual feed are the eleet; and none other ; for they are thole whom he besets with the word of truth, Dames I. 18. and are born again (1 Pet. i:23,) unto hint is their regeneration ; whom therefore be 'fees as his feed, with his own image on them, Ifa. liii. a. They are thetravail of his foul, who fooner or later are all of them

ver. 1 a. They are the feed that (hall ferve bum, Pfalm xxii. 3cs. which (hall be eflatrlifhed and endure for ever, namely, in a (late of happinefs, Pfalm lxxxix, 4, 29, 36.

Laftly, Chrifi was in the covenant of grace, Ifrael's re­poefeptative, according to that text Ira. x ix. q. r Thou 'art my fervant, 0 lfrael, in whom I will be glorifie,h.' Now, lfrael the colleftive body, is the eleEt. Rom. ix. 6. They are not all Mad which are of lined :' Therefore the eled were the party reprefented and cmtraaed for in the covenant. So thole whom Chriq took wick him in. to the bond of his covenant, are deccribed to be the feed ofAbraham ; Heb. ii. 16. For verily he toik not on hie 'the nature of angels : but he to upon him the feed

3o The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head a.

Abraham ;' or rather, as it is read in the margin of our Bibles, more agreeable to the original, •6 He taketh not hold of angels: but of the feed of Abraham he taketh bold."

The original word fignifies, to take hold of a thing running away, or falling down ; and, in the fame manner of conftruaion, it is tiled of Chrift's catching hold Of Peter finking in the water, Matth. xiv. 31. Fallen angels and men were both run away from God, and finking in the lea of his wrath ; and Chi ift, with the bond of this covenant, takes hold of men ; but not of the fallen angels, them he leaves to fink unto the bottom. All the feed of Adam was finking, as well as the feed of Abraham, which is but a part of the feed of Adam, even Come of all man¬kind-; but Chrift is not faid to have taken hold of the feed of Adam, that is, all mankind ; but the feed of Abraham, that is all the elect, or the fpiritual Ifrael called the houle of Jacob, Luke i. 33; Accordingly it is obfervable, that the first time the covenant of grace was heard of itithe world, the difcourfe was dire6ted to the ferpent, by way of narration, Gen. iii. 14, 15. not to Adam, as the first covenant was, chap. ii. t6, 17. that Adam might know he was to come ins here as a private perfon only, and not as a public perfon with his feed. And for this caufe silo, our Lord Jefus is not Limply called Adam, or Man, but the loft Adam, and the fecond Man, whole feed Mitre; from that of the first man, as Abraham's teed from Adam's feed ; but he is limply called Iliad, without any epithet at all: and his feed is plainly determined to be the eltcl, Ifa. xlv. 25.6 In the Lord fhall all the feed of Israel be juftified even as in the firft man all the feed of Adam was condemned, Rom. v. i8. For the first man was lim¬ply called, Adam or Man, becaufe, in the first covenant, he was a ceppend of all mankind ; he was all man in law-reckoning, they being all reprefented by him : fo Jefus Chrift was a to:npend of all Iliad ; that is, all the cleft ; he was all Marl in law-reckoning, they being all repre¬fented by him, And thus we have the true ground of Cie universality of that expreffion, Ha. liii. 6. The Lord bath laid on him the iniquity of us all:' i. e. of all Mad, that is to fay, all the elt.61. The which is con-fi,ined by a paial ei text, bearing the type, whereof this

Of the Party tontratied and undertaken for. 31

bath the antitype, viz. Lev. xvi. 21. And Aaron fhall , lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confers over him all the iniquities of the children , of Ifrael, and all their tranfgreflions in all their fins, put­, ting them upon the head of the goat.' For as Ifrael was a people entertained with types, fo they themfaves were indeed a typical people. ,

- Setondly, We are to enquire, how the cleft were con­fidered in this covenant and federal reprefentation. And therein they came under a threefold confideration.

a. They were confidered as (inners Lift, ruined, and un­done in Adam ; lo ft Cheep of the houle of Iliad, Matth. xv. 24. In the firft covenant, the whole flock of mankind was put under the hand of one fnepherd, to wit, Adam ; but he lofing himfelf, loft all the flock, and was never able to recover fo much as one of them again. God had, from all eternity, put a fecret mark on fome of them, whereby lie diitinguifhed them from the reit, 2 Tim. ii. 19. ' Hav­ing this leaf, The Lord knoweth them that are his.' And them alto he Caw among others, gone away from their pafture, wandering as waifs and !trays, a prey to every devourer ; but, in order to their being fought out, and returned, and kept in fafety for ever, the new cr:renant was entered into with another fhepherd, even our Lord Jefus Chtiit : and they are put under his hand, as the lhepherd of Ifrael. In Adam's reprefentation in the co­venant of works, the party repreirnted was confidered as an upright feed, Ecclef. vii. 29. but in Chrift's reprefen­tation in the covenant of grace, the party reprefented was confidered as a corrupt finful alai's, laden with guilt, under the wrath of God and curie of the law. And who would have reprefented inch a company, putting bin-deft in their room and Read But free love euglged our Lord to it. So the hi ly One of God reprefented wretched finners ; the beloved of the Father reprefented the cut fed company.

2. They were confidered 31fo as utterly unable to help themfelves, in whole or in par, ; as b. ng o it flout fireng''', Rum. v. 6. They were d.bt, rs: h.r quite u. able to off one fat thing of the debt : they woe criminals, quite unable to bear their own euillilla.ect, to the 1..

The Partiet in the Covenant of Grace. Head t. faaion of Mice : had it lain on thein to have paid the debt, or bornethe punifhment,'they behoved to have funk tinder the load for ever. So it was neceffary they fhould have one to reprefent them, taking burden on him for them all.

. 3. Laftly, They were confidered withal as the objeas of eternal, fovereign, and free love, given to Chrift, by his Father. The Father loved them, 'John xvii. 23. and therefore gave them to Chrifl, verfe 6. The Son loved them, Eph.'.. 2. and accepting of the gift, reprefented them in the covenant, as a father his own children, Ifa. ix. 6. His -name fhall be called—The everlalling Father.' Compare Heb. ii. t Behold, I, and the children which 6 God bath given me.' It was owing to his free love, and mere good pleafure, that they, and not others in the fame condemnation, by the breach of the fira covenant, -were -reprefented and contra&ed for by Jefus Chrift, in the fe. coed ; that their names were put in the eternal contra&, While the names of others were left out. They were his Father's choice, and his own choice ; fo he- became their reprefentative.

. Prom what is laid concerning the party reprefented and contraaed for, we make the following inferences.

/iy: i. There is a fovereign freedom of the love of God appearing in the fecond covenant,, the covenant of grace.. And it appears, efpecially in two things. ( t.) In that there was a love towards fallen man, and not towards fal• len angels, Tit. iii. 4. whereby it came to pals, that men,. and not devils, were taken hold of, leprefeated and con. trailed for by Jefus Chriii, in the covenant, Heb.- ii. 16. Doubtlefs he could have contra8ed for the one, as well as for the other ; but fovereignty paffed by fallen angels, and caught hold of men; howbeit the former were, in their own nature, the more worthy and exc,Ilent creatures. But in all the difpenfation of grace, there is no refpea to creature-worth ; all is owing to the mere good pleafure of GA, who bath mercy on whom he will have mercy.' (a.) It appears in that there was an tithing love of men ; whereby it came to pars, that Come men, and not all men, were reprefented and contraaed for in the covenant.- All men were alike by nature.; and there was nothing in one

Of the Party contrafird and undertaken for. 3.3.

more than in another, to recommend him ; but free love pitched on ohjeeis altogether unlovely ; and fovereign !nye pitches on fame fuch ohje&s, palling by others of the fame condition ; Even fo, Father, for fo it feemed good in thy fight,' Matth. xi. 26. The vefftls of honour, and veflels of dithonour, are both made of the fame finful lump : a myilery that mutt be refolved into fovereign will and pleafure, Rom. ix. 21. Hath not the potter power. over the clay, of the fame lump to make one valet unto honour, and another unto dithonour ?' But fay not, that this difparageth the federal reprefentation of the fe. cond Adam, that he reprefented only fume of mankind, whereas the firft Adam reprefented all mankind. For as it is more to bc'turety for a vaft fum, for one man who neither hath, nor can have anything at all.wherewithal to pay his debt, than to be furety for a hundred fuch as have abundance of their own ; fo it was mi re for Jefus-Chrilt to contratil and undertake for on (inner, than for Adam to contrati for a righteous world. And !till it holds true, that where fin abounded grace did much more abound,' Rom. v. 2C. liar it is more by far to fave one, than to ruin many. Meanwhile, thole reprefented by Chrilt in the (econd covenant, are a great multitude, which no man could number, Rev. vii. 9. even as the Bars of heaven, Gen. xv. S. Rom. iv. 18.

Inf. 2. There is no univerfal redemption, nor univerfal atonement. Jefus Chrilf died not for all and every indi­vidual perfon of mankind ; but for the elett only. The contrary doetrine may confift with the opinion which holds the covenant of redemption and the covenant of grace, io be two diltind covenants ; the former made with Chrift, and the latter with believers ; the condition of the one undertaken and performed by him, the coo• dition of the other undertaken and performed by us. Accordingly that opinion concerning the covenant, is :ca­ddy embraced by Univerfalias of differentdenominations. But that doarine is utterly inconfittent with this account of the covenant, which doth at once overthrow univerfal redemption or atonement, together with the federal con­ditionality of our holinefs and _good works, in the cove­nant of grace. For if the covenant of grace was made

34 The Partite in the Covenant of Grace. Head r.

with Chrift as a reprefentative, and the ele& ouly were the party reprefented by him in it ; then fureirthe condi­tions of the covenant, his doing and dying were -accom­plifhed for them only ; and he died for no other : As when one hath entered into a bond of furetifhip, his pay­ment of that bond can never be reckoned a payment of their debt, whole names were not in the bond, and whom he was not furety for.

Inf. 3. and Loft. Whoever they be that rejett the co­venant of grace offered to them in the gofpel, aid fo pe. r:fh ; all God's elect fnall infallibly be entered. perfcvn­ally into it, and be raved. Likeas all thofe whom Adam reprefented in the covenant of works, have been, are, or Mall be brought perfonally into that "Covenant, and fin and death pafs upon them, Rom. v. tz. even fo all thofe whom Chrift reprefented in the covenant of grace, have been, are, or (ball be brought perfonally into this covenant, and par­take of righteoufnefs and life, retie 18, 19. Our Lord Jefus has fulfilled the conditions of the covenant for them whom he reprefented; and it would neither be fuitible to the juftice of God, nor to the wifelotn.of aria, the party contra wing with him, that he fhould reprefent, con­trati and fulfil the conditions, for any who (hall never en­joy the benefit of the contra&. Wherefore, fence there are who, by a purpofe of God that cannot be ft-nitrated, Elan without peradventure, be brought perfonally into this. covenant; and ye who hear the gofpel, having the means for compafling that end aced towards you, do (land as fair for it as any ; this may encourage you to come to Chrift, and take hold of the covenant. Beflir yourfelves there. fore, 0 finuers, to take hold of the covenant of grace, which is offered to you in the gofpel ; end come ye to Ciniit by faith, thereby winding yourfelves perfonally into the bond of this covenant, and the counnuoion there­of. •

n,:jEci-1014• But I fear I am none of thole whom CAryi .1 in the covenant of grace ; bona then can 1 take it by believing ? ANSWER. Though your name Grit name that the Lamb wrote down in his life ; yet yiti nor no man can know, that it is all, notil that you have by believing taken hold

Of the Party enatra8ed aadundert,alea for. 35

of the covenant, 2 Pet. i. to. Make your calling and e­' lesion fore ;' but firft your calling, and then your e­ledion. And, on the other hand, though, you were a monfter of all manner of wickednefs, and had all the de­fperate marks of a call away about you, except that one only, the fin againft the Holy Glint}, you nor no man can know that you were no.t reprefented in the covenant,: Match. xii. 31. All manner of fin and blafphemy (hall be forgiven unto men : but the blafphemy againft the

Holy Ghoft (hall not be forgiven unto men.' Where: fore that matter is an abfolute fecret to you, which lin this cafe, you are not to meddle to determine in : for the I fecret things belong unto the Lord our God : but thole

things which are revealed, belong unto us,' Deut. xxix. 29. Neither does your warrant to believe, and to lay hold. on the covenant, any manner of way depend on it : for the reprobate have as good and fair a revealed warrant to believe, and take hold of the covenant of grace as the e­ka have, elfe they could not be condemned for unbelief, and not taking hold of the covenant. Be what you will, finee you are certainly a {inner of mankind, your warrant is inconteltable, according to the word : For God fo loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whofoever bdieveth in him, thould not peri(h, but have everlaiting life,' t John iii. 26. This is his corn­, mandment, that we fhould believe on the name of his Son Jefus Chrill, t John iii. 23. Wherefore believe ye, and take hold, of the covenant for yourfelves ; fo (hall you know your election, and your reprefeutation in the cove­nant, by the effeds thereof.

This difficulty cart in the way of a finner fenfible of his need of Chrift, to beat him off from believing on Cita, is a dangerous device and temptation of the devil. But do thou repel it, faying, 0 enemy of my falvation, it is true I do not know whether Chrift reprefented me or not, in the eternal covenant ; neither am I-obliged nor concerned to know it, in order to my taking hold of that covenant : but one thing I know affuredly, namely, that the cove,

in the free promife of life and falva ion, upon the g of Chrift's obedience and death allet,arly, is held Ate, even to me, to be believed, truled to, a:::. reaed

36 The Parties in the Covenant of Grace. Head r.

by me, even by met and therefore I will believe, an,1 lay
bold on it ; and upon the infallible ground of the faith‑
fulnefs of God in the promife, ' Whofoever believeth (hall

not perifh, but have everlafting life,' I will afruredly con­clude, that it (hall he made out to me.

QL.IF STION. But are there no marks or figns whereby

a poor firmer may know himftlf to be one of thole who

are reprefented by Chrift in the fecond covenant, and 1 whole names he put in the bond of furetithip that he gave 1 to his Father from eternity ?' ANSWER. Yea, there are; but then they are Inch as although the having of them will prove a man to have been reprefented by Jefus Chritt in the eternal covenant ; yet the want of them will net prove a man not to have been reprefented therein, foraf, much as what one has not now; he may come to have af­terwards. And under-this limitation, I offer thefe two marks of the thing in queftion.

Mark I. A deliberate and cordial complacency in the covenant. As it was with the reprefentative from eternity; fo it is in time, in that matter, with the reprefented, when once by-grace they become capable of perfi,41,4. consenting ; there is a deliberate and cordial complacency in the covenant being propofed, Pfalm. xl. 7. Then laid I‑ verle 8.—thy law is within my heart. The children of men difcnver themfelves to be Adam's natural feed, reprefented by him in the covenant of works, by the inclination and bent of their hearts towards that covenant.
There is filch a bias to that covenant hung upon the minds of men naturally, that Do and live, or Work and win, is the religion of all natural men, fo far as they have any pradical religion at all ; and they cannot be brought of from it, but by the power of renewing grace. Even fo the eled of God ditcover themfelves to be Chrifl's spiritual feed, reprefented by him in the covenant of grace, by their deliberate and cordial complacency in this cove.

The heart touched with divine grace, says of it, nryfalvertion, and all my Aire, 2 Sam. xxiii. S. bias hung on their minds by renewing grace, Lem to a hearty approbation, reli(h, and liking w covenant held forth in the pipet ; they. Are died ---Wit.tt the parties-contradors, the reprefenta‑

Of the Party.tontraMor on 117na'sfile. 37

Live and the reprefeatation in it; the conditions and pro-miles of it ; the adminiarator, the adminiflrat ion, and or. der thereof. In a word, the covenant is in their eyes a faultlefs contrivance ; there is nothing in it they would have out, and there is nothing out of it they would have in. So there they caft anchor for their own fouls. But it is not fo with others: I Pet. ii. 7. Unto you therefore ' which believe he is precious ; but unto them which be ' difobedient, the [lone which the builders difallowed, the ' fame is made the head of the corner ; verfe 8. and a Ron e of Rumbling and a rock of offence, even to them which ' (tumble at the word, being difobedient, whereunto alto

they were appointed.

Mark 2. The image of Chrifi begun to be drawn on the foul, together with a longing for the perfeaing thereof; i Cor. xv. 48. As is the heavenly, fuch are they all() that are heavenly. Ver. 49. And as we have borne the 4 image of the earthy, we [hall alfc, bear the image of the '.heavenly.' Likeasaall whom Adam reprefaracd, when he entered into the covenant of works in paradife, do after­wards, every one in his time, perfonate Adam, lo(,king es like him as ever child was like n father, a6ting even as he a6led, as I [hewed elfewhere : fo all whom aria reprefent­ed in the covenant of grace from eternity, do in time /7 t en aryl, Gal. iii. perionating him, and reprefentirr; him in another fenfe, namely, bearing his irpage, aad walking even as be walked, r John ii. 6. It is a promie of the covenant to our Lord Jefus, Ifs. liii. t o. He fee his feed, to wit, as one fees a new horn babe. But do not others fo fee them too ? Yes, indeed they do. Satan and wicked men fee them, as rebels and traitors do %virh grudge and hatred fee a pew horn prince heir to t! crown. The godly fee them, as in that cafe the prince f. fes do with a particular fatisfaaion fee their new barn bro= ther. But our Lord Jefus Chria himfelf fees them, as the king, the father of the babe does %%rill, a pe.o'iar fatisflc­tion fee him as his own fon, and his own pielure.


while, as Adam's children do not open cut all at what of old Adam is in them, but by degrees as they up ; but they are Rill longing for the perfeaion the when they than be grown men : fo children

38 The Illahing of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.

but imperfdl in this life, as in the Rate of childhood ; but they are longing to arrive at perfedion, at the meafure of the flature of the fulnefs of ChrO, the principle of which they have in them, Eph. iv. 13:

Thus far of the find head, the parties in the covenant of grace.


The Illahing of the Covenant of Grace.

HAVING confidered the parties in the covenant of grace, we come now to take a view of the making of that covenant betwixt the parties contraaing therein. And here we find ourfelves at the fountain head of the jalvation of loft (inners, the origin and rife of the glorious plan, laid from. eternity in the fecret council of the ever-bided Trinity, for remedy of man's mifery. And this is a manifold myftery, the feveral folds of whkh we are not able fully to difcover. With God it was all one piece, if I may fo phrafe it ; for with him all things are togethei. and at once ; and not one thing before, and another aftee, as with us. Howbeit, we cannot conceive of it bnt in par= eels ; fir ft one piece of the myftery, and then another ; and that becaufe of the weaknefs of our capacity, as we are crea­tures, 'and much more, as we are creatures under fpiritual darknefs. Wherefore we muff of neceflity addrefs our. hives to the confideration of it in parcels ; but ftill remem­bering we are in the eternal myftery, tranfaaed in the P. lecree of the holy Trinity all at once, by one cur‑' the divine will : in which, neverthelefs, we are conceive a certain order, tince ctherwife we cad‑p the myftery.

...: already feen, that the Father, the party-con. 1 Heaven's fide, is in that matter to be confider-..2 offended : but purpofing to manifett the glary of 0I

,.: ip the falvation of fome of mankind loft ; yet tilt God, who cannot but give fin a jut' recom- alfo, that Jefus Chriff, the party•contraaor on s to be confidered therein as the laft or fecond

Knta ntative of a feed. Wherefore, firft of all, .._, How Chrift the Son of God became fe‑

The Mating of the Covenant cf Grace. 39

cood Adam ? and then; How the covenant %%Ls made with him as inch ? the former being as it were preliminary to the latter. •

Firft, How Chrift the Son of God became fecond A­dam ? This we may take up in two thi:igs.

t. The Father willed and defig-ned, that his own Son, the eternal Word, fhould, for the purpofe of mercy toward mankind loft, take on their nature, and become man. He faw that faerifice and offering would not anfwer the cafe ; the debt was greater than to be paid at that rate ; the re­demption of fouls could not be managed but by a-perfon of infinite dignity ; wherefore, having purpofed that the darling attribute of mercy fhould be illuttrated in the cafe of loft mankind, he willed the human nature to be united in time to the divine nature, in the perfon of the Son.

And hereunto the Son, as the eternal Word, the fecond Paton of the glorious Trinity, having no nearer relation to man than as his Sovereign Lord Creator, readily agreed: Het). x. 5. c Sacrifice and offering thou wouldfl not, but a body haft thou prepared me.'.—Verfe 7. • Then faid li Lo, I come (in the volume of thybook it is written of me) to do thy will, 0 God.' Ihe eternal Word contented' to be made flefh, that all flefh might not perifh ; be con­tented to become man, to take into a perfonal union with himfelf a human nature, to wit, a true body and a re-afon-. able foul, according to"the eternal deflination of his Fa­ther. his was an intlance of amazing condefeenfion. The bighell monarch's confenting to lay afidc his robes of majefly, to clothe bimfelf with rags, and become a beggar, is not to he compare(' with it. Nay, the higheft angel's confznt to become a worm, is not to be tamed in one day With the eternal Son of God, the Father's equal, his con­tenting to became man : for the diflance between the di. vine nature and the human is infinite ; whereas the diflance. between the angelic nature, and the nature of worms of the earth, is but finite.

Now, the effe6t of this was, that hereby the Son of C ! was connoted fubflantial Mediator, or Mediator

fpe8 of nature, between God and man. Being tank,' God equal with the Father, he fo flood 11 Leaven, and having from eternity contented to !Aeon

43 The 111Zng of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.

be fo flood related to earth : for though he did not aau­ally take on him the nature of man untl the fulnefs of time appointed by the Father ; yet forafmuch as he had from eternity confented to take it on, and it was impolE­Lk that his c,infent mils to take cif:a, he was reck­oned in taw, to all inter•s and purpofes thereof, as if he had aaually been incarnate. A type of this his fubrian­',tial mediation was Jacob's ladder, which was fet upon the earth, and the top cf it redched to heaven, xxviii. 1 2. 4‘ clear emblem of the divine and human nature in Chrift; through whom, as fabflanlial Mediator, there was a way opened towards a communication for peace between heaven a.A1 earth. Accordingly our Lord" Jefus applies it to him­fclf John i. 51. Hereafter youlballfee heaven open, and the ungeIs of Gad af-ending and &ft-ending upon the Son of man ; to wit, as on Jacob's ladder, Gen. xxviii. 52.

2. The Father chofe him to be the head of the eleaion ; to be the laft Adam, federal head and reprefentative of fuch as fovereig-n plealure fhould pitch upon to be veffels c.f mercy, and inr,lled in the book of life ; a head and re­prefentative %sit!: whom he might make' the new covenant for life and lalvation to them.

And to this alfo he readily agreed, contenting to be the Taft or fecond Adam, head and reprefentative of the elec­tion ; to fulti:in their perfons, and tranfaEt in their name: 1 fa. xlii. t. Beh —.nine deli in whom my foul delig,hteth.

lxxxix. 19. 1 have exalted one chofen out of the people. 1 Cur. xv. 47. The fic9nd man is the Lord from heaven. The breach between God and man was greater than to be done away by a mere intermeffenger, who travelling between parties at variance, reconciles them with bare wards. There could be no covenant of peace betwixt God Dud finners without reparation of damages done to the ho­nour of God through fin, and without honotiring of the holy law by an exalt obedience ; but there things being quite beyond their reach, Chritt the Son of God faith,

Lo I come ; I am content to take their place, and put rnyfell in their room as a fecond Adam."

Now the effea of this was, that hereby he was conflicted laft dam, or the fecond Man, 1 Cor. xv. 47. And ial Mediator, or Mediator in refpea of office, between

The Mains sie the Covenant of Grate. 41

Cod and man, t Tim. ii. g, 6. There is one God, and

one Mediator between God and men, the Man Chrill je­, ins: who gave himtelf a ranfcm for all.' Being called of his Father unto that office, and having embraced the callthereto, he was invetled with the office, and treated with as fuch,'before the world began, Tit. i. 2. And indeed he, and he only, was fit for it. The two families of hea­ven and earth being at war, there could be no peace be­tween them but through a Mediator. But where could a mediator be found to interpofe between filch parties who could not either have been too high, or elfe too low, in re­fpea of one of the parties at variance? Man or angels would have been too low, in refpea of God ; and an unveiled Cod would have been too high, in rape& of finful men, un­able to bear intercourfe with fuch heavenly majetly.. Wheiefore the Son of God, that he might Le fit to medi. ate; as he being God equal with the Father, was high e­nough in refpea of the party offended : fo he confented to become low enough, to refped of the party offending, by his becoming man.

Secondly, It is to be enquired, How the covenant was tirade with Chrill as fecond Adam ? And this alto may be taken up in two things.

a. The Father defigned a certain number of I( ft man­kind, as it were by name, to be conflituent members of that body chofen to life, of which body Clniti was the ie. ggned head ; and he gave them to him for that end :- Philip. iv. 3. ' My fellow labourers,. whole names are in 6 the book of life.' John xvii. 6. Thine they were, and 4 thou garefi them me.' Theft were a chofen company, whom fovereign free grace picked out from among the ref} • of mankind, on a purpofe of love, and gave to the fecond Adam for a feed: on which account they are laid to have been chofcn in him, Eph. i. 4. being in the decree of e­leaion laid upon him as the foundation (lone, to be built upon him, and obtain falvation by him, t The f. v. 9. which decree, as it relates to the members-elect, is therefore call, I the book of life; being as it were the roll which the Fat I gave to the fecond Adam, the head eleEI, containing names of thole defigned to be his feed, to receive life by t,

Now, our Lord ,Ffus (landing as -fecond Adam, 1.1(..

42 The Making of the •Covenant of Grace. • Head 2.

of the election, to wit, fuck as fovereign pleafure (honk& pitch upon to be veffels of mercy, did accept of the gift of the particular perfons elefled or chofen by his Father : John xvii. 6. Thine they were and thou gavel them 'me. Verfe so. And thine are mine.' Like as the firft. Adam, in the making of the firft covenant, Read at-me without aaual iffue, yet had deftinated for him a nume­rous iffue to be comprehended with him in that covenant, to wit, all mankind : the which Adam did at leaft virtu. ally accept : fo a certain number of loft mankind being. eleaed to life, God, as their original proprietor, gave theist.

to Chrill the appointed head, to be his members, and coinprehended with him in the fecond covenant, tho' as let

none of them were in being; and he accepted'Of the gift of them, being well pleated to take them in particular for his body myflical, for which he fhould covenant with his. Father. And, in token thereof, he; as it were, received and kept as his own the b)ok of life containing their names, which is therefore called the LaMb's book of life, Rev. x•ci. 27.

2. The Father propofed to him as. fecond Adam, the new covenant for life and falyation to them, in the full tenor, promifes, and condition thereof ; treating in him with air thofe particular perfons. of 1..)11 mankind, elened unto life, and given to him, even as he treated with air mankind in. Adam in the firft covenant. The promifes therein pro­pofed, were indeed great and glorious :. but withal the condition, or terms on which they were propofed, were exceeding high.

Howbeit, as the firft Adam, ftanding as head and re‑prefentative of all his natural feed, entered into the-firft. covenant with God, accepting the promife thereof, upon' the terms and condition therein propofed, which he engaged to fulfil ; fo our Lord Jefus, (landing as fecond A. dam, head and reprefentative of the particular perfons of mankind, by name eltoled to life, and given to him as fpiritual feed, entered into the fecond covenant with his rather ; accepting the promifes thereof, upon the terms and condition therein propofed ; contenting and engaging to fulfil the fame for them. And thus the covenant of grace was nude and concluded, betwixt the Father and

Chr the Kinfman.redeemer in the Covenant. 43

Chrift the fecond Adam, from all eter.ity ; being the fe- cond covenant, in refpe& of order and mal,ifettation to the world, though it was firft in being : t Cor. xv. 47. The fecond man is the Lord from heaven.' Ifa.liii. to. 'When thou (halt make his foul an offering for fin, he (hall fee his feed.' 'fit. ii. 2. In hope of eternal life, which God 'that cannot lie, promifed before the world began.' Pfalrn xl. 6. Sacrifice and offering thou didft sot defire, mine 6 ears halt thou opened.-7. Then fdid I, Lo, I come.—&8. I delight to do-thy will, 0 my God : yea, thy law is within my heart.'

Now, Chrift the fecund Adam, giving this confent, took, upon him a threefold charaEter, of unparalleled weight and importance ; filling himfelf, ( I.) The kiniman-Redeem­er in the covenant. (2.) The Surety of the covenant : and (3.) The P.riell of the covenant. The mediation of Chrift doth indeed run through the whole of the covenant.. And there-are feveral other parts of that mediation, which refpe&ing the promifes of the covenant, do belong to the adminiftration thereof. But thefe I have now mentioned, do refpea the condition of the covenant, and fo belong to the making thereof;, under which head we fhall confider them in order..

I. Chrift the Kiriman•Redeemer in the Covenant.

/NUR Lord Jefus Chrift, the fecond Adam, giving his.

confent to the covenant, as propofed to him by the Father, tilted himfeif kinfman-redeemer in the covenant : Job xix. 25. I know that my Redeemer lived], and that he (hall {land at the latter day upon the earth.'

. Under the law, when a man was not able to aft for hitnfelf, to affert and ufe his own right, one that was 3' kin to him, had a right to a& for him, coming in his room, and {landing up in his right. And fuch a one was called his God ; which properly fignifies a kinfman-redeemer. Bence that word is fometimes rendered a kinfman; as Numb. v. 8.. If the man have no (God) kinfman to 1-

compence the trefpafs unto.' Ruth iii. 12, I am I
' (Gee!) near kinfman; howbeit there is a (God!) kinfr. nsar.thala I.' Sometimes it is rendered a redeemer ;

44 The Making of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.,

Pro'. xxiii. i I. 6 Their ( Cod) Redeemer is mighty,' Ira: xlvii. 4. r As for our (God) Redeemer, the Lord of boils 6 is his name.' One's aping in that capacity, is called, doing the kinfman, or redeeming, to wit, by right of kin, Ruth iii. 13. and iv. 6. Huwbeit, filch a one might re­fufe to do the kinfman's part ; as Ruth's kinfman-redeem­er dii, who -religned his right to Boaz, and in token there­of dre* off his own (hoe, and gave it him, Ruth iv. 6, 7, 8.

Now, Chrift the-fecund Adam, law (inners, his ruined kinfiren, quite unable to a6t for theinfelves. Not one of them all was able to redeem himfelf, and far lets his bro­ther. Withal, the angels, near a kin to them in the ra­tional world, durft not meddle with the redemption ; ing Pure they could not have miffed to•marr their own in­heritance thereby, or have delivered their poor kinfrnen. neither. If he fhould have declined it, and drawn off his (hoe to them, or to any other of the whole creation, there was none who durft have ventured to receive it, ar put his foot in it. I looked, faith he, and there was none to help; 6. and I wondered that there was none to uphold ; there-. fore Mine own arm brought falvation,' Ifa. lxiii. S. He' took on himfelf the charader of their kinfman-redeemer• and of him as f uch Job fpeaks in the forecited paffage, wheh' I conceive to be thus expreffed in the original ; I know, my kinfman redeemer liveth; and the latter one, he (hail I Rand upon the dull.' In which words Job comforts him­felf with a view of Chrift as his kinfman-redeemer living, even in his divine nature ; and as the latter or fecond one (in oppofition to the former or firft, Exod. iv. 8, 9. Dent. xxiv. 3, 4.)' namely, the latter or fecond Adam REDEEM­ER, io oppofition to the former or firft Adam DESTROYER firmly believing, that one, uniting himfelf to a human na­ture, fhould as Pure Rand up upon the duff of the earth,. and do the kinfman's part for him ; as the other having the breath of life breathed into his 'wards, stood up upon • it, and ruined all.

Now, there were four things the kinfman redeemer was to do for his kinfman unable to aft for himfelf; all which Chrift the fecond Adam undertook in the covenant.

1. HeAvas to marry the widow of his deceafed kinfman,, to raif4 up feed to his brother. Hereof Boaz was put in

Cbrill the Kinfman.refeemer in the Covenant. 45

mind by Ruth, chap. iii. 9. I am Ruth, thine hand­' maid : fpread therefore thy fkirt over thine handmaid, 6 for thou art a near kinfman.' Compare verfe so,--13, chap. iv. so. and Ezek. xvi. 8. 4 I fpread my fkirt over ' thee—and thou becameft mine.' Our nature was in a comfortable and fruitful condition, while the image of God, impreffed thereupon in Adam, remained with it; but that image being removed, in the fpiritual diath cauf­ed by bis fin, there enfued an abfolute barrennefs, as to the fruits of holinefs, in our nature thus left. But our kinf­mon-redeemer confented to marry the widow. Being to take to himfelf a human nature, he undertook to take on our human nature in particular, taking his fielb of Adam's family. Thus was it provided, that his bo­dy lhould not be made of nothing, nor of any thing whatfoever that was not derived from Adam as its origi,- nal. It was a low match indeed for him ; and would have been fo, even if the family of Adam had been in its pri­mitive Elate and fplendor ; but now it was confidered as in the depth of poverty and difgrace. Yet being neceffa­ry for our redemption, he confented thereto, as our kinf­man-redeemer. Accordingly, in the fulnefs of time, he was made of 3 woman, a daughter of Adam's family, Gal. iv. 4. and fo was a fon of Adam, Luke iii. 23,-- 38. Thus was a foundation laid for the myftical marriage of believers with him ; which myftical marriage Both not belong to the condition and making of the covenant properly fo called, but to the promife and adminiftration of it, being a finner's perfonal entrance thereinto. And the great end, in rubordination to the glory of God, for which this more intimate union and match, with our na­ture was gone into by our kinfman-redeemec, was to ren­der it yet again fruitful in the fruits of true holinefs ; and without it our nature had for ever remained under abfo­lute barrennefa in that point, even as the nature of fallen angels cloth.

2. He was to redeem the mortgaged inheritance of his poor kinfman : Lev. xxv. 25. 6 If thy brother be wa' poor, and bath fold away fome of his poffeffion, an any of his kin come to redeem it, then fhall he red,

4‘ that which his brother fold :. or rather, then (hall co.

46 The Making of tke Covenant of Grace. Head 2„

in his kinfman-redeemer, that is near unto him ; and he 4 (hall redeem that which his brother fold.' Our father Adam waxing poor through the deceitful dealing of -the tempter with him, quite fold away the inheritan6e of e­ternal life for a rnorfcl of forbidden fruit ; and his children waxen more poor dill, through their own perfonal fault; had let themfelves farther and farther from it. They-could not have sailed, amongft them all, what would have redeemed fo much as one man's part of it. Howbeit, without it was redeemed, they could never have had accefs to it Wherefore the fecond Adam, as kinfman-redeem­er, took the burden of the redemption on hirnfelf, and a­greed to pay the price of that purchafe, dying for us,—that we might live together with him.' t 'Chef. v. ro.

He was to ranfom his poor kinfman in bondage, pay the price of his redemption : Lev. xfor. 47. ' if—thy bra­e ther--wax poor, and fell himfelf,—verfe 48. After that he is fold, he may Le redeemed again ; one of his bre­t thren 'may reclean him, verfe 52.—according tint() his years fkall he give hitn again the price of his redemption.' Being fold in the loins of our &ft father, we were brought into bondage under the curfe of the law: fa we are by na:- ture the law's bond-men, and confequently (laves to fin and Satan ; never to have been retested without a ranfom, the full worth of fo many fouls. This ranfom was ftatrd in the'covenant, to wit, that the kinfman redeemer fhould give himfelf a ranfom for his poor kinfmen : and he a= greed to it, purcfrafing their liberty, t Tim. ii. 5, 6. The ranfom was great, foul for fool, body for body ; a perfon of infinite dignity, for his poor kiolmen in hr,ndage. But he contented to take on him the form of a fervanr, that they might be let free ; to have his ear bored at the law's door-post, that they might be delivered out of their ban­dage.

Ley, He was to avenge the blood of his (lain kinf: man on the (layer Dent. xix. 12. ' The elders of his 6 city (hail fend and (etch him thence, and deliver hich in­; to the hand of the (Goel) avenger of blood, that he may die.' Our kinfman-redeemer law all his poor kin­dred Hain men. And the devil was the murderer, John viii. 44:-Heira-d cninittered poifoit to them id the Wins

Chill the Surety of the Covenani. 47

of their firft parent ; yea, he had fmitten them to death, killed them with an arrow (hot through the eye. But no avenger of their blood could be found till the fecund A­dam, as their kinfman-rediemer, did in the fecond cove­nant, undertake the avenging of it. Meanwhile, the murderer • bad the power of death,' Heb. ii. 14. and the g fling of death is fin, and the flrength of fin is the law.'

Cor. 56. Wherefore there was no difarming and deftroying of the murderer, without taking the Ring out of death which he had the power of. And that was not to be done, but by removing the guilt of fin, whereby fin­ners were bound over to death : neither was this to be dorie, but by fatisfying the law, whofe awful fan lion c f death flrongly kept fall the guilt of death on the finners. There were the iron gates to be broke through, ere the kinfman-redeemer, the avenger of blood, could get at the murderer. But the mighty Redeemer undertook, by his own death and fufferings, to fatisfy the law ; and by this means to remove the firength of fin ; and by this means again to take away the fling of death : and fo by his own death to deflroy the murderer that had the power of death; and thus to avenge theblood of his Rain kinfmen upon bim, Heb. ii. z,4. So did Samfon, a type of our kinfman-re­deemer, avenge Mae' of the Philiflines, their oppreffors, pulling down the houfe on the Philiftines, and dying him. fell to deftroy them, Judges xvi.

II. Chryl the Surety of the Covenant.

CHRIST, the fecond Adam, confenting to the cove­nant, filled himfelf alfo furety of it, Heb. vii. 22. By Jo much was Jefus made a furety of a better teflament ;

or rather, as others read it, of a better covenant. A furety is one who undertakes fur another, obliging himfelf, whe. ther for paying his debt, civil or criminal, or for his per­forming a deed. That we may then rightly underfiand Chrift's furetifhip, it is neceffary we confider : 1. For whom. 2. For what he became furety in the covenant.

.Firfl, For whom Chrift became furety in the covenant. I find two things advanced on this head, namely, (1.) That he became furety for God to finners. And (2s.) Sore‑

48 The 'Waling of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.

ty for (inners to God. To the Mt of thefe Socinians re-drain Chrift's furetifhip, denying the fecond; and fo over­throw the foundation of our falvation. But, all orthodox divines agree, that the fecond of thefe is the main thing in it. Some of them indeed make no difficulty of admitting, that Chrift became furety for God to finners, as well as furety for finners to God; undertaking, on -God's part, that all the promifes (hall be made good to the feed, even to all that believe. There is no quettion, but God's pro­mifes are, in refpetEI of his infallible truth and veracity, molt firm and fure in themfelves, and cannot mils to be performed: but we, being guilty creatures, are flow of heart to believe; and therefore do need what may make them more fure to us, or allure our hearts they !hall be per­formed to us. And for this caufe he bath given us his word of promife under his hand in the holy fenptures, and an earned of the promifed inheritance, Eph. i. 4. the real of the Spirit, verfe 53.2 Cor. i. 22. the facramental feals, Rom. iv. t 1. yea,. and his folemn oath too in the matter, to ,/hew unto the heirs ofpromife the immutability of his counfel, Heb. vi. 17. And if Jefus Chrift is furety for ' God to us, it is nd doubt for the fame end.

But I doubt if the holy fcriptures call Chrift a furety is that fenfe at all. In the forecited paffage, Heb. vii. 22. the only text wherein Chrift is exprefsly called a furety, it is evident that his furetifhip therein mentioned, ref-peas his prieftly office, wherein he deals with God for us : Verfe 20. And in as much as not without an oath he arcs made Verfe 21. (—by him that fold unto him, The Lord fware, and will not repnt, Thou art a priell for ever after the order of MtIchifedee) Verfe 22. By fo much was jefus • zde a furety of a better tejlament. But his furetifhip for ;cad to LB, cannot relate to his priefily office, but to his .ingly office, in reipea of which all power is given to him In heaven and in earth ; and confequently a power to fee that all the promifes be performed to his people. And ..refure his furetifhip mentioned in that text, is for us to ' and not for Cod to us. It is but in other two texts as far as I have obferved, that we read of furetilhip .,e to the cafe between God and a firmer : and in both _al, the furetifhip is nut to the flutter, but fur hint

Chrift the Surely of the Covenant. 49

They are Pfalmtsix: .5 2-2: .1ie furety for sky firvant

and Job xvii. 3., Put we ire a.14rety with thee. The origri• nal phrafeology or ex.preifient.is the fame in the latter text as in the former ; anti.the fame in them both, as in the cafe of „Judah's. furetifhipJar. Benjamin, to his father, Gen. xliii. 9 and xliv. 3z. Now, inlets the facted oracle go before us, in propofing Chrill :as a furety for God to us, I fee no reafon why the being of fuch a thing at all timid be yielded to the -aderfaries,• who make fuel, a ,pernicious the of it. As foLthe comfort that might arifc from it to us, the fame is ftillyfecurecli.in that the whole' adminiftration of the covenant is committed into the hand of our Lord.jefus Cbrift• iLand he is the 'fruiter and Tel­tator of.the..covenant14.ce?,,venat benefits; as (hall be Ilion n 1500t1'.. ne place,

-'-‘7M4t; sfittiout all peradventure, Chrid the Mediator and
fedoiikAciarn became furety :in ttre covenant, for finders
to Gocli- fcriptu•es do abundantly declare: Plalm

-n,/havelaid,1142,{1pon one that is mighty.' il"iitt;:i14i7,‘ One, Mediat.•.,r betvveen God and men, the

Jefus.' :S:Terfe,;6.)-Who gave hitnfelf a ranforn

!:fojaalf.7 v. 21..‘.1-ir bath pade him to he flit

Ifa. ' The Lord !lath

initgty ykas' 6a1 iii. 13 Chrid path

• i:ititlitilriet.e?-4 from thz4,eurfe. of,,the law, being ut:ide cUrhe for us.' 5.! Fp. ,gas wounded for our trant‑
' greffions, he,was-41,Uaceifor wininiquities' The covenant of grace was made. with tbe"fpiritual feed in Chritt tht fe­rood Adam, taking hilrilen for then tipttn him fell a 'heir furety. Ancl.:.-Witilaut a furety, it could not have been made with theM: Forthey Vlr.:C a compa: y of broken men, owing a; Ilionfond:timpes more than they there Al worth ; and their word in a new birgain for 1::-e and ii. tation was worth ttfttlting; there could he t.o regard

to it inhearen: There was neither truth nor abilit) le.t

them, after th.e gi•:covenant was broken. B,hold it

chara8er in Point of truth or veracity, Rom. i,i. -4. Let

' God be fri:,'hut eve ry man a liar :' and _tc .11 It ).at :,bl;ty, chap. N.'6. 4 When a c were yet eNitlIOUt Lite: ; 'IL CL 1. fur the uno

50 The Making of the Covenant of Grace.' Head 2.

this covenant were high, and quite above their ability to anfwer ; and, betides, they themfelves were falfe and fickle. They brake their word in the first covenant, when able to have kept it ; how could they be trotted in this new bar­gain, when their ability was gone ? fo there was an abfo­ute lieeeffity of a furety for them in it. And Jefus Chrift became furety for them : fo the new covenant, on which depends all their falvation, was made, and made lure.

Solomon' tells us, That g he that is furety for a ftran­r ger (hall fmart for it ; and he-that hateth fureti(hip, is • fore,' Prov. xi. 15. Our Lord Jefus knew very well the ourden he took on hirnfelf in his furetifhip for finners; the charaEter of thofe whom he became furety for; and that he could have no -relief from them: but his love to his Fa­ther's glory, and the falvation of finners, engaged him in it, being perfeedy lure to fmart fur it, as will appear from cone ing,

Secondly, For what he became furety in the covenant. .6uretithip, in refpeI of the fubjoet-matter of it, is of two torts. a. There is a furetifhip for paying one's debt;' Prov. xxii. 26. Be not thou one of them that flrike hands, or of them that are fureties for debts. 2. A furetifhip for one's performing of a deed : Chap. xx. 16. Take his gar-anent that is fry ety for a firanger ;rand take a pledge of him for (Orange woman : that is, of him who is furety for her good behaviour ; for the will leave himin the lurch.

Now,•Our Lord's fureti(hip for tinners was of the first fort. Clirilt as the fecbnd Adam, confenting to the cove­-nant, (Ned himfelf furety for the debt of the feed repre­klited by him. Their debt was, by God's eternal fore­hnowlr dge, !later] from the broken covenant of works, in the whole latitude of the demands it had on them; and he Lecame furety fdr it, Liking hands with his Father to pay it cornol:tely... And,

t. He became furety for their debt of puniftiment,
mtliela_ they as Liners were liable in payment of, as the
uri.gi al phraleth it, 2 Their. i. 9. That was the debt
owing to the divine justice, for all and every one of their
tins, uriginel or aqua). The demerit of their fins, as of‑
infinite Goa, %yes an `infinite punifhment.
v: --re liable to Lear the pains of death, in' the full ht‑

Chrg the Surety of the Covenant. 51

titude thereof; to -Coffer the force of revenging wrath, to the complete fatisfaction of infinite juftice, and full repa- ration of God's injured honour. This was their debt of punifliment : a debt which they themfelves could never have cleared, though paying to the turmoil of their power, through ages of eternity. But this their debt Ctnift be­came furety for, obliging himfelf to lay down his life for theirs which was loft in law : Pfalm xl. 6, 7. Sacrifice and cfring thou didft not delire,mineears hail thou opened—Then Paid r, Lo, I come. John x. Day down my life for tie 112erp. Ver. 18. I lay it down of myfelf : I have power to lay it down, rind I have power to take it again. This com­mandment have I received of my Father. Here is a fureti. fhip that nester had a match ! David, in a tranfport of grief for the death of his fon Abfalom, willies he had died fur him, 2,Sam. xviii. 33. Reuben will venture the life of his two fons for Benjamin, Gen. xlii. 37. and Jo. dah will venture his own for him, chap. xliii. 9. while yet there was hope that all would be fafe : But our Lord Jr. fus deliberately pledged' his own life for finners, when it was beyond all peradventure, the precious pledge would be loft in the caufe, and that the death he would fuller would be a thoufand deaths in one. Some have offered them-(elves fureties in capital cafes, and embraced death for their country or friends ; and peradventure for a good man fume would even dare to die. But God commendeth his love to­ward; us, in that while we were yet finners, (and enemies,) Cbryl died for us, Rom. v. 7, 8, to.

Now, in the fecond Adam's luretifilip for the criminal debt of his fpiritual feed, there was not an ensuring of the payment thereof one way or other, only as in fitnrle cau. tionary : but there was an exchange of perfons in law ; Chrift fubflituting hirnf,tlf in their room, and taking the whole obligation on himfelf. This the free grace of God the creditor did admit, when he might have infifted, that the foul that finned should die : and, a delay being withal granted as to the timeofthepayment, God thus manifefted his forbearance, celebrated by the apoftle, Rom. iji. 2 -And, in virtue of that fubilitution, Chrift became deb

in law, bound to pay that debt which he contrafted r. to refiore that which he took not away, Pfal. lxix. 4.

E 3

52 The- ilfahing of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.

becoming furety-for them, to the end there might be laid a foundation, in Via/lent :wince, for exa&ing their debt of punifhment from 'him, their guilt was transferred on him, Ha. liii. 6: The Lord laid on bin, the iniquity of Ill all. This was painted at, in the laying of the hand on the head of the fact-ilk-es under the law, efpeciSlly on the head of the scape-goat, Lev. Xvi. And Aaron (hall lay both his hands upon. the bead of. the live goat. and confefs over him the iniquities'of the children of Iliad, and all their tranfgrefliori in 'ell their fitis,'putting them upon the head of the goat.' All the fins of all the elect were at once imputed to- the furety,'..antifo became his, as his righteous tiers bee:Imes:ours; nsmely„.in law-reckoning, z Cor. v. 21.

For he hath mada hlim to be fin for us,who knew no fin; that we might be-insule.t he righteoufnefs of Gqd in him.' And he himfelf fpea.40qo of them,. Pfalm xl. 12. Mine:. I have-takesbold upon me.,;-' as,feveral valuable. interpreters do, underltand a^_cordingaa the apoftle gives direaion, deteiminingchrilt himfelf to be the fpeaker in, this pfalm, Heha x. He was indeed without fi:,fifbererit ;..but lint without fin imputed to him;

t ill in his refurreainlr fie get nphia difcharge, having clear- ed the (lebt by his-death and fuffering:' 'Then was he -fated in the Spirit, I Tim. "it-i.:16.-*thlid I:2 'hall -aylear the fteond time without fin, Ilth.•ix• 2R. the' fin which was up.: on him, by imputation, 'the firtt time he appeared, being done away at.-his refurreaion. This relation of our fin to Chrift, is .nrceffary frOm the nature of fnretifhip for debt ;- in .WI:ich'eafe no body doubts but the debt becomes the furery's„ when once he bath flrikken hands for it. And hoW -elfe could the law have joftly proceeded aglinft-Cbrift? How could our punifliment have been, in juliice, intlieted On him, if he had not had fuch a relation to our fin ?

the law could not:charge our fin on him, in virtue of his'. own v,,lubtary undertaking,:it could have no ground in juflice.to Mid our punithmention him.

Ite,becarne furety for their debt of dirti'or obedi, ence 'the; Which silo is a debt according to the ityle of the. o'y scripture, Gal. v. 3. A debtor to do the whole law. The law esweervenant of works, though it was broken by' them, and they had incurred the penalty thereof, yet had;

Chrill the Surety. of the Covenant. 53

neither loft its right, nor ceafed to exalt of them the obe­dime which at firft it required of man as the condition of life, They were 11111 bound to perfed obedience, and on no lower terms could have eternal life, as our Lord taught the lawyer for his humiliation, Luke x. 28. Thou hall an­fwered right: this do and th6u fialt live.' The paying of the debt of punjfhment might fatisfy as to the penalty of the bond ; but there is yet moVe behind, for him who will meddle in the affairs of the broken company. How (hall, the principal fum therein contained, be paid ; namely, the debt of obedience to the law, for life and falvation ? The honour pf God would not allow the quitting of it : and they were abfolutely unable to pay one mite cf it, that would have been current in heaven; forafmuch as they were without firength, Rom. v. 6. and dead in trefpaffes and fins, Eph. ii. a. quite as unfit for the doing part, as for the (offering part. But Chrift became furety for this debt of theirs too, namely, the debt of obedience to the law as a covenant, which was, and is the only obedience to it for life, obliging himfelf to clear it by obeying in their room and ftead, and fulfiling what the law could demand of them it this kind: Pfal. xl. 7, 8. Then faid I, Lo I come —I delight to do thy will, 0 my God: yea thy law is within my heart. Matth. Thus it becometh us to PR all righteoyhefs. Chap. v. 11. Think not that I am cone to de­flroy the law.— I am not come to eVroy, but to falfl. -

And here alfo there was an exchange of perfons in law,. Chrift fubffituting himfelf in their room, and takingTheir obligation on himfelf; in virtne of which he became the law's debtor for that obedience owiwg by them ; and this 4 himfelf folemnly owned, by hisbeing circumcifed, Lwke ii. 21. according to that of the apofile, Gal. v. 3. itefiii.-9 again to every man that is cNcumcifed that he is a debtor to do the whole law. For becoming lurety for them in this point alfo, he transferred on himfelf their ftate of fervitude, whereby the law had a right to exaa that debt of him, which they, upon the breach of the covenant of works. were liable in payment of.

. For clearing of this, it is to be confidered, that alms kind was by the firft covenant, the covenant of works, ftitute God's hired fervants; and adually catered to ft:.

3. - ,.* The IlTitbit..:' of tie.,.!;•trene.ini.'of'Gacti. Mali 4,-

!_ie1irfervice, in their head the firh Adarn,,,,,irtttirt Token , hereto', we are all naturally inclined in that chat-aaer-ts1 . cl-..-sIlkith God ; though by the, fnll-We..a.,re rendered inca. bletO perform the duty of it„:.1.Inke xv.-.1,9, Make me as one • of thy hired firvants. The -work they werytowork, was . perfrec obedience to the holy law: the."10*. ticery were. to _ have for their work, was life, Rom. x.5:•.77r.--tran that d'air. t1.-fe things.lh all live by them. The penalty of breaking is- , Way from their mailer,- was bondage, under the curfc,, (jai.

16. 10. CV/ftli is every one that continneth not. in all itinzs .-.7..vvich are written in the book of the law to do them. flirt, violating-that covenant of hired fervice, they brake away . from the r Lord and Maher ;,,,•fo they not only loll all plea for the hire, but they became bond men under the curfe r -Aill obliged to make out their ferriiee, and that further= More, in the miter: of a hate of fervitude or bondage, Gal. nr. 24.. TV.• are ..;.,e two e.9v,liants : the one from mount Si4 :3;, ulich gendfreth to horjdge.. Their falling under the. ,.11-le, inferred thelofs of their liberty, and conititnted them bort.] men ; as appears from the nature of the thing and­:ntlances of the curie in othei.'cafes, as Gen. ix. 25. Curl?? t be Canaan ; a fervant off:T-rants7ball he be. Jofh. IX. 23, ' Nmy therefi,re ye, (namely the Gibeonites,) are curled, and 7.1.rre11all none of you be /reel from. being bond-men. The y grutind being curled, (Gen. iii. i7.) fails under bord?ge, according to the fcri,oure, Rom. viii. zt.

Now, Chrift fay..., all his fpiritual feed in this hate of fer, 7tude ; but unable to bear mifery of it, or to fulfil the fervice ; and he put hindelf in their room) as they were Kond-men ; transferring their hate of fervitude on hinifelf, I fo fitting himfelf a bond fervant for .,:c holy fcripture lets thil matter in a clear. ligbt„ _ is t.:plain tetlimony unto it, Philip. ii. 6, 7, 8. /Who . . • in the form of Ged=took upon him the form of a fir‑ , — and became obelient unto death, even the death of the 'he form of a fervant which:he took upon him,. form of a hood-fervant. For. fo the word in the‑

-)roperly fignifies ; being the fame word that is IoL

uied in that New 'Pettarnr lit plaafe, which we rfree, or /nod and Jr/ er, 1 C )r. sir. 13. Gal. iii... vi. 8. C..1. iii. 11. Rev, siii. 16. and six. 18.

CbriII the Surety cf the Covenant. 55

And the apohle leads us to underhand it fo here, telling %that this great lurety-fervant became obedient unto death, even the death of the croft. The which kind of death was a.Roroan punishment,- called by them, the fervile punifh­ment, on punifhmeut of bond-fervants; becable it was the death that bood.-mert malefaelors were ordinarily doomed-unto : freemen felelont, if ever, according to law. And forafmuch as his being in the form of God, denotes his he­iog very God, having the very •iature and thence of God ; for-the form is that which eftentially diltinguifheth things, and makes a thing to be precifely what it is: and this form • is, according to-the apohle, the foundation, of his equality with God his Father, which nothing really di,L•erent frog the divine :t ifenee,,can be : Therefore his taking upon him the form of re•hond ft rvant,;.-muft neeeilarily denote his be­coming really' a bond fervant, as really as ever man did, who was brought into bondage, or a state of fervitude.

The Father folemnly declares the transferring of our hate, ofiervitude on Chriit, fpeaking to him under the name or lintel, as was cleared before, Ha. xlix. 3. Thou art my ler- 'ant, 0 !cruel, in whom 1 will be gloryied. As if the Fa­ther had said to him, " Son, be it known, it is agreed that ". I take thee in the room and place of Ifrael, the 1piritual. " feed, to perform service due in virtue. of the broken

original contract : Thou in their head art my fervant ; " my bond fervant (as the Word is rendered, Lev. xxv. 39.

" and elfewhere ;) it is roak.thy..hard I will look for that " fervice." Agreeable hereunto is the acconat we' have of our redemption from- the cur;z,,Gal•.1:.i• 13. namely, that it was by Jefus Chrift being mac::a curie for 115 ; for it is written, Curled is every one that hiangeth on a '- tree ;' the which Chrift did, dying on a enofs, the capi= tal punifitment of bond•men.

Behold the folemuity of the tranflation', Pfalrn, 4. ',Sacrifice and offering thou'didft not defire, mine ear,: t thou opened.'..;:.,The word here rendered opened, rS perly fignifies digazd, as may be ken in the margin Bibles; and fo tr a.tvcrds are, 1,1 MC ears thou d;‘,.;,fil II that is, broth, as it is expread in our parapbrate Yfarrns in metre, Mine ears thtsi borrd. This felt view to that law concerning the bond fervant,

56 The Mainz of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.

xxi. 6.' Thenbis mlfter (hall bring him unto the judges; 4 he (hall alfo bring him to the door, or unto the dOor: 4puff: and his matter than bore his ear through with as 4 awl; and he (hall ferve him for ever ;' that is, in the Tan. guage of the law, till death. This is confirmed from, Ho lea iii. 2. So I bought her to me ,for ifteen piece; of Elver; which was the half of the (fated vice of .a bond-woman, Exod. xxi. 32. In the original it. is, So I digged her thro' to me ; the fame word, being here ufed by the Holy Ghat, as Pfalm xl. 6. It is a pregnant word, which is virtually two in fiznification : and the fenfe is, I bought her, and bored her ear unto my door pa, to be my bond­woman ; according to the law, Deut. xv. 17. r Thou 'halt

take• an awl, and thruft it through his ear unto the door,. and he {hall be thy fervant for ever : and alfo unto thy

maid fervant thou (halt do likewife.' That the boring of her as a bond-woman, was noways incontinent with the • prophet's betrothing of her to himfelf, Hofea iii. 3. appears. from Exod. xxi. 8

Jofeph was an eminent type of Chart as the Father's• fervant. And it is obfervable, that he was firtt a bond ter-. want, and then an honoriry fervant. In the former hate being fold for a fervant, Pfalm. cv. z 7. he was a type of Chritt, a bond fervant in his (tate of humiliation ; whole molt precious life was accordingly fold by Judas for thirty pieces of (Ever, the ft•ed price of the life of the bond fer­vant t Exod. xxi. 3z. If the ox pi/6 a man fervant) or a maid/avant; hefhall give unto their msg r thirtyfhe kelt' of Elver, and the oxfiall be ftoned. In the latter hat', being. made ruler over all the lama of Egypt, Nairn cv. 21, 22. Gen. xli. 4o. he was a type of Crain, in that molt ho­'nourable and glorious fervice or Miniftry, which was con­ferred on him in his flare of exaltation, wherein he was conflituted a fervant for whole law the ifiesfiall wait, ifa.. xlii. t, 4. God having given him a name which is above eve- ry name, that at the name of :fella every knee lhould bow., Philip. ii. 9, to. This latter fervice of Chrin belongs to the covenant, but the former, to wit, the bond fervice, be­ing his furtty fervice, belongs to the condition of the co­venant. efore; rilin a. from the dead, having'fulfilled the corrdieciaM the covenant, paid the debt for which be

Chrift the Surety of the Covenant. 57

became furety, and got up the difcharge, he put off for ever the form and charaaer of a bond fervant, and rofe and revived, that be might be Lord both of the dead and living, Rom. xiv. 9.

And hence it clearly appears, how the obedience of the man Chrift comes, in virtue of the eovenant, to beimputed to believers for righteoufnefs, as well as his fatisfaaioo by leering : for that kind of obedience which he performed' as our furety, was no more due by him, antecedently to his contraEt of furetifhip, than his fatisfa&ion by fuffering. h is true, the human nature of Chrift, being a creature, owed obedience to God in virtue of his creation ; and muff owe it for ever, forafmuch as the creature, as a creature, is fuhjeEt to the natural law, the eternal rule of righteouf­nefs: but Chrifi's putting himfelf in a Elate of fervitude, taking on him the form of a bond fervant, and in the ca­pacity of a bond fervant performing obedience to the law,- as it was Rated in the covenant, for life and falvation, was ebtirely voluntary. Obedience to the natural law was due by the man Chrift, by a natural tie; but obedience to the poRliie law, binding to be circumcifed, baptized, and the 114.which fuppofed guilt on the part' fubjeaed thereto, was not due but by his own voluntary engagement. And the obedience of a fon to the natural law, he owed natural­lyi; but obedience fo that or any other law, in the cbarac­te, of a bond fervant, and thereby to gain eternal life and falvation, he owed not but by compaa. The human na­ture of Chrift had a complete right to eternal life, and was actually poffeffed thereof, in virtue of its union with the divine nature ; fo that there was no occafion for him to %gain life to himfelf by his obedience. Wherefore, Chrift's taking on him the form of a bond fervant, and in that cha­raaer obeying the law for life and falvation, were a mere voluntary work of his as furety fOr (inners; wherein he did that which he was no otherwife bound to, than by his own; lolttntary undertaking. Now foralmuch as the obe­dience of Chrift imputed to believers for righteoufnefs, in his obedience of this kind only, there is a clear grouo,' its imputation to them according to the covenant.

And thus have we Peen Chritt's furetifhip in the rant to be of the nature of a furetifhip for paying

58 The Making of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.

debt: and what the debt.was which he hca-ne furety for

If it be .respfired, Whether or not Chrift's furetifhip is alfo of thenature of furetifhip for one's performing of a deed Lor,..whetber chrift became .furety in way of cau­tion to his Father, that the ele& fhould believe, repent . and, perform fincere obedience.? anfteer, Though, the cleft's believing, repenting, and fincere obedience, are in—, fallibly fecured in the covenant ;. fo that whofoever, being fubjeas capable, of thefe things, do live and die without them, (ball .undoubtedly perifh,. and are none of God's e-lea : yet L judge, that Chrift did, not .become furety in the covenant, in way. of caution to his Father, that.the idea fhould perform thefe deeds,. pr any other ; and that the way of fpeaking doth. not fo well agree will the fcrip­ture account of the covenant, Decaufe,.

1...It doth fomewhat obfcure the grace, the free grace. of the covenant ;. whereas the coveoont is purpofely fo

or­dered, as to manila} it moil illuftrioufly, being of faith„ that it might be by grace, Rom. iv,. 16. For Inch a fureti­'hip, or cautionary for the (lea's performing of thefe, things, muff needs. belong to the ,condition at thecove- Dant, properly fo called: as being a deed of the Mediator,whereby. he. promifeth fpmetlaing to God, and engogeth. that it (hall be-performed by. them :. and fo thefe things-, performed-by them accordingly mull be a part of the-con­dition. But that Goners thernfelves perform any part of. the condition of the covenant, properly. fo called, cannot-be admitted without prejudice to the grace of the cove­nant ; for,. fo far as we perform in our own perfons any part of the condition, the reward is not of grace, but of debt ; for .in . him that worketh, Is.ths reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt, Rom.. iv. 4. But the reward is whol­ly of grace to us, as it is of debt unto Chrift ; for to him that worketh not, but believeth on,him that juiifieth the un- godly,his faith is counted for righteoufnefs, verb`. Chap. xi. 6. And y. by grace, then it is no more of works ; otherwife- grace is •na more grace.Suppofe a man is furety for thoufand' pounds for his neighbour, who is thereupon to have a.'right to a certain valuable .benefit ; and that this man abfolutely becomes furety for the whole fum, except­ing only.an hundred pence.; for .which hundred peke tit

Chrifillie Surety of the Covenant. 59

elf() becomes-eautioner, that it {hall be paid by the princi. pal : it is evident,'that the condition of this bargain is di. wided between the furety and the principal, though iedeed their (hares are very unequal.: but however unequal they are, at far as the hundred pence, which the principal pays in his own perfon, do reach, fo far the benefit i of debt to him. Or, put the cafe, a furety engageth for the whole of the fum payable ; and, befides, is furety for the princi. cal's goad behaviour ; it is evident, that in this cafe the good behaviour ofthe principal is a part of the condition,of the bargain, as well as the payment of the money.; fince caution for it'is required by hit who is to- communicate the benefit. At this rate, the condition is divided between the furety and principal ; and the latter performs a part of it as wall as the former ; and fo the reward is, in part, of debt-unto him, as well as to the fumy. The application hereof to the cafe in hand is obvious. The fum of the matter lies here : If arid did in the covenant become furety in way of caution for his people's perform. ink fome' deed ; the performing the condition of theca. yenant, properly io called, is divided betwixt Chritt and them, however unequal their 'hares are ; and if the per. -forming the condition is divided betwixt Chrift and them, co far as their part of the performance goes, the reward is _of debt ,to them, which obfcures the grace of thy cove­Atant.

2. According to the fcripture, the elea's believing, re. penting, and fincere obedience, do belong to the promif. .fory part of the covenant. If we confider them their original fituation, they-arc benefits proniifed in the cove. 4tant by God unto Chrift, the furety, as a reward of his. fulfilling the condition of the ebvecant. And to they are, by the unchangeable truth of God, and his exaa jutlice, infured beOlid all poffibility of failure: nal. xxii. 27.

I the ends of the world SHALL t!namter and turn unto the Lord. Verfe 3o. "'geed SHALL fern; i..itn. Veric 31. they SMALL come, and SHALL declare hi, righteourneft unto a peo­ple thatfhall be born. P al cx . 3. Thy pop j'hail be willing • in the day of tly to. with verfe 1.

xxxiv. 25, 27,.31. 1-1b. viii. to, 1 I. If it.be silt­ed, To whom are thefe premises made, and the protnifes

6o The Making of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.

of the like nature through the Bible? it is 'evident, that feveral of them are made to Chrift exprefsly ; and the is. pollle anfwers as to them all, Gal. iii. 16. To Abraham and to his feed were the promifes made.—To thy feed, Which is 'Chrift. And whereas there, are found promifes, wherein Chrift hind& is the undertaker, as John vi. 37. Al that the Father givrth me, sttatt come to me ; they are not te be taken for Chrift's engaging to his Father, as caution­er for a deed to be done by the feed; but therein he fpeakt to man, as adminiftrator of the covenant, intrufted with the conferring on fanners the benefits purchafed by his o­bedience and death, and made over to him by the promife of the Father; Matth. xi. 27. Altthings are delivered unto me of my Father. Verfe 28. Come unto me al I ye that labour, end are heavy laden, and I will give you rift.: Luke xxii. 29. And I appoint (or di.#one) unto you'd kingdom, as my Father bath appointed (or difponed) unto me.

Thus far of Chrift's furetifhip in the covenant.

III. Chrift the Prieft of the Covenant.


S it was neceffary for Chrift, the - fecond Adam, his doing the part of a kinfman•redeemer, that he

Mould become frirety in the covenant ; ,fo it was neceffary to his performing what he became furety for, that he fhoul-i be a prieft. a6tdrdinglr. orienting .to the covenant; he became the prieit of the covenaStiTieb. ix. 1. Chrift being come an high-prieft of good things to 6 come.' A prieft is a public perfon, who deals with an offended God inlhe name of the guilty, for reconciliation, by facrifice, which he r,ffereth to God upon an altar, be­ing thereto called.of God, that he may be-accepted. So a prieft fpeaks a relation to an altar, an altar to a facrifice, and a facrifice to fn.

Thole whom Chrift reprefented in the covenant being —, he became their prieft, their high•prieft, appearing God, in their name, to make atonement and recon­nfor them : and this was the great thing that the rti ftht,od udder the law, and rfpecially the high did typify and pt.int at. Their uatute was gzraients he but on, to exercife his pridily of..fa .c Lc 1,111 Cat,d in

Chrifi the Prief2 of the Covenant. 61

in their nature he fuilained their perfons, reprefenting them before God, as their great high-prieti. A lively type hereof was Aaron's bearing before the Lord, the names of the children of Ifrael, the twelve tribes, upon 4 his two fhoulders,' in the fhoulder•pieces of the ephed ; thefe names being engraves on two onyx flones frt the. e-in by divine appointment, Exod. xxviii. 9, Jo, 12. as al-In his bearing them in the, brealt.plate, being engravers oat twelve !tones fet therein, verfe 1 Thus Aaron, the high-prieft; was all Ifrael repAfentatively : an Mufti i­ous type of Chrift, the priett of' the covenant, the fpiritual Ifrael reprefentative, If& xlix. 3.

The neceffity of Chrifl, the fecond Adam, his becom­lag a prieft, appears in thefe following things, jointly con­fidered :

Thole whom he reprefented were (inners: and there could not he a new covenant, without provifion made for removing of their fin; and that required a priett. The firfi covenant was made without a pried, becaufe then there was no fin to take away; the parties therein reprefented, as well as the reprefentative, were conlidered as innocent perfons. But the fecon.1 covenant was a covenant of peace and reconciliation between an offended God and­finners, not to be made but by the mediation of a pried-, who fhould be able to remove fin, and repair the irjured ho­nour of God : Zech. vi. 13. He be a !midi upon
his throne, and the counfel of peace (hail be between them both.'

And there was none 8t to bear that charaeler but aria. bimfelf. No man was fit to bear it, becaufe all men were finners themfelves, and inch an high-prisll became us, as was inelefiled, Iftarated from finners, Heb. vii. 26. It is true, the cleft angels• were indeed undefiled ; but yet none of them could be prieft of the covenant; becaufe,

Sin could not be removed without a facritiee of fuffi­cient value, which they were not able to afford. The new covenant behoved to be a covenant by facrifice, a covenant written in blood; and without fhedding of blood there was no remiffion,' Heb. ix. 22. Theiefore the typie. : covenant with Abraham was not made without the I komity of facrifice, Gen. xv. 9. that he might know t!

G2 The Making of the Covenant of Grace: Head 2.

covenant to be a covenant of reconciliation, in which a juft God did not Phew his mercy, but in a way conflft­ent with the honour of his juftice. Now, the facrifices of beats,, yea, and whatfoever the creatures could afford for 'facrifice this cafe, were infinitely below the value. But Jefus Chrift becoming a prieft, gave himfelf a facrifee to Goof, for ellablifhing the covenant ; and that facrifice was for a fweet•fineffing favour,' Eph. v.'2. or, as the Old Teftamerit phrafe• is 4a favour of reft,' Gen. viii 21. marg. The reprefented being finners, were corrupt and abominate Lie before God; arid he, as it were, finelled a favour of dif-, quiet from them, they being a finale in his nofi., ffa. lxv. S. their fin let his revenging juttice and wrath a-Itir. But the facrifice of Chrift hitnfelf was fit to fend forth fuch a Tweet-frneliing favour unto God, as fhould quite overcome the abominable ravour riling from them; and lay his reveng­ing juftice and wrath to the molt calm and profounder• reft.

The neceffity of a facrifice in the fecund covenant arofe from the juftice of God requiring the execution of the curie of the broken firft covenant; whereby the (inner Mould fall a facrifice for his fin, according to that, Pfal. xciv. 23. He than bring upon them their iniquity, and-!hall cut them off in their own wickednefs.' It was att ancient cuftom in making of covenants, to cut a beat is twain, and to pafs between the parts of it; and that palling between the parts refpe6ted the falling of the curie of the covenant upon the breaker; Jer: xxxiv. 18. And 6 I will give the men that have tranfgreffed the covenant,

which have not performed the words of the covenant

4 which they have made before me, when they cut the
elka calf in twain, and paffed Between the parts thereof:' or
rather, more agreeable to the original, I will make the
men that have' trantgreffed my covenant—the calf which,-

they cut in twain, and paffed between the parts thereof;' that is, I will make them as that calf which they cut is win execute the curfes on them, cutting them a nant-breakers, Matt: xxiv. 51. Now, the co...ks being broken,- juftice required this exc. curfe of it, in order to the eitablifhiog of a 1; the covenant of grace and peace. But had

Chrba the Priefl of the Covenant. 63

it been executed on the (Inners themftives, the fire of wrath would have burnt continually on them; but never would fuch a facrifice have fent forth a favour frnelling fo fweer, as to be a favour of refl to revenging juftice; forafmuch as they were not only mere creatures, whofe molt exquifite fnfferings could not be a fufficient compenfation for the injured honour of an infinite God: but they .were finful creatures ton, who Mould still have remained finfol under their fuffering. Wherefore Jefus Chrift, being both fps: ratefrom inner:, and equal evith God, confented in the co­venant to be the facrifice, on which the curie of the firft covenant might be executed,-in their room and Read.

This is lively reprefented in the covenant made with Abraham, in which he was a type-of Chrift, Gen. xv. In that covenant God promifed the deliverance of Abraham's feed out of the Egyptian bondage and to give them the hnd of Canaan ;. a type of the deliverance of Chrift's fpirittral feed from the bondage of fin and Satan, and of putting them in poffellicn of heaven, verfe 13, 14, i6, t R. Awful was the folemnity ufed at the making of this co­venant. There were taken a heifer, a the goat and a ram, each of them of three years old; typifying Chrift, who was about three years in his public miniflry, verfe •. Thefe were each of them, divided, in the tnidft, hacked a. Nader by the middle; which typified the execution of the curie of the broken first covenant on Chrift our furety, and facrifice for us, vetfe to. Abraham's driving away the fowls that came down upon the catcafes, typifies Chrift'a vietory over the devils all along during the Rate of his humiliation, and efpecially his triumphing over them on the mil's; verfe t t. And finally there was afinding furnace and a burning lamp thus pled be'tween the piece: ; which fignificd the revenging wrath of God feizing on Cbrift the 'facrifice, and juftice therewith fatisfied, verfe ty.

3. No facrifice could be accepted, but on fuch an altar asfhould fanetify the gift to its neeeffary value and defigned eta, Math. xxiii. 19. And who could furnifh that but Cbrift himfelf, whofe divine nature was the altar, fr

whence the facrifice of his human nature derived its v. and efficacy as-infinite ; Het4. ix. t4. How much n


64 The Making of the Covenant of Graze. Head 2.

the blood of Chrift, who, through the eternal Spirit, offered up himfelf without (pot to God, purge your confcience from dead works ?' His bleffed body (offer­ing and bleeding to death on the crofs, and his holy fool Icorchred add melted", within him with the fire of divine wrath, both in the Mean time united to his-divine nature, , were the fac:ifice burning on the altar, from the which God finelled a Tweet favour, to the appealing of his wrath, and fatisfying of his juflice fully. Not that Chrift was a fa. crifiee only while on the crofs ; but that his offering of himfelf a facrifice, which was begun from his incarnation in the comb, the facrifice being laid on the altar in the. „firft -moment thereof;- mid was continued through his whole life ; was completed on the croft, and in the grate; 114); 3c., 5. Wherefore when be cowed) into the world, he faith, Sacrifice nor offering thou wouldft not, but a body hall thou prepared me ..—ver. 7. Then faid I, Lo, I tome. Ifa. liii. 2 117,en ye frail fee him, there is no beauty that cue floulddfre him. Ver. 3. He is a man of furrows and ac­quainted with gril. 2 Car. v. 21. He bath made him to be fin fir us.

" 4. Laftly, There behoved to be a prieft to offer this fa­crifice, this valtable facrifice, unto God upon that altar ; -elk there could have been no facrifice to be accepted, and in no removal of fin, and confequently no new covenant. -And puce Chrift _himfelf was the facrifice, and the altar too, he himfelf alone could be the priefl. And foraf­mueh as the weight of the falvation of finncrs lay upon his call to that office, he was made prieft of the covenant by the oath of God, Heb. vii. 20, 21. As he had full pow­_ er.over his ovva life, to make himfelf a facrifice for others.; fo his Father's falemn invelling of. him with this office by an oath, gave hia•accefs to offer himfelf effeaually ; even in fuch fort as thereby to fulfil the condition of the cove­nant, and to purchafe eternal life for them.

Itiferencer from the fecond Head.

I (hail (hut up this head of the making of the covenant, of grace, with two inferences from the whole.

Inf. a. What remains for tanners that they may be personally aueLAyingly in covenant with God, is not as par‑

aril! the Prie of the. Cavterant. - 65

ties controllers and undertakers, to make a covenant with him for life and falvation ; but only, to take hold of God's covenant already made from eternity, between the Father and Chrift the fecoml Adam, and revealed and offered to as in the gape', Ifa. lvi. 4, 6. I have no defign hereby to difparage our covenants made fur national reformation by our godly progenitors, and commonly called the Nation-a! Covenant, and Solemn League and Covenant, on which God fet the Peal of his good pleafure, in the experience of many. There, and the like, are covenants of duties, con‑

equential enough to the taking hold of God's covenant of grace. Neither would I difcourage any ferious fouls, from taking hold of God's covenant of grace for eternal life and falvation to themfelves, with all the awful folemnity of the molt exprefs words, yea, and of writing and fubfcrib­ing it with their hands ; which is commonly called perfon- id covenanting. But I would have all to beware of a prac­tical carruptiag of the covenant of grace, by making co­venants of their own, upon fuch and loch terms, which they will fulfil for life and falvation. The carnal Jews mitlaking the defign of the giving of the law, did fo cor­rupt the covenant of grace; looking for life and falvation, not for the fake of the promifed feed alone, but for their obedience, loch as it was, to the moral and ceremonial laws. And thus many, thinking that eternal falvation is propo­fed to them in the word, upon the condition of faith, re. pentance-and fincere obedience to God's law, do confect to thefe terms, and folemoly undertake to perform them ; jai binding themfelves to loch and fuch duties, that God may fave their fouls; and fo they make their covenant. And while they can perfuade themfelves, that they perform their-part of the covenant, they look for, life and falvation. thereupon. This doth quite overturn the nature of the covenant of grace : 4 for to him that worketh, the reward is not reckoned of grace, but of debt,' Rom. iv. 4. ' and if it be of works, then it is no more grace,' chap. xi. 6. The finfulnefs of this pra6tice is great, as overlooking_ Chrifl, the great undertaker and party-cot,: ratior by ap­pointment of the Father ; and putting themfelves in bis. room, ;o do and work for themfelves for life. And the danger of it mutt needs be great, as laying a _ou....ation

66 The. Making of the Covenant of Grace. Head. 2:

to bear the weight of their falvatiim, which divine wifdozn faw,to be quite unable to bear it. The iffue whereof mutt be, that (rich covenanters, (hall lie down in farrow. So . the apottle determines, Gal. v. 4.. Chritt is become of no effeEt unto you, whofoever of you are juflified by the law ; ye are fallen from grace.'

Our part then, in this cafe, is only to take hold of God's covenant made already, and offered and exhibited to us in the gofpel. This hold is taken by faith ; which is in fcripture account, the band of the foul, John i: 22. So the original expreflion plainly carries it, Ifa. Ivi.. 4, 6. That fallen in my covenant.' In which phrafeology, the correlate word hand (expreffed Gen. xxi., 184 is un­der-flood ; g. d. That fallen [their hand].: in. my cove.

nant ;' that is to fay„" Who by the hand of faith take fait hold of my covenant ;" as Adonijah did of the horns a the altar, i Kings wherein, the fame manner of expression is ufed„and this you do, by taking- hold of atria in the free promife of the gofpel ; believing thathe is .held forth to you in particular, confiding and trulling in him as your Saviour, for your falvation from fin and wrath, up- on the ground of God's faith fuluefs in the promife, that whofoever believeih in hintfiall not perilh, but have evetlak kg life, for he is given for a covenant to you, I. xlix. 8., and to receive, him„ is to believe on his.name, John i. 42.

This is our, making a.covenant with ,God by facsifirer, whieh.is mentioned, Pfal. 1. 5. The original expreffion is, That cot my covenantnpon a facrifice;' namely, by laying, their hands in faith on the head of the facrifice, thereupon cut down in their (lead; and fo ceremonially transferring their guilt on the facrifice; but really and fpiritually, approve. ing of the device of falvat ion by a crucified Saviour., ,aad fal ling in with it as the method of falvation for there. In aria way of covenantin•the free grace of the covenant is preferv­ed pure and entire ; for to him that worketh not, but be­lieveth on him that jullifieth the ungodly, his faith is. 4. counted for righteoufnefs,' Roth. iv. Here the ho­nour,of fole undertaker and. party-contrador in. the co. vinant, is, according to the Father's appointment, left to. Cririft,the One that is mighty, Pfal. lxxxix, 19. Here the icond Adam builds the te4p1r, without our laying.

Chilli the Friel? ofthe Covenant. 67

ene (lone therein in our own pesfons: even as the firft Adam laid it in inins, without our pulling down of one ffione of it in our perfons : and Chriit bears the perfonal glory of the reparation, even as Adam the perl6nal blame of the ruiri, Zech. vi. 13. An.' at this rate, the foul cloth in time, for her lawn part, give her folemn approbation of the covenant made from eternity, and a perfonal content to what Chrift from everlaiting confented to in her name4 even as the princefs married by proxy in her childhood, ratifies all when fhe is come to age, by re, eiving her huf­band. Likeas all Adam's children, as inch, taking fal­vation to heart, and therefore covenanting with God, do in effe61 repeat the covenant of works made with Adam their reprefentative ;- fo all the fecond „Adam's feed as fuch, taking falvation to heart, and therefore covenanting with God, do in effeEt repeat the covenant of grace made with Chrift their reprefentative. In the making of the covenant before- the world began, the Father propofed • to Chrift as fecond Adam, their head and reprefenta­tive, that he fhould take burden upon him for them, and be their kinfman.redeemer, their furety for their debt of punifhment and- duty, and their prieft ; and Chrift confented thereto, from eternity.. Amen, for my part, lays the cleft foul in time, in the covenanting day : it is infinitely well ordered : I am a loft finn;r ; a debtor to divine juftice, a guilty creature; he is, with my whole heart and foul, MY Kinfman redeemer, we Surety, MY Priejl: my part ofthepunifhment incurred, and of the duty owing, isa vaft and exceedinggreat part of that debt ; but my foul is well content of, and mils in that method of paying it : 2 Sam. xxiii. S. He bath made with me an everlafting •covenant, (Heb. He bath put to me an everlalting co­' venant),—thie is all my falvation, and all my &fire: The Father faid to Chritt as their reprefentative, for thy doing fo and fuffering. I will be their God, and they 6 shall be my people.' Amen, faid Christ from eternity ; ' All mine are thine,' John xiv. to. Amen, for my part, lays the eleel foul in the time of perfonal covenanting. This heart of mine mutt have Come God, I muff belong to one or other ; and too long h:ve 1 been for another : but now, timber of the houfe, and hones of the wall, btro

58 The Making of the Covenant of Grace. Head 2.

witnefs, my foul ia•content with, coalenta to, and reds in this method of difpoling of tne ; namely, that the God and Father of onr Lord Jefus Chrift be my God in Chrik and I one of his people from henceforth and for ever..

This manner of covenanting is inconfiftent with a put-- pole or defire of continuing in fin ; even as one's commit­ting himfelf for cure into the hands of a phyfician who eines infallibly, is incanfiftent vilth a defire to kerp his difeafe'llanging about him. Chrift being made of God un­to us wifdom, righteoufizeft, fontiificalion, and redemption, t Cor. i. 3o. it fieceffarily carries along with it, a taking of Chrift f n. a Prophet, and a King and Lord untp us ; as fuch a one doth neceffarily yield himfelf to the phvfi­cian's management. In it one joins himfelf to Chrift as his covenant-head, who alfo is the adminiftrator of the co­venant: and fo fubjeets himfelf to his teaching and govern. ment. And it is fuch a way of covenanting, as no pro

perfon, nor hypocrite, continuing lo, ever did or can fall in with. For ( a.) it fpeaks a heart content to part with all fin, well pleated with Chrift's whole falvation, whereof the principal part is to fare his people from their ins, Matth. i. 21. whereas unfound covenanters are always offended with tome one thing or other in Chrift, chap. xi. 6. (a.) It fpeaks a foul carried out of all confidence in. itfelf, its own working and doing for life and falvation„ and bottomed only upon Chrift's doing and fuffering for that end. And thus, fuch a covenanter, being poor in spirit, Matth. v. 3. and rejoicing in Chrift Jeffs", and having no confidence in the AA, Philip. iii. 3. is diftinguifh. ed from the prefumptuous hypocrite, whofe confidence for ''cc and falvation is ever uponlis own doing and working, rr in whole or in part ; as alfo from the defpairing un. ver, who hath no confidence neither in Chrift, nor in If, that he fhall have life and falvation; however he believe firmly that others (hall. So this faith, this ,anting, is quite another thing, than either the falfe of the prefumptuous profane, and the prefumptuous crite, or the no faith of the defperate, or the waver.

.oubter, who never fix in greater or leffer meafure' anfidence , for falvation to himfelf: James i. but 'n faith, nothing wavering ; for he

Chrifl the Priefi of the Covenant. 69

g that wavereth, is like a wave of the fea, driven with the g wind, and toffed. Verfe 7. Fur let not that man think 6 that he than receive any thing of the Lord.'

If any think this to be an eafy way of believing cove­nanting, either they miftake it, or they try it not. To believe upon fome ground we fee in ourfelves, is very na­tural ; but to believe merely upon a ground in another, namely, righteoufnefs in Chrift, and faithfulnefs in God, while all in ourfelves tends to make us defpair, is above the reach of nature. A confcience thoroughly awakened, will convince a finner, that ;Os a matter of the greateft difficulty.

//f. Juftifying faith, though it receives Chrift in all

his offices as Prophet, Priell, and King; yet as it enters us perfonaHy into the covenant,and jufttfies, it eyes•him in his prieftly office particularly; namely, as the great High­prieft, who bath made an atonement for fin, by the facri­fice of himfelf ; as the Surety who 'undertook and corn-Pitted the payment of the debt of punilhment and duty ; and as the Kinfman-redeemer, who having married our nature to the divine nature in himfelf, redeemed the mors­gaged inheritance with his own blood, gave himfelf a ran­fom for us, to deliver us from our fpiritual bondage, and by his death deftroyed him that had the power of death Rom. iii. 25. Whom God hath let forth to be propitia­tion through faith -in his blood. Chap. v. t r. Our Lord Jefus Chri(l, by whom we have now received the atone­'

meat.' The comfort for a wounded confcience, Fick with the guilt of fin, lies here. This is that office of Chrift to which the convinced firmer, ftanding trembling before -the juft Judge of the world, lifts up his eyes, and makes his recourfe for fafety; for there, and only there,,can one fee a ranfom, a righteoufnefs, an atonement. In his pro­phetical and kingly office he adminifters the covenant ; but in his prieftly office he performed the condition of it. So it is the foundation of the other two. It was by the facri­-fice of himfelf, that the word and fpirit of the covenant, _whereby he teacheth limners, were purchafed ; and thereby alfo he obtained his kingdom. And his interceflion is founded upon his oblation.• So his prieftly office, and that conuadered particularly in point of his offering his

70 Thq,Partr of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3._

erifice,, cloth as the foundation-done, bear the weight of the falvation of finners, and of the honour of God and the Mediator therein. Wherefore, it is not firange, that his inved itunt with the oddly office wait-confirmed by the oath of .God ; a foktnnity not sled in the cafe of his propheti­cal and kingly offices.

And thus far of the nuking of the covenant.


The Part, of the Covenant of Grace.

Irrl HE parts of the covenant of grace, being the things

therein agreed' upon betwixt God and Chrift the fecond Adam, are two, to wit, the conditionary part, and the prorniffory part. Thefe comprehend the whole of the covenant, and of them we dull treat in order.

The, rfi Part of the Covenant, ntnnely,-the Conditionary

THE condition of a covenant or bargain, properly and commonly fo called, is, Thatpart of a covenant

Vt. -bargain, upon the performing of which one's right to the benefit promifed is founded, and his plea for it is dated, as becbming due to him for that his performance, accord­ing to and in virtue of the agreement between the parties. •This is a federal condition, a covenant condition, or the -condition of a covenant : and what all men, in common­converfation, underhand by the condition of a covenant or bargain. As for inftance, The paying of fuch a itmt of money for fuch a ,commodity, according to the agreement between the parties, is the condition of a covenant of cbtri­inerce,fale or traffic : the working of fuch a piece of work,. -or doing fuch ti deed, for fuch a reward agreed upon by the patties, it the condition of a covenant of fervice and hire. -

Betides this, there is silo what is called a condition of 'connexion or order in a covenant; whereby one thing ne­ceffarily goes before another, in the order of the covenant, without being the groundupon which one's right and title to thatothoething is founded. As in the former instance,

The tonernionetry Part of the Covenant. 72

The buyer's receiving of the comutodity, and the hireling's receiving of the reward, covenanted or bargained for, muff needs go before their poffeflion or enjoyment of them; but it is evident, that that receiving is not the thing upon *bich the buyer's right and title to the commodity, or the hireling's right and title to the reward is founded: there­fore, though it may be called a condition of connexion in the refpe&ive covenants, yet it cannot, in any propriety of fpeech, be called-the condition of them.

Now, to apply thefe things to our purpofe : In the or.. der of the covenant of grace, forafmuch as the having of the Spirit muff gq before faith, faith before jollification, jollification before Tan&ification, hohnefs before heaven's happinefs ; thefe may be called conditions in the co­venant of grace, viz. conditions of certain connexion : end this belongs to the eilablifhed order of the pro­mifes of the covenant, which arc contradiflinguithed to the condition of the covenant. Howbeit, fuch conditions can in no proper fenfe be called the condition or conditions of the covenant of grace, more than the buyer's receiving of the commodity can be called the condition of the cove­nant or bargain of Pale. But the condition of the cove­nant of grace, properly fo called, is, Chriff in the form of bond•fervaut, as lall Adam, Reprefentative, Kinfinan-re­deerner,..Surety, and Prieff, his fulfilling all righteoufnefs awing, in virtue of the broken covenant of works, unto God by his fpiritual feed: Matt. iii. 15. Thus it hecometh es to fulfil all righteoufnefs.

For clearing•of this purpofe, I (hall (1.) Evince this to be the condition of the covenant ; (2.) Explain and enfold that righteoufnefs, the fulfilling whereof was made the condition of the covenant.

Firfi, To evince that this is the condition of the cove• Gant of grace, confider,

1. Chrilt's fulfilling all rightenufnefs as the fecund A­dam, is what the Father propofed unto him, as the terms on which his feed fhoukl be Paved, and upon which he founded his promife of eternal life to be given them ; and not any work or deed of theirs: Ifa. liii. to. • When thou 6 (halt make his foul an offering for fin, the (hail fee his feed. Ver. It. He !hall fee of the travail of- his foul and

73 The Parts of the of Grace. Head 3.

g fhaltbe lath fled : by his knowledge shall RIGHTEOUS 6 SERVANT justify many : for he (hall BEAR their iniqui‑
E ties.' Luke xxii zo. This cup is the new teftament Ix

MY atohn, which is flied for.you.' And the fame is that which Chria as the fecond Adam did from eternity confent unto, undertake, and bind himfelf for : and which he did in time, according to agreement, perform. Thus he himfelf reprefents it, Matth. iii. Ts,' Thus it becom‑

eth us to fulfil all righteoufnefs ;' namely, as it becometh a petfon of honour and credit to fulfil his bargain, Luke xxiv. 26.'' Ought not Chill to have Coffered thefe things:4, to wit, as one ought to perform the condition of a cove­nant or bargain he kas agreed to.

. 2. This is the only, ground of a finner's right and title to eternal life; and upon nothing elfe can he fafely found his plea before the Lord for life and falvation : Eph. i. 7. In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgive-weft offins, according to the riches of his grace, Philip. 8, 9. That I may win Chrift, and be 'found him, not having mine own righteoufnefs--.but--the righteoufnefs which is of God by faith.' Surely, upon the condition of the covenant fulfilled, one may found his plea before the Lord for the benefits promifed in the covenant : but no man may found his plea before the Lord for thefe on any. work or deed of his own whatfoever, no not on faith it-(elf; but only on Chrift's fulfilling all righteoufnefs; therefore no work nor deed of ours whatfoever, uo not faith itfelf, can be the condition of the covenant of grace properly fo called : but only Chrift s fulfilling all righteoufnefs. The firmer flanding in the court of con­fcience, trembling before the Lord, flies in under the co­vert of that righteoufnefs fulfilled by the mediator, and dare oppofe nothing but it to the condemning fentence of the law, giving up -with all other pleas for life and falva­tion. Believing in Chrift is the pleading upon that ground, not the ground of the finner's plea : it faith, My Lord and my God' in the promife, upon the g-ound of Chrift's fulfilling all righteoufnefs allenarly, as the condi­tion of the covenant. If any will make it the ground of their plea, they mull needs produce it as a work of a law,, that is, as a deed done by them, whereby they have fah

The conditionary Part of the Covenant. 73

filled and anfwered a law, and thereupon they crave the be­nefit promifed :. the which will, according to fcripture, he found a dangerous adventure, Rom. iii. zo. Gal. ii. 16. and v. 4.

• 3. It -is by this, and this alone, the falvation of tuners becomes a debt: therefore this alone is the condition of the covenant. For the reward is of debt to him, and hint .only, who fulfils the condition of a covenant ; to him ant

worketh, not to him that worketh not, but helieveth,' Rom. iv. 4, g. And fo it is of debt to Chi-ill alone, not to us : and therefore it was he that fulfilled the condition of the covenant ; we fulfil no part of it. This is cora m­ed from the primitive fituation of mankind with reference to eternal life, in the fiat Adam'ssovenant, duly confider­ed. The condition thereof was perfe8 aelive obedience. - And, according to-the nature of that covenant, if this o-, bedience had been fulfilled by Adam, eternal life to him and his would hereupon have become a debt to him. And the plea of his poflerity for life, in tbat cafe, would not have been founded on their perfonal obedience coming af­ter that fulfilment ; fince it would not have been. the per­formance of the condition, but*the fruit of the promife of the covenant ; but it would have been founded on that per­formance of Adam their reprefentative; forafmuch as, in the cafe Cupp: fed, it would have been the only obedience whereby the condition of that covenant was fulfilled: and fo they would have obtained life, nut for any perfonal work or deed of theirs, but for the obedience of the firit Adam their reprefentative, to which God did gracioully make,the promife of life, in the fill covenant.

4. Faith and obedience are benefits promifed in the co­venant, upon the condition of it, as bath been already e­vinced ; and in virtue of the promifes of the covenant, they are produced in the ele6t ; therefore they cannot be the condition of the covenant. And eleel infante are laved, though they are neither capable of believing nor of obey­ing : howbeit, the condition of the covenant mull needs be performed, either by themfelves who are laved, or elfe by another in their {lead. Therefore Chritl's fulfilling all righteournefs, which is the only c.,Ledience rerforna,;(1 io

74 The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3.

their Read, tuna be the alone proper condition of the co­venant.

g. Lnfify, The covenant of grace doth fo exclude our hooding-, as the covenant of works did not. This is clear from Rom. iii. 27. Where is boafting then? It is excluded. By what law ? of works ? Nay : but by the law of faith.' But if any de-ed or work of ours be the condition of the covenant of grace, in whole or in part, ode hooding is not excluded, but hath place therein, as in the covenant of works ; the difference being at molt but in point of degrees : for, according to the fcripture, it is working, or fulfilling the condition of a covenant, that gives the ground of boafting ; forafmuch as to him that worketh, the reward is reckoned of debt :' and life being of or by works in the covenant- of works, though not in the way of proper merit, but in the way of paCtion or compaCt only, this gave men the ground of boafting in that covenant, according to the fcripture. Therefore, fo far as life and falvation are of or by any work or deed of ours, as fulfilling the condition of the covenant of grace, our boafting is not excluded, but hath place therein as in the covenant of works. Wherefore, fence the covenant of grace is fo framed, as to leave no ground for our boatling, no work or deed of ours, but Chrift fulfilling all righteouf­nefs, even that alone, is the condition of the covenant of grace : and our life and falvation are neither of works, nor 'by works, as fulfilling the condition of the covenant : Tit. iii. g. Not by works of rightemlnefr, which we have done, bat according to his mercy he laved us. Eph. ii. 9. Not of works, lit any man /.Mould hoaft.

God forbid we fhould go about to jnftle faith and obe­dience out of the covenant of grace ! Thole who do fo in principle or pratlice, will thereby juftle themfelves out of ',he kingdom of heaven : Matth. v. 19. Whofoever fkall break one of thcfe leaft commandments, and lhall teach men fo, he Mall be called the leaft in the kingdom of heaven : that is,

he (hall b ated as he treated that one of theft commandment be judged unworthy of the fellovvfhip of Faith is neccffary lovingly to intereft us e head of the covenant : and none can
appinefs, without aCtual believing, who

The conditionary Part of the Covenant. 75

are fubjeas capable of it : nor can any attain it without the Spirit of faith indwelling in them. Obedience is neerfra­ry, as the chief fubordinate end of the covenant, being that whereby God hath his glory he &fired therein ; and without obedience begun here, none who are fubjeets ca­pable of it, can Pee heaven: But withal it is neceffary, that they be kept in the place and (lotion afligned them in the covenant by the Father and. the Son from eternity. By faith we perfonally embrace the covenant, confent to, and reft in the condition of the covenant fulfilled by Chrilt ; and fo are juftitied and brought into a (late of falvation : John x. 9. I am the door : by me if any man. enter in, 6 he (hail be faved.' Compare John i. 12. and iii. 16. and xiv. 6. By- evangelical repentance and gofpel obedience, we tally our thankfulnefs to God, and evidence the truth of our faith, and our being within the covenant : I Pet. ii. 9. Ye are a chofen generation, a royal prietthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people ; that ye (hould Phew forth the praifes of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light : ver. to. Which in time past were not a people, but are now the peopleof Ceti; which *had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.' Compare Rom. vi. 13. and ail, t, 2. I Cor. Vi. 20.

This the prophet taught the Jewi(h church of old, Mic. vi. 8. -He hath Aewed thee, 0 mar, what is good ; and what doh the Lord. require of thee ; but to do jullly, and to Ave mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God ? In the 6th. verfe a molt important queition is put, concerning the acceptance of a firmer with God, how it may be eh. tined, ' wherewith (hail I come before the 1..nrd ?' and feveral cofily expedients for that ptrpofe are propof­ed by the (inner, even to the giving of the fruit of his body for the tin of his foul,' ver. 6, 7. But the pro­phet anfwers that quell ion in a word, tacitly upbraiding them with grofs llupidity, in their groping for the wall in broad day light, even as in the night ; He hath thewed thee, 0 man, what is good,' that is, what is goodly, valuable and acceptable, in the fight of God, for that pur­pfe, even for a finner's obtaining pardon and acceptance with God ; namely, the Meflias, JefusCl.rift facrificed fingers. This waa what God bad all along, by his proplic

76 The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head S‑

and by the whole ceremonial law, pointed out to them, ancl­fet before Oern, as the good for that, purpofe. that they might by faith look thereunto, and be faved, Ifa. xlv. 22. And in the ftyle of the Holy Ghoft, Chrift crucified is, elfewhere fpnken of under the fame notion : 2 Chron.. xxx. 18. The rood Lord pardon every °tie that prepareth -his heart to leek God. Orig. Jehovah the good make atone­mmt for, "&fc. Pfalm lxxxv. 12. The Lord flail give thee-that which is good ; or, 'hall give thee good. Compare John iv. so. If thou knewe/l the gift of God, and avho it is. Ifa. Iv. 2. Eat ye that whichis good. Compare John 55. .My f.ib is meat indeed. Ji-b. xxxiv. 4. Let us know among ourfilves what is good. Ver. 5. For Job bath Paid I am righteous. Now being thus accepted of God, what dash he require of thee in point of gratitude, but to dojtylly, as one accepted not without a righteoufnefs anfwering the de. mands of juftice and judgment ; and to love mercy, as one who bath obtained mercy ; and to walk humbly with'thy God, as one who is free grace's debtor ? In the fame man­ner of exprdli n dcth Muftis addrefs himfelf to the people fecured of the poffalion or Canaan by the oath of God, and being jtift to enter upon it. Dent. x. I I, 12. And now, Ifrael, ,what cloth the Lord thy God require of thee, but to fear the Lord thy God, &c. namely, in point of gra­titude, for his giving thee that good land.

Infer. From what is laid it appears, that your life and
falvation entirely depend on your fpecial intereft in Chrift's
righteoufnefs. It ye are poffeffed of it, your falvation is fe‑
cure; if not, falvation is far from you. If you were never •
fn fall of your own righteoufnefs, works, doings, and fuf‑
. nil is but filthy rags in this cafe, and cannot give.
or title to life : and although, you can fee no.
)ur own in yourfelves, which you can lean to
Lord, yet if the righteoufnefs of Chrift is yours
II, by faith, your life and falvation are firm as a

Tiow n (hall I know that Chrifl's righteoufnefs

1 ,.1; ffeffion ?, "inf. The Lord himfelf gives

ader of fuch happy poffeffors, Ifa. -ne, ye that know righteoufnefs, the gl .heart is my law.' They that know‑

7-he conditionary Part of the Covenant. 77

righteoufnefs, are, in the ftyle of the fcripture, thole whole it is, agreeable to the pbrafe, Matth. xxv. 12. 1 know you not, q. d. Ye are none of mine, I acknowledge you net as mine. So this charaaer confills of two pat ts. (1.) They are fuch as acknowledge Chritl's tightenufnefs as their on­ly righteoufnefs in the fight of God, and look to it alone for life and falvation, renouncing all their own righteouf­nefs: Ha. liii. a s. 4 By his knowledge (hall my righteous

fervent juflify many ;' that is, by the knowledge or ac­knowledgment of him, which is by faith. (2.) They have the law of God in their hearts. The righteous people, righteous by faith, are a holy people. They make cop. fcience of internal obedience ; for the holy law rules with­in them, even there whither no eye reacheth, but the eyes of God and their own con ft iences. So they are alio. guifhed from hypocrites, who are 'like unto whited fe­g pulchres, beautiful outward, but within full of all un­cleannefs.' They make confcience of exterlal obedience too ; for as the candle burning within the lanthorn will Thine throngh it, fo the law of God ruling in the heart, cannot mifs to rule in life and converfation too ; Matt. vi. If therefore thine eye be (Ingle, thy whole Lc). dy (hall be full of light. And fo they are dillinguifh. ed from the profane, whore unholy lives declare them to have neither part nor lot in this righteoufnefs : Pfalrn xxiv. 3, 4, Who (hail {land iu his holy place ? He that bath clean hands.' And the law is not only in their minds by its light, to drive them to obedience ; as in the cafe of legalifts, who work like (laves; but it is in their heart and affeCtions, difcovering to their fools the beauty of holinefs; and fo drawing thew to all obedience, and canting them to work like foes to a father. Their hearts. are reconciled to the purity of the lo ly law, and they" de­light in it after the inward man,' Rom. vii. 22. and would fain reach a full conformity unto it, faying frem the heart, • 0 that Any ways were direaed to keep- thy fiatutes !' Pfalrn cxix. 5.

Secondly, To unfold that righteoufnefs, the fulfilling of which was made the condition of the Covenant of grace, we fhall- view it in the feveral parts thereof. That righ­teoufnefs, forafrnuch as it was to be fulfilled in the room

78 The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. . Head 3.

and head of (inners, was and muff be hated from the law or broken covenant of works, which they were lying un­der : fOr the law, or broken covenant of- works, was fo far from being negle&ed in The new bargain, that what­foever it had to charge upon, or demand.of the parties contratied for in the new covenant; was fummed up, and let chwn therein, to be fully cleared by Chriff their furety contrading for them. Now, hating that • righteoufnefs from thence, it will be found to confill of three parts, Making fo many conditionary articles of the covenant of grace ; to wit, holinefs of nature, righteoufnefs of life, , and fatisfaelion for Of the which in order.


Holinefi of Nature._


HE law'required. holinefs of nature as- a ronclitior•: of life, inafmuch as condemning original fin faying,. Thou (halt not covet, it -concluded all men to be by nature children of wrath. For God being effentially holy, holy. by neceflity of nature, nothing -can be fo contrary to God . as an unholy nature ; becaufe, howbeit perfons, or things of a like nature, may be contrary in Come points, yet-they can never be fo contrary one to another, as thofe of quite .oppolite• natures. But the parties contraeted for in the covenant •of grace, having their nature wholly corrupted, , and being incapable to purify it, or male their heart clean, . Prov. xx. 9. it is evident; they mold by no means anfwer this demand of•the law by themfelves, . Wherefore, for -the fatisfaetion of the raw in this point, it was fettled as a conditionary article Of the covenant of grace, " That.

Chriff, the fecond Adam, reprefenting them, fhould be­" a man of a perfeetly holy, pure, and untainted nature, " fully anfwering for thetn the holinefs and perfection of

naturerequired by the law." For fuch a‘n high-prieft'

became us,-who is holy, harmlefs, undefiled, feparate' from (inners,' Heb. vii. 26. And this article contains. two clanks .

r. " That be, as the fecond Adam, fhould be conceiv--

ed and born holy,. for and inffead of them corrupted in " their nature, conceived and born in -ha." There. was,


The eonditionary Part of the Covenant. 79

a4ibly nature given to Adam, as the root of mankind, to 1k by him kept and tranfmitted to his poflerity, in the way of natural generation. And upon this ground the kw requires all men to be born holy, pronouncing them unclean, and children of wrath, in the contrary event, Job :iv. 4. Eph. ii. But how could this demand be anfwered by finners ? They are born in fin : They cannot enter a­gain into their mother's womb, and be born a fecopd time) without fin. . No, they cannot: yet the law will not beat of that demand for life, Wherefore it was pr3vided, that Chriit, as a public perfon, reprefenting his fpiritual feed, fhould be born perfeetly holy; that, whereas they brought a finful corrupt nature into the world with them, he fhould bring a holy human nature into the world with him. And fo he was the laft Adam, i Cor. xv. 45, holy and undefiled, Heb. vii. z6. that holy thing born,' Luke i. 35. And the effect thereof, with refpe6t to that law-de­mand for life, is, that all- believers -are, in law.reckoning; barn holy in the fecond Adam, even as they were created holy in the firft Adam. HenCe they are esprefsly laid to be circumcifid in him, Col. ii. i t. which plainly prefuppofeth their being born in hith. And it is in virtue of their being legally born holy in Chrift, when he was born, that, being united to him in the time of loves, they are really born again, and at length perfet-ted; even as in virtue of their being legally defiled in Adam, when lie finned, they are actually and really defiled in their own perfons coming into the world: the holy nature being aElually communi­cated to them from Chrift their fpiritual head, in whom they were legally born holy; even as the corruption of nature is atinally conveyed to them from Adam, their na­tural bead, in whom they finned in law-reckoning.

2. The other claufe is, " That Chrift, as the fecond " Adam, fhould retain the holinefs of nature inviolate-un­" to the end, for them, and in their name." The law, or covenant of works, required as a condition of life, that the holinefs of nature given to mankind in Adam, fhould be preferred pure and incorrupt. But it was loll: and put the cafe, that it had been reftored, they, could not have retained it, in their own perfons, unstained, amicIft in many fnares. Wherefore, tot fatisfy the law demand in

So The Parts of the Covetwat of Graz?. Head 3.

this point, it was provided, that in the man Chrift, as a _ public perfon reprefentative of his feed, their nature fhould be kept perfectly holy unto the end, Without the lea& Rain or defilement; Jfa. xlii. 4. He ' (hail hot fail; or,

he flail not wax dim• or wrinkle,' as the (kin cloth when the .moifture is exhaufted. Therein the firft Adam failed. He (hone in purity of nature, as he came from the Creator's hand: but he failed, he waxed dim; the holinefs of his na. ture being exhaufted by fin, all mankind in him loft their fpiritual beauty, and wrinkled. But now that the fecond A.. darn failed not, but prefervedthe holinefsof human nature in him untlained, not in the leaft darkened even to the end of his life; the retnains of the corruption of nature in believ­ers are not imputed to them Rom. iv. 8. but as defiled as they are in thernfelves, through thole remains cleaving-t to them, yet in Chrift their beauty is frefh, and not mar‑

red in the leaft according to that, Cant. iv. 7. 4 Thou art _„ • • all fair, my love, there is no fpot in thee.'



HIS alfo the law infilled upon asa condition of life ; acid juttly: for God gave to Adam, and all man. Calls kind in him, a law to be obeyed in all points; not only

in virtue of the tie of natural duty, but in virtue of the bond j of a covenant for life; but it was never fulfilled by them.

The firft Adam began ildeed the courfe of obedience; but z - be quickly fell off from it, with all his natural feed in him. Now, it being incontinent with the honour of the law, that

the prize, to wit, eternal life, flion/d be obtained, without the race was run: it fill infitted, faying, ' If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.' Match. xix. t7. Howbeit, we were weak, movelefs, without ftrength for running that race. Wherefore it was fettled, as another conditionary article of the covenant 4‘ That Chrift as a ss public perfon, reprefenting thole he contra&ed for, fhould es begin and perfeet the courfe of obedience to the law, in es righteoufnefs of life.' And accordingly he lecame

kedient unto death, Philip. ii. 8.

The law, which was the rule of this obedience- exalted' --••Galoonolowr‑

The traditionary Part of the Covenant. St

of him, was the fame law of the ten commands that was'', given to Adam, and binding on us as under it ; for be was $ made under the law, to redeem them That were un­der the law,' Gal. iv. 4, 5. It extended to all divine in­ffitutions which the fecond Adam found in being, whether, obliging men, as men, or as members of the church of God on earth ; even as the rule of the &ft Adam's obedience extended to the pofitive law touching the forbidden fruit, which was in being when he was fet to fulfil his covenant obedience.

That we may the more diftinaly comprehend this arti­cle, it may be obferved to bear thefe three things follow.. ing

,‘ That he, as the fecond Adam, fhould obey the ,f whole law, in the name of thofe e reprefented." This was a debt owing by them all ; and was required of them by the law, as a condition of life : Gal. iii. to. Curfid‑

4 it every one that continueth not in all things which are writ­ten in the book of the law to do them. But the anfwering "of this demand was quite beyond their reach. Man, by the fail, having loft much of his knowledge of the law, had loft fight of many of the duties required therein ; how­beit, ignorance of the law excufed no man. His heart was‑

h envie to enmity againft the law, Rom. viii. 7. And he

p was without firength to perform the duties then required of him,- chap. v. 6. So that by reafon of ignorance, aver- Lon, and impotency in that matter, the•obedience of the whole law was not to be had from them. Wherefore it was provided, that Chrift, as, their reprefentative, fhould

" give obedience to the whole law for them; that both ta­bles of the law, and each command of each table, fhould have due obedience from him ; that the law being laid before him in its fpirittrality and full extent, he fhould fully aofwer it, internal and external obedience, in his. mind, will, and affections, in thought, word, and deed ; that he fhould conform himfelf to the whole natural law, and to all divine inftitutions,-ceremonial or political, fo as to be circumcifed, keep the paffover, to be baptized, to be_ a fervant of or fubje‘ct to rulers, pay tribute to whom it was due, and the like : In one word, that he fhould per­form the whole will of God, fignified in his law s..1 th,":

ett• ,The Para of the Covettant of Grace. Head 3.

with the afety of the law's honour, his people might have life.. What the &It Adam failed in, the fecond Adam was to do. And this I take to be reprefented unto us, in the cafe of the firft and fecond king of Ifrael, to wit, Saul and David, A6taxiii. 22.- I have found David,. the fon of Jeffe, a man after mine own heart, which fhall ful­1 fiLall my will : Gr. all my wills.' In which there is a,-plain view to Saul, who was partial in his obedience to the will of. God, (I Sam. xv.) and upon that fcore loll the 6 kingdom for him and his.

2. " That every part of that obedience fhould be car. ss..ted to the highett pitch and degree." This- the law required of them, as a condition of life; as our Lord him­fel( (hewed unto the lawyer, Luke x. 27. s Thou (halt 6' love the Lord thy Gtel with all thy heart, and with ail, s thy flud, and with all thy firength, and with all thy s mind ; and thy neighbour as thyfelf, Verfe

dt.r, and than (halt live.' But it wawa demand they could never have anfwered, fence Adam had fquandered away their flock of ability, and left them without, firength. They might as loon have reached up their hands to the fun in the firmament, fo far above them, as have attained. eathe perfeEtion of obedience demanded of them by the law. Wherefore it was agreed, that Chritt fhould in their name obey the law in that perfe&ion, being made under the law, as they were under it, Gal. iv. 5.. that every ac. rion of his fhould bear, not only a .goodnefs of the matter,, but of the manner too, and that in perfeetion; that love to God and man fhould flame iu his holy human foul, to the utmost pitch required by the law; and fo that debt owing• by his feed, might be cleared by him,. a6ling as as public man in their name.

3.. Lafily; " That all this fhould be nantinned to the
ts end, without the Initt failure in oue j,,t of parts or de‑
grees of obedience." This alto was a condition of life flat.
a& in the firft. covenant : Gal. iii. to. Curfid is every-one
oho continued, not in all things. which are written iu the hook
0-the Ia. to do them. But it was a demand they could by
no means anfwer ; man's nature being fo vitiated by the
fall; that if a thoufand hells were lying upon it, the bell. on
eoulti-notlaup refettiy right one hour. Wherefore

The mnditionary Part of the Covenant. 'RS

it was agreed, that the fecoud Adam (Imola, in the name of thole.he reprefented, continue in all things written in the law to do them, even to the end ; that he fhould not fail in his begun courle of obedience, but run to the end of the race fet before him ; that from the womb to the grave, his heart and life thould thine in perfeftion of holinefs. All which be did accordingly fulfil, being obedient tints death, Philip. ii. 8. ‑

Satisfaction for Sin.

HE former two were in the condition of Adam's co

versant ; but this was not in it : for while there was no fin, there was no place for fatisfaaion for fin. But the new covenant behoved to be fettled on the condition of a fatisfaaion for fin ; becaufe the broken law or cove­nant of works, infitted for it as a condition of life to fin- _ .ners in virtue of its penalty by them incurred. Howbeit, it was quite beyond their power to anfwer this demand of the law. If then thg Mrdiator will have a feed brought -from the (late of death, into a {late of life and falvation, he.mtta buy them from the hand of juftice, telling down :a price for every foul of them, t Cor. vi. zo. According­ly, all the fins of every one of them, from the fiell fin they lbould be conceived and born in, to the lafI :fin they (hould -empire with, being forefeen of God from eternity, were .fornmed up as fo many breaches of the law or covenant 'of works ;' and it was made another conditionary article of the covenant, That Chrift, as a publio perfon, fhould fatisfy fully and completely for them all :" 6. 'The Lord bath laid. on him the iniquity of us all; compared -with Lev. xvi. a s. All the iniquities of the children of Ifrael,

and all their tranfgreions, in all theirlins.

Now, in this.article, there were three things eflablith‑


Fie], " That Chriff, as a public perfon, fhould fatisfy .it for them by fuffering;" Luke xxiv. 26. Ought not Chrll? to havejnffered ? Sinners were liable to fufferior tlic fatistaelion of jutlice ; and nothing, but fuffering could

accepted as a -compenfation of the injury done by In


The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head 31

the hondur of God, in the vi slating of his holy law. Thoufands of rams, and ten the/ands of rivers of oil were at the Mediator's command ; all the silver and gold, and the precious things of the earth •and feas, were at his dif­pofal : but none of thefe could be of ufe in this bargain ; they were all of no value in a treaty for the redemption of "the, foul, Mic. vi. 6, 7, 8. i Pet. i. 18. • His own fuffer­ing could only avail here. That the Son of God fhould fur-ter, was indeed an amazing propofal ; but it was neceffary in order to fatisfy forour tin. ‑

Secondly, ‘. That he (hould Puffer the fame punifhment rr they fhould have fuffered in virtue of the penalty of the g, broken covenant of works:" and that was death in its full latitude and extent. This appears from the penalty of that covenant, from which the debt of fatisfadion wars Hated, In the day thou &aty! thereof, thou fiali furely die, Gen. ii. 17. compared with Chat's dying for, that is, in the room and 1-lead of boners, io often mentioned in the fcriptures, Rom. v. 8. 2 Cor. v. 14, 15. 1 Theff. v. 1o. And it is confirmed from wh.t the icripture teacheth, that they all, for whom Chrit't died, died in him, 2 Car. v. 14. If one died for all, then ire all dead ; or then they ail died, to wit in him ; even ,,a they finned, and became liable to death, in Adam. S, faith the apoflle, I am crucified with Chrill, Gal. ii.

For clearing of this purpofe, two things are to be di, fiinguithed in that death, which was the penaltrof the covenant of works : 1. What vas effential to it, wrapt up in the very rature of the tl, ng itfelf, called death in the tlyle of that covenant. Ali that may be comprifed in tilde two : ( t .) The corp. (2.) Infinite execution:; the former making the _death L gal, the latter making real and fatisfa6tory. 2. What was accidental to it, a­rising nut from the nature of the , thing in itfelf, but from the nature of the party dying that death. And this is of

two forts (1.) There is tom, arifing from the na‑

ture 4 ng party, as he is a mere creature: fuch as

the punifhinent, and defpair of life. (2.)

-ag from the nat,.re of the dying party, as

ature, or a futi,.61 of inherent fin ; fuch of the faving i,:lation betwixt God and

The conditionary Part of the Covenant. 85

the foul, the diverting it of God's image, and the corrup­tion and diffolution of the body.

Now, the effentials of that death we fhould have fuffer­ed, in virtue of the penalty of the broken covenant of works, were laid, as a part of the condition of the covenant of grace, on Jefus Chria, to be fuffered by him for 'us. For he was made a curie for us, Gal. I/1. 13. and gave himfelffor as, an offering and a facrifce to God for a fweetfinelling favour, Eph. v. 2. that is, a sacrifice equalling the infinite offence arifing from our fin ; whence he is faid, hy one offering to have perfeaed for ever them that are fiadVed, Heb. x. 14. But the accidentals of that death were no part of the con­dition of the covenant laid on him: nor could they at all have place in him : fince he was neither a fubjett of inhe­rent fin, nor yet a mere creature. Neverthelefs, it was Rill the fame death that we fhould have fuffered ; forafmuch as the effentials were the fame. Thus the bodies of the faints, which are no* weak and corruptible, (hall at the refurreftion be powerful and incorruptible, yet ft ill the fame bodies; fince thefe qualities are but acciden­tal to a human body. So in the cafe of clearing debt, though the borrower could not pay it, but in a great quantity of copper- money, and that advanced by little and little for a long time ; which withal would ruin him ; yeta, if his rich eantioner fhould pay all at once, in a little gold, it is evident, it would be the payment of the fame debt, providing only that it fully equalled the fum borrowed. Nay, confining our view to death itfelf, which is the ge­neral proper notion of the thing in queition,Jet us put the cafe, that two men, equally guilty of the fame crime, are laid under one and the fame fentence of death, and it is executed on them both ; but the one is by a miracle raifed to life again, and the other lies and tots in the grave. It is evident in this cafe, that the death they died, is the fame death, anfwering the very fame eftirnate which the law made of the crime ; and that therefore the death of the former fatisfies the law, as well as the death of the latter, fo that it cannot reach his life again for that crime: hbw­beit, it is no lefa evident, that there is a huge difference between the death of the -one and of the other, accidentals, particularly in the duration or continuai‑


86 The Parts of the Covenant of Craee. Head 3.

of it: Wherefore, we concrude, that as Chriff gave thh fame active obedience to the law which we fhould have given in virtue of the condition of the covenant of works ; fo he fuffereil the fame punithment of death that we fhould have fuffered'in virtue of the penalty of that broken cove­nant : forafmuch as whatever difference there 'was in acci­dentals, the effeotials were the fame ;,jt being laid on him, in the new covenant, to fuffer death for us, equalling the infinite offence writing from our finis, being fully proportion­ate to •the eftimate the law'add juftice of God had made of our crime.

And thus, according to what is faid, two grand pointd were eftahlifhed in the conditionary part of the covenant.

a. " That the curie of the law due to us for due fin, " fhould be transferred on him as'the fecond Adam, our " reprefentative : whereby he thould inftantly be a man " dead in law for his feed." Either he or they behoved to bear the curie : for it is written, Curled is every one that continueth not in all things written in the law. Since God had annexed the threatening of death to his &ft covenant, laying, In the day that thou eateji thereof, thoufhaltfurely die: the truth of God fecored the curie its taking place, as loon as fin fhould enter. Now, they were not able to bear it without being ruined thereby. But that it might be borne,and they withal Caved, it was provided, that he thould be laid under it, in their room and Read; that as he was made fin for them, fo he fhould alto, in confequence there­of, be made a carte for them,'Gal. iii. 13,

The curie is the fentence of the broken law paired upon a perfon, binding him over to the revenging wrath of God, to the full fatisfaetion of juitice. So that awful and tre-- mendous mytlery lies here, Chrift niuft Eland before the tribunal of the holy law, as a finner ; anfwerable for all the fins of all the ele8, by virtue of his bond of furetifhip, regifirate in the records of heaven : and fentence muff pars upon him, adjudging and binding him over to fuffer all that revenging wrath which thefe fins deferved. The Lardb-of God, faith, Lo, I come : fo it was done, he was made a carte for mr. I In token hereof, being ccnvened be­fore the Jewifh Saohedrirti, he was judged a blafphemer, and worthy of death : and compearing before Pilate the

The conditionary Part of the Covenant. 87

Roman governor, he was by him fentenced to die, and that upon the croft'.

Behold the ftupendoui refult of this awful tranfaElion, the transferring of the curie on Chrift the fecond Adam : t. Hereby he was made the feparated one of the elect fo­ciety, feparated unto evil, as the immediate effea of the curie is defcribed, Deut. xxix. 21. He was made the de-voted head, devoted to pay for all the reft. He was fet up as the mark againft which aM the arrows of avenging wrath fhould be aimed. He was appointed to be the com­mon re•eptacle of all the floods of vengeance, iffuing from incenfed juftice towards the whole body of the elcet, to fwallow them up: here the current of all thefe was turned, that they fhould together flow in upon him. Hence he cries, Pfahn Isix. 2. I am come into deep waters, where the floods °yellow me. 2. Hereby he became the refting place of revenging juftice where it was to wy, till it fhould be fatisfied to the full ; Ifa. la t o. Thou Alit make his foul an offering forfitz. In token hereof, when the officers came to apprehend him, he faith, If ye feek me, let theft go their way. Plaice leaves the chace of Hie rebel multi- tude, Peeks him anti him only ; firce he was made a curf for them. Thus was he defigned to, be the facrifice for all his feed, which the fire of revenging wrath fhould burn up, till it fent forth a fweet-fmellin, favour, a favour of reft to the incenfed juftice of an offended God.

2. Another grand point eftabliffied here, was, " That " the curie transferred on him, fhould be infinitely executed 44 upon him as the fecond Adam, our reprefentative-; di whereby he should die really. for his feed ; to the full a compenfation of all the injuries done to the honour of a an infinite God, by'all their fins." Vain is that curfe which takes not effed : but as the curie of the holy law was not caufelefs, fa it could not mils of coming on, in its infinite weight, for the fatisfaEtion of juftice. Now, had it come fo on them, they would have been eternally fat is­fying, bus could never have ended their fatisfaEtion. But coming on him, the church of God was pat-chafed with his own blood, Atis xx. 28. and the blood of:7efus Chriji his Son cleanfeth us from all fn, t John i. 7. the infinite digni­ty of the perfon dying, making the execution of the cur -


88 The Parts of the Covenant of Grate. Head 3.

on him unto death to be infinite in value, fully compen­rating the infinite wrong, according to the ultimate made of it by law and juftice.

And here it was fettled and, agreed, " That the curie 04 fhould be executed on the whole man," that being their due : and therefore that he fhould hecome poor, and not to have where to lay his head : that he fhould fuller hunger, for want of meat ; third for want of drink ; that his name and reputation fhould be funk, loaded with vile re­proaches and Handers ; his very friends going about to lay hands on him as a madman : that he fhould be accounted a worm, and no man ; a reproach of men, and defpifed of the people : his whole lot in the world afilieted, perfecuted, and exceeding low : and that in end, being (tripped of his garü ments, he fhould be hung up naked before the fun, between two malefaaors, as if the worft of the three.

More particularly, here it was flipulated and agreed to,

714 " That the curfe (hould be executed on his bleffed •• body ;" forafmuch as their bodies were liable to it, as being indruments of fin and difhonour to God ; that it fhould be hanged on a tree, that all the world might there­in read the anger of God againd the breaking of the fir& covenant, by eating of the forbidden tree : and his being made a curfe for us, fince it was written,Cudiclis every one that bangeth on a tree; that the curfe fhould go over and death pafs through every part of that bided body ; that his head (hould be difgracefully wounded with a crown of

thorns put upon it : his vifage marred more than any man; his back given to the fmiters ; his cheeks to them

that plucked off the hair ; his face not hid from flume

and (pitting; his tongue made to cleave to his jaws ; his

hands and feet pierced ; nailed to a croft ; all his bones

drawn out of joint ; his heart like wax melted in the I midft of his bowels ; his blood fhed ; his ftrength dried

uP and that in end it fhould expire and die, befeparate

from hie foul, pierced with a (pear, and laid in the dud of


3d/y, Tr, fhould be executed on his holy foul, in

" a fpeci

forafmuch as their fouls were the principal

that he (hould undergo the wrath "Cud i. 1 along his life a man of forrOws)

The conditionary Part of the Covenant. 89

and acquaiated with grief; and that towar.'s the latter end, there th.uld be au hour and ,power of darineff, wherein the malice of men, the power and rage of devils thould be joint­ly engaged againft him, making their utmoft eff.irts on him ; and then the full floods of Heiven's revenging wrath thould come rolling in upon his foul; that they fhould fo overflow it, as to ttrike him with fore amazement, fill him with trouble, load him withleavinefs, and overwhelm hint with exceeding furrow ; that there thou:d be fuch a pref­lure of divine wrath on his holy foul, as fhould put him into an agony even to his fweating great drop of Llood : and,fhould bring over it a t,,tal eclipfe of comfort, and as it were melt it within him ; that fo, while he was dying a bodily death on the crofs, he might die alfo a fpiritual death, fuch as a mull pure and holy foul was capable of.

Here was the death determined in the covenant, for the fecond Adam our reprefentative : a death in virtue of the curie transferred on him, long kiting and exquifite, for the full fatisfaetion of revenging juftice. ( t.) It was long lafting death. He was a-dying, in the flyle of the co­venant of works, not only upon the crofs, but all along the time of his life ; the death that was the penalty of that covenant, working in him from the womb, till it laid him -in the grave. Wherefore he behoved to be conceiv­ed of a woman of a low eftate; and born in the (table of an inn, no room for him in the inn itfelf; laid in a manger, no cradle to receive him ; his infant bloodflied in circum­eition, as if he had been a (inner: yea his infant life fought by a cruel perfecutor, and his mother obliged to run her country with him, and go to Egypt. Returiiii,g, he be­hoved to live an obfcure life, in an obfcure place, from which nothing,great nor good was•expeEled, Juhn i. 46. and,scoming out of his obieurity, to be fa up as the ob- • jed of the world's ill will and fpite, obloquy and maltreat­ment, till by the hands of the Jew and Gentile he was pot to death on the crofs. (2.) It was an exquirite death. No pity, no fparing in it : but the curfe carried to the higheft pitch. No fparing fsom an angry God-, Rum. viii. 32. No fparing from wicked men let lode on him, pufhing him like bulls, roaring on him and devouring L;in like lions, and renting him like dogs, when Once their


I3 3 .

90 The Part, of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3.

and power of darknefs was come, Kam. xii. x z, 13, 16. Not a good word (spoken to him in the midft of his tor­ments, by thole that flood by; but he cruelly mocked and infulted in them : much lefs a good deed done him. Not a drink of water allowed him, but vinegar offered him in his thirfi, caufed thro' the fire of divine wrath drinking up his fpirits and moifture. Nay, the very face of the heavens was lowring on him ; the fon molt not give him its light, but wrapt up itfelf from him in darknefs; becaufe light is Tweet, and it is a pleafant thing to behold the fun.

LeOly, In this article it was eflablilhed, " That he

fhould fuffer all this voluntarily, fubmiflively, and refign.

edly, out of regard to the wronged honour of God."

Accordingly (peaking of his life, he faith, No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of tnyfelf, John x. 18. com­pare Pfalm eel. 6, T, 8. This the law demanded of them whom he (offered far, condemning all murmuring and im. patience, and binding them to obedience and (offering coniunaly. But how could they have fo borne the load of revenging wrath, who cannot bear a (harp fit of the gout or gravel, without fom5 degree of impatience in the eye of the holy law ? Wherefore it was provided, That Chrift, as their reprefentative, fhould bear their punithment volun-, tarily, and with perfea patience and retignation that he fhould go al a Iamb to the fiaughter, quietly refigning his -human will to the divine will ; and make his obedience in his fufferings, as confpicuous as his (offerings themfelves : that, in micHt of the extremity of his torment, he fhould not entertain the leaft unbecoming thought of God, but acknowledge him holy in them all, Pfalm xxii. 3. nor yet the leaft grudge againft his murderers ; in token of which he prayed fur them while he was on the crofs, faying,

Father, forgive them ; for they know not what they do;

Luke xxiii. 34.

—Thus far of the conditionary articles.

INFERENCES from the conditionary Part of the


Thus, as we have fhown, flood the important condition of the covenant of grace ; and from thence the following inferences are fairly deducible.

//f. 1. The redemption of the foul is precious : Is it

Inf. from the eontlitionary Part of the Can. 91

sot? Look to the price of the purchafe, the ranfom of fouls, as flated in the covenant : the holy birth, righteous life, and fatisfaaory death of the Son of God ; and ye muff conclude it to be a edify redemption. Turn hither your eyes, (1.) Ye who value not your own fouls. See here the worth of thofe fouls ye fell for a thing of nought, for fatisfying a corrupt paffion, a pang of tuft of one fort or a­nother. Coftly watt the gathering of what ye thus throw away. Ye let them go at a very low price ; but Guilt could not have one of them'at the hand of juftice, but at the price of his precious blood. Ye cannot forego the va­nities of a prefent world for them, nor fpend a ferious day or hour about them : but be, after a life-time of forrows, underwent a moft bitter death for them. What think ye ? Was he inconfiderate and too liberal in his making fuch a bargain for the redemption of fouls ? He was infinitely juff, who propofed the condition ; and he was infinitely wife, who went into it. He was a Father that exalted this ranfom for fouls; and he was his own Son that paid it. Be afhamed and blufh, to make fo low an eflimate of thofe fouls, which }leaven fet fuch a high price on. ' (2.) Ye who have cheap thoughts of the pardon of fin, and of falvation, cdrrea your miaake here. You fearlefsly run on in fin, thinking all may foon be fet to rights again, with a God forgive me, have mercy on my foul; fo as you may leap out of Delilah's lap into Abraham's bofom. 0 fear­ful infatuation ! Is the mean and low birth, the forrowfut life, and the bitter death of Jefus the Son of Cod, not fufficient to give men a juft and honourable notion of the pardon of fin ? Look into the condition of the covenant for pardon, written in the blood of the Lamb of God, and learn the value a jolt God puts upon his pardons and falva­tion. See, 0 (inner, that it is not words, but deeds ; not promifes and refolves to do better, but perfection of holi­nefe and obedience ; not drawing of fighs and fhedding 6f tears, but fhedding of blood ; and not thy blood neither, but blood of infinite value, that could procure the pardon of fin, and falvation. And if thou have not upon thee by faith all that righteoufnefs Chrifl fulfilled, to be prefented unto God for a pardon, thou (halt never obtain it. Par­ticularly, ye arc apt to think light of the fin ye were bore

02 ,The Parts etke Covenant of Grace. Head 3.

in, and the c wroption eleavingto your nature; -but know that God does I,ot think light of there. It behoved to be an article of the covenant, that Chrift fltmld be born holy, and retain the holinefs of human nature in him to the end ; elk the unholy birth and corrupt nature we derive from Adam, would have flaked us all down eternally under the curie. (3.) Ye that have mean thoughts of. the holy law, rectify your dangerous mistake by the help of this Oafs. Ye make no binds of tranfgreffing its commands ; ye rte.. gleel and defpife its curie : as it is a law, ye Phew not fo much regard to it as to the laws of men : and as it is a covenant, ye look upon it as out of date, being in no eonk­cern how it may be fatisfied for you. And (hall the ho­nour of the holy law lie in the duff, in your cafe ? Rather than it fhould fo lie in the cafe of Sodom and Gomorrah, God would have them laid in allies with fire and brim-none. Yea, for vindicating the honour of the law, this wh.,le world (hall be burnt to afhes, and all the unholy caft out from the prefence of the Lord for ever. And in the cafe of then that are faved, God would have the curie of the law executed upon his own Son, as their furety, and the commands of it perfe&ly obeyed in all points by him in their name. Sure if you are poirdred of any (hare here­in, it will be great and honourable in your fight, as it is in the fight of God.

Inf. 2. The law is no lofer, in that life and falvation are bellowed on believers in Chrift. It is fo far from being made void through faith, that it is eftabli(hed thereby as the apoille witneffeth, Rom. iii. 31. God would never dif­penfe his pardons at the expence of the honour of his law ; nor declare one righteous, without the righteoufnili of the la 7U being fulfilled, either by him, or in him by another, Rom. viii. 4. Wherefore life and falvation being deigned for the cle61, the law's whole accounts of all it had to charge on them for life, were taken ill ; and an infallible method was laid down for clearing them, the burden of the payment being transferred on Chrill their furety. By this exchange of perfons the law had no lots. Nay, it was more for tbc

Jur of the law, that he was made under it, and fatisfi.

, in virtue of the claim it had upon him by the fecund

•; than if they, being mere creatures, had fatisfied

Inf. from the contittionary Part of the Coy. 1 93 it in all points. But the truth is, they being finners, could never by any means have fully fatisfied it ; though it had eternally purfued them and ezasfted of them, it would ne­ver have had enough from them ; whereas now, by Chrift's taking their debt on him, it was paid to the utmoft far­thing.

Inf. 3. Faith hath a broad and firm bottom to (land on before the Lord. The believer bath a ftrong plea for life and falvation, which cannot mifcarry; namely, the condi­tion of the covenant fulfilled by Jefus Chrift, even all righ­teorfnefs: Having therefore, brethren, boldnefi to enter int. the holm by the blood of Jefus—let us draw near with • true heart in full afurance of faith, Heb. x. 19,-21. The broken boards of uncovenanted mercy, and men's own works, which prefumption fixeth upon, cannot but fail, fince the law admits no life for a finner on thee grounds. But forafmuch as there is a gift of Chrift and his righ­teoufnefs proclaimed in the gofpel by- the authority of hea­ven, he who by faith receiveth that gift, and makes the fame his only plea before the Lord, cannot mite of falva­tion; Rom. v. 17.' They which receive (Gr. the) abun­dance of grace, and of the gift of righteoufnefs, (hall reign in life by one, Jefus Chrift where the abundance mentioned, relates not to different degrees of the grace or gift, but to the offence, as appears from ver. 20. As if he bad faid, a Who receive the grace and gift of righte­" oufnefs which abound beyond Adam's offence, faving

them out of the gulf of ruin it plunged them into." Vaith uniting a firmer to Chrift the bead of the fecond co­venant, makes him partaker of Chrift's righteoufnefs, as really as ever his covenant•relation to Adam made him partaker of his guilt. So having all that Chrift was, did Dr fuffered, for fulfilling the condition of the fecond cove. nant, to plead for life and falvation, it is not poffible the claim can mifcarry; juftice as well as mercy befriending the plea of faith, as a righteous thing with God, 2 Their. i. 6, 7.

Inf. 4. Laftly, All who are in Chrift the head of the.co­venant of grace, and fo brought into it perfonally, are in­herently righteous, or holy. For likeas though Adam a­lone did perfonally break the firft covenant by the all‑

94 The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3

ruining offence, yet they to whom his guilt is imputed do thereupon become inherently finful, through the corrup­tion of nature conveyed to them from him: fo howbeit Christ alone did perform the condition of the fecond cove­nant yet thofe to whom his righteoufnefs is imputed, do thereupon become inherently righteous, through inherent grace communicated to them from him by the Spirit. So teacheth the apofile in the foreeited paffage, Rom, v. 17. 6 For if by one man's offence, death reigned.by sine; much • more they which receive the abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteoufnefs, (hall reign in life by one, Jefus Chritt.' How did death reign by Adam's offence? Not only in point of guilt, whereby his pofterity were bound over to dettruftiou; but ale) in point of their being dead to all good, dead in trefpaffes and fins; therefore the receiv­ers of gift of righteoufnefs mutt thereby be brought to reign in life, not only legally in jullification, but alfia morally in fanaification begun here, and perfeaed here­after.

Accordingly, anfwerable to the three parts of the con­dition of the covenant of grace, undertaken and performed by the fecond Adam, to wit, holinefic of nature, rightiouf: nefs of life, and fatifiaion forfin ; there are three charaeteri to be found in all capable fubjeas, who, being perfonally brought into the covenant, have the righteoufnefs ofChrift upon them, and imputed to them.

Char. 1. They are all born again, and fo lina,'e partakers Of a new and holy nature: 2 Cor. v. 17. Therefore (name­ly, lance he died for all, verfe is.) if any Man be in Chrif, he it a new creature. Chrift's being born holy, feeured a

nrw.birth to them in him: fo they are all new crea‑

,, din Chri,1 Jefus unto good works, Eph. ii. to.

Chrift, as fore as they were marred in A..

how can it be otherwife? Can a man be in‑

ie true vine, and not partake of the fap and

flock, that is, the Spirit and grace of Cita?

If any man have not the Spirit of Chryl, he it

Ro . viii. 9. Or, can the Spirit and grace of

in d yet no change made on their nature,

renewed? No, indeed: If Chrill be in

becaufe offin : bat the fpitit is life, be•.


Inf. from the tonditionary Part of the Cm.

taufe of righteoufnefs, ver. to. Confider this ye who pre­tend to rely on the righteoufnefs. of Chrift, but are very eafy'in this point, whether ye are born again or not; whe­ther there is a holy nature derived from Chrift to you or not. Believe it, Sirs, if it be not fo, ye have no Paving in­tereft, part, nor lot in Chrift's righteoufnefs. Ye may on as good grounds pretend, that howbeit the guilt of Adans'S fin was imputed to you, yet there was no corrupt nature derived from him to you ; as pretend that Chriirs righte­ninth is imputed to you, while yet ye are not born again, your nature is not changed, by the communication of fanc­tifying grace from Chrift, unto you. Deceive not your­felves ; ye muff be regenerate, dfe ye will perifh; for ex‑

cept a man be born again, he cannot fee the kingom of 4 God,' John iii. 3.

Char. 2. They are all righteous and holy in their lives: Ifa. lx. 2. Thy people alto flail be all righteous. Chap. tail. 12. And theyfball calbthem the holy people. How did ungodlinefs, unrighteoufnefs; and profanity enter into the world, the which are now overflowing all its banks F Was it not by one man, by Adam's fin, which is imputed to all mankind ! Rom. v. 12. Then be fore, if the fecond A­dam's righteoufnefs be imputed to you, holinefs of life will come along with it : t Cor. vi. 11. But ye are wathed,hut ye ore fanaified, but ye are jullifled. Does fanelification then go before jollification ? No: but it bath a neceffary de. pendence on jollification, and evidenceth it to the world, and to one's own confcience. Unjuftified, unfanaified ; and unfaiielified, unjuftified. Did our bleffed Saviour come into the, world, and in our nature lead a holy righteous life, that men might live as they lift ? Nay, quite the con­trary ; even tfiat we being delivered out of the hands of

our enemies, might ferve him without fear, in holinefs

and righteoufnefs before him, all the days of our life,' Luke i. 74, 75. If then Chrift lived for you, affuredly ye %hall live for him. Confider this, ye who are far from righteoufnefs of life, living in the neglect of the duties ei• ther of the firft or fecund table, or both. Your ungodly and unrighteous life declares you to bt. in your fins, under the curie, and far from righteoufnefs imputed. There is

indeed a righteoufnefs of Chrift ; but alas ! it is not upon

96 The Part, of the Covenant of Grate. , Head g.

you ; ye are naked for all it, and Rand expofed to reveng-, ing wrath.

. Char. 3. The old man is crucified in them all : Gal. v.

24. ' They that are Chrift's have crucified the fiefh, with I the affeetions and lulls.' Therefore I fay to you in the words of the apoftle, Rom. viii. 13. ' If ye live after the 6 fiefh, ye (hall die ; but if ye through the Spirit do morti. 6 fy the deeds of the body, ye (hall live. When our Savi­our hung on the crofs, he hung there as a reprefentative of all that are his, with all their fins on him by imputation, that the body of fin might be delroyed in hie fujiringe for it, Rom. vi. 6. He hung there as the efficient meritorious caufe of their mortification, that by hia death he might deftroy the power of death in them : which appears not in any thing more, than in living lulls preying on their fouls: Hof. xiii. 14. I will redeem them from death : 0 death, I will be thy plagues. See Tit. ii. 14. Rom. vi. 6, 7. Eph. v. 25, 26. And he hung there as the exemplary caufe of their mortification ; fo that all who are his, and have fin­ned after the , fimilitude of Adam's tranfgreffion,' are like. wife crucified and die to fin, after the fimilitude of his cru­cifixion and death ; being g crucified with him, Gal. ii. 6 20. planted together (with him) in the likenefs of his 6 death, Rom. vi. S. the fellowfhip of his fufferinga making 6 them conformable unto his death,' Philip. iii. fo. Will ye then live after the fiefh, not wren:1g again% but ful­filling the lofts thereof, living in fin, and to fin, inftead of being mortified to it; and yet pretend that the fatisfaCtion of Chrift is imputed to you for righteoufnefs ? Truly you may, on as good grounds, fay, that the blood of Chrift lied for you, hath proven ineffedual ; and that he bath fo ,r_ miffed of his aim and defign in fuffering for you ; or ::at he died for you, that you might live in your fin with. lit danger. Thefe would make a blafphemous profeflion. Accordingly, your prefumptuous finful life and praetice is a courfe of praCtical blafphemy againft the Son of God, [flaking him the miniller of fin ; and evidenceth your pre- tenfio imputation of his fatisfaCtion to be altoge. then


3-, of a truth, if ye have any Paving intereft in P of Chrift, your 6 old man is crucified with

• PIT. from the eonditionary Part of the Cott. 97

• him, Rom. vi. 6. and ye are dead with him,' ver. 8. dead with him to fin, to the world, and to the law.

' (1.) If ye have a faving, intereft in Chrift'sscleath, ye are dead with him to fin : Rom. vi. a o. 6 In that he died, 4 he died unto fin once. Ver. a a. Likewife reckon ye alto yourfelves to be dead unto fin.' While our Lord Jefus lived in the world, the 'fins of all the de& as to the guilt of them, hung about him, and made him a man of forrows all along ; when he was upon the crofs they wrought upon him most furioufly, flinging him to the very foul, till they killed him, and got him laid in the grave. Then they had done their utmost againft him, they could do no more. So dying for fin, he died unto it, he was delivered from it : and in his refurre6tion he (hook them all off, as Paul (hook the viper cff his hand into the fire, and felt no harm ;' riling out of the grave, even as he will appear the fecond time, without in. Wherefore, if ye do indeed know the fellowfhip of his fufferings,' if you really have fellowfhip with him in them, death will have made its way from Christ, the head, unto you as his members ; his death unto fin can­not mils to work your death unto it alto. If you are dead indeed with Chrift, as ingrafted into him, fin hath got its• death's wounds in you ; the bond that knit your hearts and your hafts together, is loofed ; and ye (hall be shaking off

the viperous brood of them into the fire, in the daily prat.tice of mortification. But if ye are not dead, but Rill

Mg unto fin, it is an infallible evidence ye are none of the members of Chrift : Rom. vi. 2. 0 How shall we that are dead to fin, live any longer therein ? Ver. 3. Know ye 6 not, that fo many of us as were baptized into Jefus Chriff, were baptized into bis death ?'

(2.) If ye have a faving intereft in Ch•ia's death, ye are dead with him to the world.; Col. iii. If ye them be rifer with Chrift, feek thole things which are above. Ver. 3. For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Chrift in God.' The world hated him, and ufed him very un­kindly while he was in it ; and when he died, he parted with it for good and all. John xvii. a a. Now I am no more in the world.—I come to thee.' Ile quietest lodg. ing that ever the world allov.td him in it, was a grave: and coming out from thence, he never fl:pt another ni6ht in it.

9$ The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3.

He tarried indeed forty days in it after that : as many days as the Ifraclites did years in the wildernefs ; the former an exemplar, the latter a type of the Chriftian life, from con, verfion till the removal into the other world ; neverthelefs, be was dead to the world (till, he converted now and then with bis own, but no more with the world. Now, if ye are his, ye are dead with him unto the world too, in virtue of his death, being crucified unto it, Gal. vi. r4. Union with Chrift by faith lays finners down in death, in Chrift's grave, and fo teparates between them and the world for e­ver and withal it raifeth them up again with Chrift unto a quite new manner of life: no more that manner of life which they lived before their union with him, than that which Chrift lived after his refurreetion, was the manner of . life he lived before his death: Rom. vi. 4. 1 We are buried 4 with him by baptifm unto death ; that like as Chritt was railed up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even

fo we alto (hould walk in newnefs of life.' If your title

to heaven is indeed fettled, by your receiving the atone, ment, now is your forty days before your afeenfion into it ; now are ye no more of the world, although ye be it ; your treafure and heart are no more there. Ye are no more indwellers in it as natives ; but travelling through it as ftrangers, coming up from the wildernefs leaning on 4 the beloved,' Cant. viii. 5.

(3.) Laflly, If ye have a faxing intereft in Chr.ift's death, ye are dead with him to-the law alto : Gal. ii.

I through the law am dead to the law. Ver 20. 1 am

6 crucified with Chrift.' Our Lord Jefus took on our na­ture to tatisfy the law therein : the whole courfe of hilt life was a courfe of obedience to it, for life and falvation. to us ; and he Coffered to fdtisfy it in what of that kind it bad to demand, for that effeet : in a word, he was burn to the law, he lived to the law, and he died to the law:, namely, for to clear accounts with it, to fatisfy it ful­ly, and get life and falvation for us with its good leave. He was made under the law, to redeem them that .mere under the law, Gal. iv. 4, 5. And when once it fell upon him, it never left exaEting of him, till it had got the lama farthing, and he was rpt.te free with it, as dead to it, Rom. vii. 4. In token •whereof he got up the bond,


Inf. from the eonceionary Part ofdm Coy. 99

blotted it out, yea rent it in pieces, nailed it to his crlir, Col. ii. 14. Now, Chrift became dead to it, dying to it in his death on the crofs ; fo that the holinefs and righteouf­nefs of the man Chrift did thereafter no more run in the channel in which it had run before, namely, from the womb to his grave ; that is to fay, it was no more, and Qsall be no more for ever, obedience performed to the law for life and falvation ; -thefe having been completely-gain­ed and fecured by the obedience be gave it from the womb to the grave. 4 Wherefore, my brethren, if ye are his, ye I alfo are become dead to the law by the body of Chrill,' which became dead to it on the crofs, Rom. vii. 4. As ye will not be Libertines in your life and praElice, being dead to fin and the world with Chrift ; fo ye will not be Legalifts in your life and pra&ice neither, being alfo dead with him to the law as a covenant of works. Your obe­dience will run in another channel than it did before your union with Chrift, even is the channel of the gofpel. Ye will ferve in newnefa of fpirit; in faith and love. The frowns of a merciful Father will be a terror to you to fright you from fin ; love and gratitude will prompt you to obedience. The grieving of the Spirit of a Saviour will be a fpring of forrow to-you ; and his atoning-blood and perfeEt righteoufnefs will be the fpring head of all your comfort before the Lord ; your good works, but fireams thereof, as they evidence your Paving intereft in thefe, are accepted through them, and glorify God your Saviour. Ye will not continue to ferve in the oldnefs of the letter, as before ; .at that time the law was the fpring of all the obedience ye performed ; fear of the punifhment of hell far your fins, and hope of the reward of heaven's happi­saefs for your duties, being the weights that made you go, though for all them you often flopped : your forrows fpringing from your ill works, under the influence of the law allesaarly ; and your comforts from your good works, under the fame influence ; ye being alive to the law, and dead to Chrift. Rom. vii. 6. But now we are deliveredfrotn the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we fitouldferve in newneft of fpirit, and not in the oldnefs of the letter. lfby faith you wholly rely on Chrift's righteot.' sick the holinefs of his nature, the rightcoufnefs of


1 Pe The Part: of the Covenant of Grace. Head. 3.

life, and his fatisfaEtion for fin, how is it poffible but ye muft be dead to the law ? for the law is nct of faith, Gal. iii. x z. But if ycu perform your obedience for life and falvation, looking for acceptance with God on the ac­count with your w?rks, you go in a way direaly oppofite to the way of faith, and either altogether rejea Chritt's fatisfying of the law, or elfe impute impercedion unto his payment of the bond. And s Chrift is become of no effeft

unto you, whofoever of you are justified by the law ; ye

are fallen from grace,' Gal. v. 4-

Titus far of the jell part of the covenant, namely, the conditionary part.

The SECOND Part of the Covenant, namely, the



N every covenant, whether it be a proper or improper covenant, there is a promife. And in a proper cove‑

nant, the promiffory part anfwers to the conditionary part, being an obligation which the party covenanter to whom the condition is performed, conies under for come benefit to be bellowed in view of the perforMance of the condition.: This is the promife of a proper covenant, binding on hint who makes it, providing the party contraaing with him do his part. In every fuch cafe, where the thing is lawful• and poffible, it binds in point of truth and-faithfulnefs, by. virtue of compact : in fome cafes it binds alfo, in point of remunerative juitice : to wit, where the condition perform ed is properly equivalent to the benefit promifed.

The covenant of grace, made between God and thrift as the head and reprefentative of his fpiritual feed, is a pro­per covenant. And in it there is a promili2ry tart, anfwer­lag to the conditionary part already explained : and it is God's part of the covenant, as the other was the Medi- ator's. Thereby God bath obliged himfelf„ to make the ht nefits therein condefcended on forth cotning„upon the con­fideration of the performing of the condition. And for• afinuch as t; ,•,oclition performed by Chrift, was ftridiy sneritori .enefits promifed ; the prontifes are

- bindin, unly in refped of the truth and faith,. .

fulnett jultice of God.

••• . Of .od importance the promiffory part ofi

?be firomyrory Part of the Covenant. Tot

the covenant is, will appear by the following confiderati‑


t. The covenant hath its name from this part of it, be­ing called the covenants of promifi, Eph. ii. 12. Covenants, becaufe, though dill in itfelf but one covenant, yet from its firil promulgation in paradife, it was often renewed, as to Abraharo,Jacob, the Ifraelites in the wildernefs, and to David : and as oft as it was renewed, it was renewed in a promife. The firft covenant bad a promife of life, yet it is not called a covenant of promife : on the contrary, the law or that covenant, is oppofed to the promife ; though not in ittrufe, yet in its nature, Gal. iii. 18. • If the inhe­ritance be of the law, it is no more of promife.' For the law's promife of life was fufpended on the condition of works, to be performed by men themfelves: whereas in the fecund covenant, hfe and falvation are pronnifed to tanners freely, for Chrif's fake, without refpe1 to any work of theirs as the coodition thereof.

2. The covenant isdefcribed to us,by the Holy Ghoft, as a clutter of free promifes of grace and_glory to poor fin­mers, in which no mention is made of any condition ; lieb. viii. to..' This is tha'coveuant—I will put my laws

in their mind, and write them in their hearts ; and I will

be to them a God, and they thall be to me a people. Ver.

z r. And they (hall not teach every man his neighbour,

and every man his brother, faying, Know the Lord :

for all (hall know rne, from the leaf to the greateft. Ver.

1 2. For I will he merciful to their unrightcoufnefs, and

their fins and their iniquities will I remember no more' Thefe promifes with their condition, having been propof­ed to, an& accepted by Chrift as fecond Adam, and the condition performed by him; the covenant comes natively, in the gofpel, to be fet before us in him, to be by us received and embraced in and through Chrilt, by faith. Thus the promifes are the covenant by way of eminency; even God's covenant, wherein he hath bound himiclf to perform his part, as the Mediator hath already performed his. And in this fenfe, indeed, the covenant-of grace is not condi. tionaf, but confifts of abfolute promifes; that is, promifi become abfolute, through the condition thereof adirii perform* already ; but being confidered in its full 1.


'11112 The Part: of the Covenant of Grace. Read"

-tulle, and in refpea of Chrift, the covenant, and all the promifes thereof, are properly and ftriEtly conditional.

3. The promifes o•the covenant are the purchafe of the blood of Chrift : the fruit of his fulfilling all righteoufnefs, in his birth, life, and death. As the curfe came by the demerit of Adam's fin ; -fo the promifes are owing to the merit of Chrift's righteoufnefs; they are the new teflanzent in his blood, t Cor. xi. 25. From the- promife of the‑

brsad and water, (Ifa. xxxiii. t6.) to the Promife of a

feat with him on his throne, (.Rev. iii. 21.) they are all .the purchafe of his meritorious obedience even to- the --death. Juttly- are they called exceeding precious protnifer,, .2 Pet. i. 4.. as being the price of his blood. Of what un‑

fpeakable• weight and importance muff they be, that cost:-loch a price, between the Father and his own Son ?

4. The great defign and end of the covenant is acconi.- Itlifhed io the performing of the prontiffory pars thereof ;, and that is, the glory of God; and the falvation of finners. The great glory Goa,. and grace to fanners, Springing .up from the whole of the covenant; meet •together here,. namely, in the accomplifhment of the promifes, as all the rivers meet together in the fea.. The promifes were the - great thing the- parties-contraaors had in view, when they. .entered into , the covenant:- it was, worn for them the ,Father fought-by his propofal of the covenant ; and that was what the Son, intended to purchafe, by his fulfilling the, condition.. The condition of the covenant -is the foundation of the promifes :: the promifes the glorious fu-. perftruaure reared upon that coftly foundations The ad- • miniftration-of the covenant, is- fubferVient to the accom­plifhment of the. promifes- The condition of the cove. rant .was-perfermed on earth, in the (pace of about thirty. three years ;.. the promifes-have been a performing more ban five thonfand years-on earth, and will betperforming in beaven,.through the ages of eternity.

happinefs and comfort of all the ele&, for time awl eternity, depends upon the patimites of the covenant: , What keeps unconverted de& perfons from dying in that. Rate, and foudropping down to bell, but the promife of the covenant ? What makes grace overtake them, when they are fleeing froor it, but the protege?. What preferves,

The prom Tory Part of the Covenant. tog

grace in them, like a fpark of fire in an ocean, that it ie. not extinguifhed, but the promife ? And what is their fo­curity and comfort in the Lace of death, but the fame pro-- mife ? 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. •

6. The glory of the man Chrift, as Mediator, depencie, on the promife of the covenant. This was the fecurity, in the faith of which he lived on earth, about the fpace of thirty-three years io a very low condition;- and in end died an ignominious death; Pfalm. xxii. 4. 6 Our fathers trufted "•in thee: they trufted, and thou dida deliver them.' He paid the price of the redemption of fanners, while as yet many of the redeemed were not born, nay, nor as yet are; and feveral of them imbrued their hands in his blood : but he retied on the promife of the covenant. He pleaded it when he was loft entering into the (welling waves of death, where he was, like Jonah, to be fwallow-- cd up, John xvii. 5. Now, 0 Father, glorify me with thy- fell. And in the faith of the accompliftement of the pro-mire, he completed his performance of the condition.; for the joy that was let before him in the promifes, be endured the croft, defpying thefhame. Heb. xii. 2.

7.. Lailly, God hath fworn the promifes of the cove. sant : • 1 have made a covenant with my Chafer,: I have fwora unto David my fervant. The apollle tells us that. God will­ing more abundantly to Phew unto the heirs of promife the int. mutability of his counfel confirmed it by an oath, Heb. vi. 17. A tender man will not fwear a promife; but in a. matter of weight. Of what unfpeakable weight and importance then mutt the promife of the covenant be, which the Gud of truth bath confirmed with his oath ?

Now, for clearing of this part of the covenant, we (hall, i. Confider the promifes in general; and, 2. Take a more particular view.ot theme

Of the Promifes in general.


S to the promifes in general, two things are to be inquired into : a. What are the general kinds of them ? And, 2. To whom they are made:

- 1. As t•the general kinds ot the promifes; confider' the parties on whom the promifes,of the covenant of g have their dire& and immediate effe6t,.they appear t

two.gencral kinds,

104 The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3.-

r. Some of them have their dire& and immediate greet on aria himfelf, the head of the covenant ; inch asthe. -promife of affiitance io his work, and the promife of a name above every name. So in the firft covenant, there weie-pro.- - -smiles which were to have their dire& and immediate effea .on Adam himfelf, and looked not, but mediately and in- elireftly, to his pofterity, fuch of them, at loft, as fhould have lived after the complete fulfilling of the condition of that covenant namely, the promifes of natural life conti­nued in vigour and comfort, and of spiritual life continued in favour and fellowfhip with God, during the courfe of his probationary obedience.

2, Others of them have their dire& and immediate ef­left on Chrift's fpiritual feed, comprehended with him in the covenant ; fuch as the promifea of regeneration, of the--new heart, and cleanfing from the defilement of fin.- So in the fiat Adam's covenant, the promife of life contained a prom_ife of the holy conception and birth of his natural feed: in refpeet of which the proniife would have had its dire& and immediate effeit, not on Adam himfelf, but on.. his polterity, .

If. The next thing to be confidered is, To whom they were.made ? And we may take up this point in two things..

Firft, The promifes of the firit fort, namely, thofe hay. •ing their dire& and immediate effe& on the perfon of Chrift, were made to Chrift binofelf. Of this no doubt can be-moved. _ And theywere made to him as the head of the covenant, the fecond Adam, the reprefentative of his feed. . This appears from ouetext, wherein he is called the•Cholas, the head eleet, and reprefentative of the ele&ion, David, Dod's fervant : in which capacity the covenant was cut Afar made, to him, by the Father.. It is evident, that all the promifes of affifianee in his work, and of his fubfequent reward, were made to him in view of his performance of the condition : and therefore, fince he performed the con­dition, as head of the covenant, fecond Adam, and repre­fentative of his feed, thefe`promifes were made to him in that capacity. -%

The promifes of this klfitd then were made to Chrift on. ly. And that was the peculiar honour put upon the head of the covenant, in the promiffory part ;_as•t was his pet culiar burden to fulfil the conditionary part. So he WA

The prom iffory Part of the Covenant. acs

the name which is above every name, and is anointed with 6 the oil of gladnefs above his, fellows.' In the election, whereof he is the head, he fhinei.above the reft, as the fun in his meridian brightnefs, above the twinkling (tars. He is the-Benjamin at God's table with his brethren, whofe mefs of promifes in the covenant is five times fo much as any of theirs ; the Jofeph who was feparate from his breth­ren, in fulfilling the conditionrof the covenant, and had a double portion in the promifed land made over to him, as the firft born amongft many brethren..

Neverthelefs, as the honour and profperity of the head: redound to the members, their intereft, in refpea of their union and communion, being a joint intereft ; fo the glo. ry and honour fettled on Chrifi by promife, are a fpring of grace and-glory to his members, an enriching treafure, their glory and crown. He is that head of gold which puts a glory on the body : and the ointment poured upon the head, cannot mils to go down to the fkirts of he gar. intents. And hence is, (1.) The continual cry of prayer by the whole company of the faithful, for the accomplifh­ing of the promifes made to the Mediator, Pfal. lxxii. 15. c Prayer alfo !hall be made for him continually.' It is e­vident that Pfalm concerns the Mafia& But prayer made continually for Chtift ! how canthat be ? Why., till the world end, that cry in prayer (hall never ceafe among the faithful, Thy kingdom come, Matth. vi. Lo. It began with Adam's embracing the promife of faith, was carried on all along the time of the Old Teftament : and now it bath been founding in the New Teftament church more than feventeen hundred years, and fhall not ceafe until the confum, mation of all things. (2..) Hence alfo the joyful name. tions of praife, by the fame company, for the accomplifh. malt of promifes to the Mediator. Whenfoever there ap­pears any fuck accomplifhment made, it is matter of joy to the church ; and the more there appears of it, the joy is the more increafed. Thus the church bath a fong Lyon the fulfilling of the promife of the gathering of the nations unto him; la. xii. 1. of his -viaory over Antichtift. Rev. xix. t. of the calling of the Jews, verfe 6. And svlita.,,:hu end be-neon*, all the promifes made to him than complifhed, that will afford them an everlafting,fonl

I06 The Part; of the Covenant of Grate: Head 3.

Secondly, The promifes of the other fort, namely, thole basing their dire& and immediate effe& on the elea, are made to Chrift primarily, and to them fecondarily : first to the head ; then to the members, through him.

a. The promifes having their immediate effeel on the ilea, are made to Chrill immediately, primarily, and chiefly; God hath in the covenant promifed grace and glory, all that pertains to life and godlinefs, unto a fele& company of mankind : but the promife of all thefe was first and chiefly made to Chrift their head : fo that he bath not only an intereft in thefe prornifs, but the chief intereft in them. This appears by feveral documents firm, t-he word of God.

1/7, The apoftle teflifies, that the promifes were made to the feed, which is Chrift, Gal. iii. 16: And the promifes­he fpeaka of,, are the promifes of the bleffing of the Spirit, ver. of the inheritance, ver. the promifes received through faith, ver. 4. Even thefe are made to Chrift the head of the body. This is confirmed by thofe paffages• which Phew God's covenant to be made with . Chrift, and in_ the mean time explain it by a promife of the -rhappinefs of his feed, Pfalm lxxxix. 3, with 4. verfe 28 and 29. verfe 35 and 36. And what is more natural,. than'to make-a promife to a father in favour of his chil. dren ?-.

2dly, Our Lord Jefus is conftitute the heir of all things, (Fieb. i. 2.) in virtue of the promife of the covenant, will make him my firft born, Pfal. lxxxix. 27. Now, if Chrift, as the fecond Adam, be heir of all things, by his Father's promife, the promifes of all things are made to him : and confequently, the promife of eternal life, com­prehending all happinefa to his people, is made to him in 4 the first place. So Chrift is the firft and chief heir ; and they are fecondary heirs in and through him. Hence, ill-, view of the great promife of the coveuant, I 'will be their God, our Saviour bath that endearing expreffion, I afcend ' unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God, John xx. 17. Compare Rom. viii. z q. And if ickil­drer:37theti heirs ; heirs of and joint heirs with Cho).

34.,413 in the covenant-of works, God promifed life to Aaaa's natural feed, upon condition -of his perk& a.


11111,119r."- —

The prnifory Part of the Covenant. log

bedience ; which is evident from death's coming on them by his difobedience ; fo in the covenant of grace, he hath promifed life to Chrift's fpiritual feed, upon condition of his obedience; for as in Adam all die, even fo in Chrift !hall ell be made alive,' 1 Cor. xv. 22. But that promife of life for Adam's natural feed, was primarily made to A­dam himfelf, whik as yet none of them were in being ; and they were to partake of it only through him, to whom it was made as their reprefentative. Therefore the promife of life to Chrift's fpiritual feed, was made chiefly to Chrift himfelf; and to them only in and through him. Accord­ingly we told, that the promife of eternal life, upon which the hope of believers is built, was made before the world began, Tit. i. z. And to whom could it be then made immediately and primarily, but to Chrift the head of the covenant ?

Lady, Thefe prom fifes contain a part of the reward made o­ver in the covenantto Jefus Chrift, t who, forthe joy that was ' fet before him, endured the crofs,' Heb. xii. 1. A great part of which joy lay here : He !hall fee his feed—the' travail of his foul,' Ifa. liii. a 0, i a. All ofthere promif- ea were the price of his blood to him, the pdrchafe of his obedience and death: therefore called the new teftament. in his blood. To whom could the reward be chiefly pro­mifed, but to him who performing the condition, wrought the work ? Unto him therefore it was of debt, namely, in virtue of the promife, which made it due to him upon his performing of the condition. The bleffings of the cove­nant which came on the eleet, are certainly to be confider. ei as a reward to Chrift, as well as a free gift to them. And confidering them in the firft of thefe vivws, there is no more abfurdity in the promife of the new heart's be­ing made to Chrift, than in a phyfician's making a pro-Mile to a father to cure his lame child, when he bath given him fecurity for his fees ; in which cafe, the child cannot look on the promifes made to himfelf at all, but feconda­rfly through his father, who was the party.contra6lor.

This is a point of confiderable weight, and ferves both to inform our mind, and dire& our praelice : for the lowing inferences from it are native.

(Iv) The promifee of the covenant are not made to the


106 The Paris of the Covenant of Grace. Head S.

liever's good works; but to Chrift's works, and to the working believer in him. Unto the believer they are ab­folutely•ree, and not of debt ; and therefore are not made to his work; for g to him that worketh, is the reward not reckoned of grace but of debt,' Rom. iv. 4. There is indeed a comely order of the promifes, whereby the pro-miles of purity of heart to the etc& goes before the pro. mife of their feeing God in heaven; the promife of humi­liation, before that of lifting up; thereupon it is declared in the adminiftration of the covenant, that ' the pure in

heart (hall fee God; that they who humble themfelves 6 (hall be lifted up; and this godlinefs hath promife of the

life that now is, and of that which. is to come,' i Tim. iv. 8. Rot the foundation of all thefe promifes, whether of things that•are ourlitity, or our privilege, what they all depend upon as their proper condition, is the obedience of Cl riftallenarly; theybeing all made to him in the first place, the latter al well as the former.

The fitft grace whereby the dead elea are quick­ened, and made to believe and unite with Chrift, is contey­od to them in the channel of a promife, as well as the grace following faith: Ezek. xxxvi. will put my fpirit
within you.' For although in their natural elate they are not capable of a believing pleading of the promife; nor have they, at that time„a petfonal faving intereft in the promifes: yet the'Lord Jefus knoweth them that are his, and for whom the promifes were made to him; and having the • adminiftration of the covenant in his own band, he cannot fail of feeing to the accomplifhing of them, in thc appointed tittle. Howbeit they, being dead in trefpaffes, and fins cannot confult their own intereft; yet he having the chief intereft in the promifes will net neglect his own, caufe, but will fee them exaelly accomplifhed.

The way to be perfonally and favingly interefted in the promifes, for time and eternity, is to unite with Chrift by faith: for all the promifes of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, 2 Cor. i. 20. Would ye fain know how the great and precious promifes may becorne yours? Why; they are all his; they are all made to him.. Take him and they are yours: even as he who marries the heirefs, hath a right to her portion and all the bills and bonds wherein_ any 9f it is contained.

The promigory Part of the Covenant. 161

(4.) When through deaelnefs and -darknefs of spirit, Whether arifing from Tome confeiencewafting guilt, or 0. iherwife, your faith of the promife is failedk and you can• not again fatten your grip upon it, becaufe you can fee rio good in you.: embrace Chrift again, -and the promife in him, notwithftanding of your feen and felt finfulnefs, and Utter tinworthinefs ; and by no means (land off from the promife until you be in better cafe : but fay with the Pfalmift, Iniquities prevail againft me ; as for our tratyirry: ions, thou Jhalt purge them away, Pfal. lxv. For as the
gooduefs in you was not the ground of the promife; fo-the evil in you doth not overturn it, and make it of none cf. feet. The foundation of the promife Rands lure in Chrift, whatever alterations the frame and cafe of a believer's fpirit do undergo. It is eflabliffied as the moon, (Pfalm lxxxix. 37.) which is ftill the fame in itfelf, notwithttanding of the variety of its appearance kto our .fight, one while waxing, at another time weaning.

(5.) The true way to plead -the promifes, is to come to God in the name of Chrift, and plead the fulfilling of them to us for his fake: John xvi. 23. Whatfoever ye Nall 4 a& the Father in my name, he, willtive it you.' Matth. xxi. 22. Believing, ye (hall receive.' Dan. ix. 17. 0

our God—caufe thy face to Mine upon thy fanetuary that g is defolate, -for the Lord'a fake.' To alk in Chrift's name believing, is to prefent one's felf before the Lord, as a uiember of Chrift, joined and cleaving unto him offered into us in the gofpel ; and -far the fake of the Head, to implore the free favour-of the promife, relying on his me­rits for obtaining it. Tbis is the import of that paffage, Gen.' Ica. 3. as it relates to Chrift, In thee (hail all fa.

milks of the earth (to wit, that (hall be bleffed) be blef­s fed ;' or rather, as the original word properly fignifies, be-made to kneel, namely, to receive the bkffing ; 'all that are bleffed, being bleffed in Chrift, Eph. i. 3. Compare Philip. ii. io. This is the method in which God dif. penfeth the favours of his promife ; 2 Sam. vii. 21. For 14 thy word's fake, and according to thine own heart, hall thou done all thefe great things.' Compare a Ch: xvii. t9. For thy fervant's fake, and according to • owa heat, haft thou done ail this greatnefs

I I 0 The Pasts of the Commit VGrst.s._ Head 3.

t'le fake of the Word, tby fervant, the Meffias : for, as bath thefe pafrages are a narration of the very fame things there i4 no manner of difference at all between them in the origin;:, lave that where the one bath thy word, the other bath thy fervant. ‑

(6.) Believers may hereby flrengthen their faith of the accomplifhment of the promifes to them. Whatever eafe work fome have, in maintaining their prefumptuous hopes of the mercy of God to eternal life : while, pot feeing thy heinous nature of their fie, they buikl their hopes on tome-thing in themfelves, rather than upon the free promife of the covenant in aria Jefus ; yet unto the ferious godly, no (mall difficulty of believing doth arife, from the joint view of the greatnefs and precioufnefs of the promifes, and the greatuefs of their fins, and of their unworthinefs. Hence they are ready to fay, Can ever fuch promifes be made out to fuch a one as I am ? And truly there is 110n thing in them that can furnifh an anfwer to this grave cafe.. But here is a fatisfyiog anfwer to it : The promifes are all of them made to Chrift chiefly, even to him who pur­chafed them with his blood ; and juflice requires that they be performed to him, and being performed to him, they, mutt needs have their effeft on all his members, for whom, becaufe in themfelves unworthy, he merited them. So the foul may fay, However unworthy I am, yet be la 6 worthy for whom God should do this.'

a. The promifes having their immediate effea on the e-lea are made to themfelves fecondarily, in and throagb Chrift. As he hath the fundamental and chief in­tereft in them, fo they have a derived interefria them through him. Tfiere was from eternity a legal u­nion between Chrift and them in the covenant ; whet eby their debts became his, and the promifes made to him be, Clime tlieirs. As, upon one hand, r the Lord laid on hint, the iniquity of us all,' •Ifa. Iiii. 6. fo on the other hand

c was given in Chrill Jefus, before the world began,'

i. 9. In time there is a real myftical union made

him and them, upon his taking poffeflion of them

pirit, and dwelliug in them by faith. The former

t aoight for them unto the promifes, in Chrift

e latter veils them with a right thereto, in

The promiffory Part of the Covenant. a a

their own perfona, through him, as being a6tual members of his bOdy. In refpeft of the one, eternal life is laid to be promifed, and grace laid to be given before the world began, Tit. i. 2. 2 Tim. i. 9. in refpea of the other, be.. Levers are called the heirs of the promife Heb. iv. t7.


takers of hit promifr in Chrift, Eph. iii. 6. and the promife is given to them that believe, Gal. iii. 22.

Thus it appears that thefe promifes are made to Chrift's fpiritual feed, as well as to hirnfelf ; though primarily to him as the reprefentative, on whom the fulfilling the con­dition was laid, and but fecondarily to them as the repre­rented, who were to receive the benefit. And hence aril­eth another difference, namely, that properly and ftrietly freaking, the promifes were conditional to Chrift, but they are abfolute.and free to us ; even as the promife of life in the firft covenant, which was conditional to Adam would have been abfolute to his natural feed, the condition once being fulfilled. Thns Chrift's raerit, and the free grace of God, meet together in the covenant : joftice is fully (mis­led, and grace runs freely in that channel.; the promifes being all purchafed at the full rate, but -no part of the price advanced by us.• Hence we obtain precious faith, with all other faving benefits, through the rishteoufmls of God and our Saviour grits: ; (or rather, the righter ufnefs of our God and Saviour Jefus Chrift,) as the proper condi­tion of them all, 2 Pet. i. a. And in the mean time, God Rotted out our tranAreffons for his own fake, Ha. xliii. 25. •4111 things that pertain unto life and goelAnifr, are given (or gifted) unto us, 2 Pet. i. 3.

0f the Promif a peculiar to Chrili.


AVING fpoken of the promifes in general, we some now to take a more particular view of them : and, firit, of the piomifes peculiar to Chrift himfelf. Thefe are many, but may be all reduced to three heads: to wit, the promife of aRance, of acceptance, and of reward of his work.

Firfl, Our Lord Jefus had a promife of 'Rance in !liq work : Pfal. lxxxix. 21. Mine arm (hall ftrength,n Havin,b undertaken the work of our tedemp:ir,n,

his Father's promife,. that when it. came to the fat:


/12 The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3.

he would ftrengthen and uphold him in going through with it: Ifa. xlii. 1,-4. And, in the faith of this covenant. ed affilatice, he went through the hardett pieces thereof a chap. 1 6. I gave my back to the fmiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked tithe hair : I hid not my face from fhame and fpitting. Verfe 7. For the Lord God Will help me, Ace,)rlingly, in his heavinefs in the garden, there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, firengthening him, Luke xxii. 43. And this promifed affitiane,e was the token of his Father's goad pleafure in, and liking of the work, while_ it was a-doing.

. Secondly, He had a promife of the acceptance of fas work, when once done ; of the acceptance thereof as a full difcharge aid performance of the condition of the cove-.. rant, entitling him to the promifed reward. Hence, in view of the Pure performance of his work, the acceptance thereof, was, at his baptifm, proclaimed by a voice from heaven, toying, This is my beloved Son, in whom.1 am well pleated, Match. iii. t7. And it was renewed at his trail& figuration, a little before his paffion, chap. xvii. 5. Un­to this promife of acceptance belongs the promife of his. refurredion, and of his jollification.

r. The promife of his refurredion from the dead: Plat. xvi. to.. Thou (halt not leave my foul in hell; neither wilt. - thou lidfer thine holy. One to fee corruption ; which io expound­ed of the refurredion of Chrilt, Ads.ii. 13. God, by-railing Chrift from the dead, did, in effect, declare his ac, -)tance of the work by. him performed. It evidenceth

,?.:bt to be fully cleared, that he wbo laid him up in

in of the grave did bring him out of it again ;

his angels to roll away Metope from the door of it.

) difmifs him legally. For thus it was agreed in

nant,- that as-Chrift ffiould give hirofelf to the

. )r the •atisfaecion of jullice; fo the Father fhould

him again from the dead in refpe& of that fatisfac‑

ade b his blood, Heb. xiii. 20.

T h e ife of his juftilication Ifa. 1. 8. He is near

The .accomplifhment of which is obferv­,e, I Tim. iii. 16. God manifefled in the "e Spirit. Our Lord Jefus Chrift having

be pardoned, needed no perfonaljuili4.,.

thefiromilbry Part of the Cownsrt. I t$


cation ; but as he was the furety of the Ora, and had the iniquities of them all laid on him; it was provided-in the covenant as jail, that the work he had undertaken bring performed, he fhould have an official juftification. Having paid the debt, he had by promife a full and ample dif­charge thereof, under the hand and Peal of Heaven. And here lies the great fecurity of the people againft the law's demand of fatisfaetion frcm them.

L aftly ; He had a promife of a glorious reward to be Conferred on him, as the proper merit of his work done. There was a joy fit before him in the promife, for which he endured the crof, defkling thejbame,Tieb. xii. 2. Never was there fuch a work wrought ; and never was there fuch a reward promifed. Unto it there belongs a II% efold pro­inife :

z. The promife of a new kind of intereft in God, as his God and Father, Pfal. lxxxix. z6. M.A.!!! cry unto me, IrhOti art my Father, and ny God. Our Lord Jefus had God to his Father, by eternal birthright; but there was a new relation conftituted between God and Chri1, as the fecond Adam, head of the covenant, founded on his undertaking and fulf,Eing the covenant condi:in'', whereby he became heir of God as hi:, heritage, according to that of the apoRle, Rom. viii. t7. Heir:, cf God; and jLint heirs with ChrO: namely, with C;:brift as ih primary heir ; fog, by his obedience unto death, he purchafed the 'enjoyment of God, as a aod and'Father. I do not fay, he porchaf­ed it for himfelf; the man Chrift oceded not to do that, Torafmuch as he had it, in virtue cf the perfonal union of the two natures t: but he purchafed it for [Inners, who had loft all (aving intereft in God, bit could not be happy without it,

2. The prornife of a glotious exaltation, to be the Fa‑

ther's honorary fervalit, prime of heaver, as great

adminitirator of the covenant : Ifa. Li. 13. BAold my

fervant (hall deal prudently, he (hall be exaic and extol-I led, and be very high; cl;ap. xlix. 8 I thee

for a covenant of the peoyle.' In fulfilling the coedit i<
of the covenant, he took upon him the form of a h fervant, and humbled hirnfelf even unto the death

era's wherefore God alto, according to the pron. K3

ti 4.- The Parts of the Covenant of Grate. Head

the covenant, bath highly exalted him to the prime miniftry of heaven, and given him a name as great adeniniftrator of the covenant, which. is above every name, that at the - 4.name of • Jefus everyitnee fhould bow,' Philip. ii. 7, 8, 9, 10. The nature, vaft extent, and importance of this promife; will afterwards.be unfolded when we.corne to treat of the adminiftration of the covenant, in,virtue thereof, put in the Mediator's hand.-

3..the promife- of a reed and offspring numerous as the. ' flan of heaven : Ifa. liii. lo, He (hall fee his feed. Gen. , xv. 5. So flail thy feed be ;, namely, as the flare of thefiy in multitude, Heb. xi. tx. even the whole multitude of tht deft, all of them to live by his deatband to bear his image as a child doth that of his father.. He confented to fuffer the pangs of death but they were travailing pains, to if- - fue in a numerous birth.. ',lie was-as a-corn of wheat to fall into the ground, and die ;' but the promife.fecured . to him, on that Condition,. hringing forth much fruit; . John xii. 2.11 It is in •purfuance of the accothplifhment of this promife the gofpel continues to be preached front age to age ;, forafmuch as, in virtue thereof,' as many as. g •

are ordained to eternal life fhall believe.' •

4, The• promife of his inheriting all things, as primary • heir :, Pfalm lxxxix. 27.. / will mare him my firfi born. . So the apoftle lays, God hath appointed him heir of all things, ,

ai _And Chrift himfelf declares his being put in po. ffeflion accordingly, Matth. xi. 27. Ali things are deli­vered unto me of my Father., Thus he bath, by promife, , fuitable treafures for the fupporting of the dignityconfer.. red on him. But of this all more afterwards...

5. LoIlly, The promife of viaory-and dominion over all his and his people's enemies : Pfalm Itxxit. t3. I will beat down his .foes before his face. He was to encounter with Satan, fin, and death, in the quarrel of the defigned heirs of glory ; and no fooner was he engagedagainft them, but the wicked world of men began a war with him too ; but he had his Father's promife, for viaory and dominion over them all ; that, howbeit he fhould get the firft fall, , and.die in the battle, yet his death fhould be the deftruc­'Jo of Satan's dominion, fin's power, and death's bands

his people ; and that whofover fhoultico about to

The promj&ry Part. of the Covenant. TT5

ftipport that tottering interea, fhould fall under him: Pfa 1m cx. a. The Lord Paid unto my Lord, Sit thou at s- my right-hand, until I make thine enemies thy foot. s•

And thus far of the threefold promife peculiar to Chrift laimfelf in the covenant..

Of the Proanife of eternal Life to the Ele8, confidered
in three Period:.


HE promilescommon to the cleft made in and thro' Chrift• unto them in the covenant, are alfo many.

A particular enumeratiou of them I intend • not, though every one of them is more precious than the gold of Ophir ; but it would be profitable for ferious Chriftians, as they, read through the, Old and New Teltarnent, to mark them in their Bibles, for their fpiritual treafure, flored'with fuck variety, as affords what is fuitable for every cafe they can be in. They are altcomprehended ill, and may be reduced unto this one, to wit, the protnifr of eternal life : for which the two following texts may be viewed.

Titus i. 2. In hope of eternal hfe, which God that cannot - lie,prornifed before the world began.

John ii. 25. And thir is the promife that be bath prondA fed us, even sternal life.

In which words, three things for our pnrpofe offer them. (elves to be obferved. a. The great and comprehenfive promife of the covenant of grace, the fum of all the pro­ mifea therein, to fin ners ; namely, the promife of eternal; that is the order of the words in the original. The cove­nant is a covenant of life, defigned for reftoring dead lin­nets to-life : and fo the promife of it is a promife, of life : and that life is eternal. 2. The date of this promife, be­fore the world began. While as yet time Was not, and the foundation of the world was not hid, it was made, and e­ternal life thereby fecured to the elett: 3. The parties concerned in it. The maker of the promife was God that cannot lie : whofe.promife therefore muff needs take effea. And by fpecial appropriation, it was the Falter ; -it was he that made it : verfe 24.. Yealfo (hall continue in th ' Soo, and in-the Father. Verfe 25. And this is the r

116 rk, Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3:

4 mile that he bath promifed us,' &c. The party it was made to, is (a.) and chieffly, Jefus Chrift, the fecond A­dam, head of the covenant: for there is no neceffity to re­cede from the proper fignification of the word here tiled, which is promifing, to a datachrdial one, to wit, purpofing; fince the promifes were made to Chrift, Gal. iii. 16. And he rea'ly was befsre the world began, and confequently then capable of having a prornife made to him. (2;) The elect; in him. He bath promifed us,, namely, us legally in him be­fore the world began ; that is, the deft who apply and plead-the promife then, when they believe.

And hence arifeth this truth, viz. " The great and corn. 44 prehenfive promife to Chriti's fpiritual feed, in the cove- _ 44 nant, is the promife of life eternal, made, from eternity 61 to Chrift, and to them in him." .

For opening of this promife of the covenant, We (hall view it ( a.) More generally. (2.) lk/Iore'particularly.

I. In the -genera!, it fpeaks two things, to wit, all true happinefs, and the everlaflingnefs of that happinefs.

Fide, It comprehends, as the matter thereof, all true happinfi. For life is ufed for happinefs its the holy lan­guage, a Sam. xxv. 6. So John iv. 50. And it is fo vied in the Ilyle of both covenants: Rom. x. 5. The man that Josh theft thing:, jhall live (i. e. be happy) by them. Hab. ii. 4. The jufl Jball live ( i. e. be happy) by his faith. The damned have a life in hell that will Taft for ever; but in _the Ilyle of the Holy Crhoit, they never fee life, they are deprived of eternal life; becaufe their life is not a happy life but, a. tractable one. It is evident from the writings .of the prophets and apoftles, that the death threatened in the covenant of works, comprehended all mifery in this

world, aud in the world to come; and, confequently, that the life therein promifed, comprehended oll happineis in time and eternity. Forafinuch then as the life promifed

n he covenant of grace, was defigned for the retrieving the

row,. tettained by the fall-; it mud needs in its corn-

Luilon, go as wide as the death which thereby they be

a le unto. From all which we conclude, that Gn..


ng life to the elect in Chrift, bath promifed them net's; which accordingly goes under the name of

The promPry Part of the Covenant. 117

life limply in the fcripture, t John v. 12. He that bath the Son bath life, And thus the covenant-life extends to all Welfare of the whole man, and to all the means by which it is compaffed.

z. The covenant-life extends to all welfare of the whole man, foul and body ; the latter as well as the former. And therefore from the covenant our Lord proves the refurrec­Con of the body, againft the Sadducces, hlatth. xxii. 31, 32. Though the foul is the principal part, it is not the only part, therein provided for. In virtue of the covenant, 4 the body is for the Lord, and the Lord for the body;' as well as the foul is for him, and he for it, 1 Cor. vi. 13. As the body had its (hare in the death threatened in the firft covenant, fo it hash, and (hall have its (hare in the life pro• mifed in the fecond. Since the price of the Redeemer's blood was paid for the bodies of his people, in hi's fulfilling the condition of the covenant : the life fecured in the promife, muff extend to themi as well as to their fouls. '

2. It extends to all the means by which that welfare_is to be compaffed, begun,' advanced, and perfeeted, Whe­4 ther Paul, or Apollos,.or Cephas, or the world, or life, or 4, death, or things prefent, or things to come; all are yours;'

Cor. iii. 22. For the fecuring of the benefit .itfelf by, promife, fecures all the means by which it is to be brought about. Hence the covenant defcends even to the bread and the water, neceffary for the fupport of natural life, Ifa. xxxiii. 16.

Secondly, The promife comprehends the everlaffingnefs of that happinefs. It is not only life, that is promifed, but life eternaldife for evermore, Pfalm cxxxiii. 3. which from the moment it is given, (hall never be extinguifhed, through the ages of time and eternity. In the ftyle of the fcriptures eternal life is not reftrifted to the Rate of glory in heaven. But the life communicated to a loner, in the firft moment of his union with Chriff, is eternal: it is the eternal life promifed in the covenant, according to the fcripture, John iii. 36. He that helieveth on the Son, bath everlafting

See chap v. 24. 1 John v. 11, 12. Hence from the pro­mife of the covenant, The jvfyhall live by faith, the ar, groves the perfeveranceof the faints, Heb. xi. 38. A kvidence, that perfeverance in grace, in this our Rate

IS The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head 3.

perfeaion, is a part of the eternal life promifed in the cove­nant, as well as heaven's happinefs. And thus the covenant-life extends to that which now is and that which is to .come, r Tim. iv. 8.

a. It extends to the life that now is in the world. And this is that eternal life begun in the feveral parts thereof, with refpea to both foul and body. If men meafure hap. .pinefs by the fmiles and frowns of common providence, no man indeed can be counted happy before death. But the facred oracles teach us to take our meafures of it another way, to wit, by a perfonal faving intereft in the covenant ; and do pronounce them happy whole God is the Lord, what­ever be between them and the grave, Pfal. cxliv. 5. So there is promifed in the covenant, happinefs begun in this life, both as to foul and body; the happinefs of the way-to the kingdom; falvation happily begun, and infallibly to be carried on.

2. It extends to the life that is to come in the other world. And that is the fame eternal life confummated and perfec­ted, in refpea both of foul and body, in heaven. There the promife of the covenant is to receive its full accornplifh­meet; of which believers now have the earkft, which is . not onty a part of the things promifed, but an affurance of the whole.

II. For a more particular view of the promife of eternal
life to the elea, it may be confnlered in three periods:.
(1.) Before their union with Chrift; (2.) From their uni‑
on with Chrift, until death; and (3.) From death, through
eternity. Of the operation of the promifes, in the fiat
and the laft of thefe periods, we know but little; and in‑
deed not much of it, in the middle period. For it is like
a fiver ifluing from a hidden fpring and running far under
ground; then riling above ground, and running on, till it
to forth into the ocean. The hidden fpring from whence
the promife of eternal life to the eleCtiffueth forth, is God's
free grace, which was given to us in Chrifi Jefus before the
set,, ;1 began, 2 Tim. i. 9. It runs under ground, undif‑
.ven to the parties themfelves, till the moment of
with Chrift in effeetual calling; then riling,
as it were, above ground, in vifible creams un‑
ud thereafter it runs full and_perfpicuous thre"

The proasflory Part of the Covenant., z 19

the ages of eternity. We (hall take a view of the great. lines of the promife, in thefe its feveral periods.

Before Union with aril?.

F we confider the promife of eternal life to the elea, as I (landing in the covenant, and as accompliffied to them, sad having its effea on them, before theirunion with Chrift, we may perceive two great lines in it; namely, a promife of their prefervation, and a promife of the Spirit. Of which its order.

L ?he promife of prefervalion.

The promife of eternal life to the elea, in the covenant, comprehends a promife of their prefervation, till the happy moment of their fpiritual marriage with Jefus Chrift, where­in they (hall be fettled in a (late of grace : Ezek. xvi. 6. g And when I paired by thee, and Caw thee polluted in

thine own blood, I raid unto thee when thou waft in thy s blood, Live. Heb. I faid to thee, Live in thy blood ; as the feveral approven verfions do read it. In this trious paffage of fcripture is (hewed, under the fimilitude pf an expofed or out-call infant, the natural {late and *retched condition in which God fotind Ifrael, and finds all the cleft; the former being a type of the latter. There is a twofold paffing by this wretched out-cart, and thefe are two very diitant times, indinated by the HOly Ghoft. -The Ara on the day fhe was born and cart out, vet. 4, 5, 6. The fecond, after the was grown, and become marriageable; at what time the was aanally married, verfe 7, 8. The forl­tner refers to the time of the elea's coming into the world, in their natural flat; not only as born into it, but as begin­ning to as in it as rational creatures; the latter, to the time prefixed in the eternal purpofe, when by means of the law in the hands of the fpirit of bondage, their breafts, as it were, are fafhioned, in the workofeonviaion ; upon which eofues their fpiritual marriage with Chrift. But how is the out-calfpreferved in the interval, that the perifheth not in her wretched condition? Why ; though no hand

laid uponber, yea, as a word was fpoken which fecured

520 , The Part: of the Covenant of Grace- . Head 3.

life in a cafe naturally deadly. At the firil palling by her,
in the day the was born and call out, God faidto her, Live
in thy blood: that is, " Islotwithftanding that thou art ly.

ing in the open field, in thy blood, thy navel not dreffed,

fo that, according to the courfe of nature, thy blood and

fpirits muff quickly fail, and this thy birth day mull be " thy dying day ; yet 1 fay,unto thee, Live : thou (halt ". not die in that condition, but grow up in it, being pre­" ferved till the happy, moment of the defigned marriage." And this is the promife of the elect's prefervation in their natural slate: And it hath two great branches; one re. fpeaing their natural life ; anotherfrefpeaing their fpiritu. al death. The

Firfl Is a promife of the continuation of their natural life, till fuch time as they be made partakers of life in Chrift jefus. God has Paid it ; they (hail live though in the blood of their natural {late. So it is not pollible they should die before that time, whatever dangers they are brought into ; even though a thoufand fhould fall at their fide, and ten thoufand at their right baud; for, by the promife of the covenant, there is an unfeen guard about them, to defend them. It is in virtue hereof, that all a, long during the time they are in that {late, they are pre­ ferved whether in the womb, or coming out of it, or in all the clanger's of infancy, childhood, youth, or whatfoever age they'arrive at therein. This is it that, fo long as they are unconvertc,v, doth fo often bring them back from the gates 'of death returning from them in fafety, when ei­ther by difeafes, or other accidents, they al-e pall hope in .their own eyes, and in the eyes of friends and phyficians. Though the elea thief was, in his natural Rate, nailed to :the crOfs ; yet death had no power to come at him, fo as to feparate his foul from his body, till fuch time as he was once united to Chrift by faith, and made partaker of a .new life in him. The ,

Second Is a promife of keeping the grav•one from off them in their fpiritual death. The grave {lone is the fin .againfl the Holy Gholl, the unpardonable fm ; which, on wbomfoever it is laid, make's their cafe, from that moment *recoverable, that henceforth they can never rife from (pi. ritual death to life ; Mark iii. 29. He that /hall blafpbcate

The-prongory Part of the Covenant. 121

-again) the Holy Ghoji, bath NEVER forgivenefe. But al­tthoughthe-eled in their natural [tate, being-dead in fin as well as others, may, through the a&ivity of reigning and raging Tufts, fo rot in their graves, as to be molt abomina­ble in the eyes of-God and all good men : yet, becaufe cif the promife of the covenant, it is not poffible that that grave (lone Mould be'laid on them. There is aninvifible guard fet °albeit' fouls, as well as on their bodies.: and fo it is infallibly prevented, as may be learned from that ex-- .preffion of our Saviour, Meth. xxiv. 24. infomuch, that Mit were.pseible) they (hall deceive the very elect. • While they are Satan's captives, he may drive them to a prodi­ziouspitch of wickednefs. So did be with -Manaffeh, and Paul: but, as far as he-had carried them, he could not car­ry them forward that Rep.

This promife of the eled's prefervation, as it is with the reit founded on the obedience and death of Chrift, where-'by eternal life was purchafed for them, and conftquenily thefe benefits in particular, failing which they will be ru­ined for ever : fo it is a-kin to, and feems to be grafted u­pon the promife of afliftanc: made to Chrift in the covenant; -by which a divine fupport was infured to him, during all the time the 'tins of the eled, and the wrath of God for them, fhould lie upon him. And at this rate, the cafe of the Head, and of the menibers, was jointly provided 'for in the covenant.

II. The Promife of the

The promife of eternal life to the eleet; comprehends al-4o a promife of the Spirit of life to be communicated -to them and each one of them, at the nick of time prefixed in their cafes refpeEtively, in the eternal council : that is, the time appointed to he the time orlove, the dawning of the day of grace to them, however long and dark their night may be. This promife is found, Ila.xliv. 3. I will ,pour my Spirit upon thyfeed, Ezek. xxxvi. 27. 1 will, put my Spirit within you. The ele& of God being, even as the ref} of mankind, dead in fin, through the breach of the firft covenant, could not be recovered, but through a common cation of the Spirit of life to them; but that Spirit

could not have from an un-atoned God. WErertfo

122 The Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head c.

the covenant, Chrift undertook to. fulfil all righteoufnefs in their name, thereby to purchafe the Spirit for them : upon which was made the promife of the Spirit, the leading fruit of Chrift's purchafe ; called therefore the Father's promife by way of eminency, Luke xxiv. 49. In token hereof the great outpouring of the Spirit was at Chrift's afcerrfion : when he, as our great High Prieft, carried in the blood of his facrifice into the moll holy place not made with hands, Af.ts ii. For as the-fire which was fet to the incenfe on the golden altar, the altar of incenfe, was brought from off the brazen altar, the altar of burnt offering, in the court of the temple, fo the Spirit which caufeth dead (inners to live, if­fueth from the crofs of Chrift, who fujfereth without the gate. ‑

Now, of the promife of the Spirit there are two chief branches ; namely, the promife of fpiritual moral life, and the promife of faith.

a. The promife offplritud moral life, in virtue witereof the foal morally dead in fin, is raifed to life again, through the Spirit of life communicated unto it from heaven. This is the beginning, the very firft of the eternal life itfelf promifed in the covenant: It is the lighting of the facred lamp of fpiritual life in the foul, which can never be ex­tinguiffied again, but burns for evermore thereafter. This pro:lac we have, IN. xxvi. 19. Thy dead men flail five. And it belongs to the promife of the•Spirit ; as appears from Ezek. xxxvii. ..efrid jhall put my Spirit in you, and ye fhall live.

The effea of it is' the quickening of the dead foul, by the Spirit of Chrift paffively received : Eph. ii. 5. When we were' dead in fins (God, ver. 4.) bath quickened us. This is the fame with the renewing in effe&ual calling,

creby we are enabled to embrace jefus Chrift, mention‑

in our Shorter CateeMfm on that queftion. And it is

Iy ailed by fume divines, the firft regeneration, agrees‑

, to the ilyli of the holy fcripture ; John i. 12. • But • as many as received him, to them gave he power to be-

corn e fans of Gnd, even to them that believe on his

r. 13. Which were born not of blood, nor of

the flefh, nor of the will of man, but of God:'

it natural Rate lie dead, lifelefs, and rnovelefs, ;

" ,

The tramiljary Part of the Covet:ask 223

they can no more believe in Chrift, nor repent, than a dead man can fpeak or walk : hot, in virtue of the promife, the, Spirit of life from•Clarift Jefus, at the time appointed, en. tera into the dead fold, and quickens it ; fo that it is no more morally dead, but alive, having new fpiritual powers put into it, that were loft by Adam's fall.

z. The other chief branch of the promife of the Spirit, is the promife of faith to wit, that Chrift's fpiritual feed !hall believe in him, come unto him, and receive him by

Pfalm ca. 3. ' Thy people (hall be willing in the 4 day of thy power ;' and Pfalm They (hall 4 come.' God hash promifed, that upon the fhedding of the blood of his Son, fur the fatisfaaion of juftice, there shall fpring up in the earth, after that coftly watering, a plentiful feed to the fatisfying of his foul,' Ha: liii. And therefore whoever they be that believe not, all thofe who were reprefeate•in the covenant,* fhall infallibly be brought to believe as our Lord himfelf, upon•the credit of this prorniferdoth declare, John vi; 37. All that the Fa-f ther gieeth me, dull come to -Now; this alto belongs to the ,promife of the Spirit f who is therefore called tk, *fit effaith,- 2 Cor. itt. 53.- as being-the princiPal 'effici­ent caufe thereof, Zech. xii. to.

Theeffe&l. of this prOrnife is aassal believing, produced by the quickening Spirit in the foul, immediately out of the fpiritual life given to it by the communication of hire­felf thereto: John v. 25. ' The dead (hall hear the voice ' of the Son of God :' compared with chap. i. 12, I 3, 2 Cor.•iv. 13. As receiving Chrill pallively, the finner that was fpiritually dead is quickened ; fo being quickened, he receives Chrift afIively. Chrift comes into the deal] foul by his Spirit ; and•fo he is paflively received ; even as one having .a power to raife the dead, coming into a houfe, where there is none but a dead man ; none to open the door to him, none to define him to come in, nor to wel­come him. But Chrift being thus received, or come in, the dead foul is quickened, and by faith ernbraceth him ;. even as the reflorer of the dead man to life, would imme­diately be embraced by him, and receive a thoufand comes from him, who had heard his voice and lived. I. Cbrift in the womb of his mosher, entered into the

L 2

124 ' The Part: of the Covenant of Grace. Head _

of Zacharias, and fhe faluted Elifabeth, the mother of Johrr the Baptift, he, the Babe, in Elifabeth's womb, leaped as­at-the entrance of life; fo doth the foul, in aauat believing. at Chrift,'s coming into it by his Spirit. As God breath- ed into the firft maa the breath of life; and he became a h,,ing. , poi, who was before but a lifrlefs piece of fair earth-;. that is, G.id put a fpirit,.a foul, into his body, which imme­diately 'hewed itfelf in the man's breathing at his noftrils;- fo Jens Chrid-, in the time of loves, puts his. Spirit into the dead foul,,which immediately (hews himfelf alive, by be­lieving, receiving, and embracing him, known and difcerned in his tranfcendent glory. And thus the union betwixt Chrift and the foul is completed; Chrift firit apprehending.-the foul by his Spirit ; and then the foul thus apprehended and quickened; apprehending him again in the promife of the gofpel by faith.

N ,w, the promife of the Spirit, in both branches there­of, is grafted upon the promife of a refurreetion from tt.e. dead, made to Chrill ; and it is fo interwoven therewith, that there is no feparating of them. The promife of his refurreaion,,like the oil on Aaron's head,.-runs down to the fkirts of his garments, in the promife of quickening,. his members too. Herein the fcripture is very plain Ifa. xxvi. 59. Thy dead men (hall live, together with my,

dead body (hall they arife.' Eph. 5. ' Even , when we 'were dead in fins, bath quickened us together with Chrift." Our Lord Jefus, in the eternal covenant,„becamts the head of a dead body, to wit, of the body- of cleft fin- ners, dead in fin; and that to the end he might reltore it to life; and b:ing legally united with that body, that fo death might have accefs to fpread itfelf from it unto him-in due time, he had the proinife of a refurreaion, both for himfelf and his members, made unto him.. The appointed time being-come, death drew together its whole forces, and made an attack upon the head of the body, which alone re­mained alive. It flung him to the heart upon the crofa, and laid him too in the drift of death; and fo it had them nt1 together, head and members. Thus the condition

covenant was fulfilled. Now, the promife comes

its turn, to be fulfilled: Particularly, the promife

rreaion : namely, that death having exhaufted all

- The premufory Pa-et of the Connate. 12;

12 force and vigour on the head, he fhould . be railed again from the dead : and that as death had fpread itfelf from the members, into the head, fo He, in its Lunt fhoydd fpread itfelf from the head into the members, they, together with his dead body, arifing: It was in virtue hereof, that the fpirit or foul that animated Chrift's body, and which he yielded up upon the crols, (Matth. xxvii. so.) &ewe• by his breathing out his laft there, ( Luke xxiii. 46. Gr.) was returned again into his bleffed body; here­upon he came forth out of the grave: Andit is in virtue of the fame that the Spirit of life returns into the dead fouls . of the cleft again; upon which they live and believe. The time of the return of the Spirit both into the head, and into the members, was prefixed in the covenant, refpeaively: fo that as it was not poflible Chrift ftiould be held in the grave after three days; even fo it is not puflible,that his ele6.1 thould be held in the bonds of .fpil itual death, after the time' pre­fixed for their delivery, Hof. vi. 2. '‘ After two days will he revive, us, in the third day he will raife us up, and we *null live in his fight,'• • '

And thus the promife of eternal life to the e'en., works in this dark_perind of their days ; which dark period ends here. • It appears now, and rtmaabove ground ever after.


From the UniOn with Chrifl wail Death. •


Orifidering the promife of eternal life to the ele& as it is accomplifhed to, and hath its effea on them, from their union with Chrift until death ; the great lines to he perceived therein., are the, promifes, 1. Of jujijcation 2. Of a new and laving covenant-relation to God: 3. Of fano­"tifieation. 4. Of perfeverance. •And, g. Of temporal benefit:; Of which.in-order.

I. The PrOtnifi of .701:cation:

The promife of eternal life to the ele& comprehends the -promife of juilification, to be conferred on them, and

one of them, being united to Chrift thro' the Spirit. is found, Ifw. fill. t 1. ' By- his knowledge Ili:,

righteous fervant juflify many.' Chap. xlv, 25


a 2-6 - The Pam of the Co;oenant of Grace. 'Head 3.

6 the Lord (hall all the feed of Ifrael be juftified.'-- It it: the leading promife of this period: and the effeet of the • accomplifhtnent thereof, is, that the foul legally dead-under the fentence of-the law, or curie of the broken co­venant of works, is cooled to live-again accordingly; ; at

it is written, The juft (hall live by faith,' Rum. i;

And this is the beginning of that life which is received from Chrift by faith, and is mentioned, John-:v. 40. Ye will not come to me, that-ye might have life.? Chap. vi.5.7, that-eateth me, even he fhalllive by me.' There isa life received-from Chrift before faith, whereby one is enabled to believe ; of which we have already fpok.: en : and•there is a life received from Chrift through faithi_ according,. to John xx. 3 t. ,-That believing ye might‑

have life through his name.' And this hit is, according-. to the fcripture, eternal life too :: Chap. v. 24. ',He that. '. heareth my word, and believeth• on him-that fent me‑

hath everlafling life, andlhall not-come iota condemna,

6 tine, but is patfed from death unto life.'

The tlea• of God, lying under the breach-of the ficit covenant, were dead in law, as being under the curie._ They, could not be reftored to life in the. eye of-the law,_ bat upoa.the- fulfilling of,the- righteoufnefs. of -the law ;_ the which they not being able to do for themfelves,

in the covenant, undertook to.da it for -them : and there­upon .was. made. the promife of their juftifieatien. Thia prorntle taking_ effeft upon their believing, the curie is removed, and they are aetually and -perfonally juttified. _ Thus they are reftored to life in the eye of.the law: which. kind of life, received by faith, is: everliftingl- forafmuch, as, according to the covenant,, the curfe.can never-return:
upon them, for !honer or longer time:- Ha. o. 6 As,

' I have fworn that, the- waters of Noah fhould no more cgo over the earth ; fo. have. I fworn. that I- will not be. "wroth with thee,'

Of the promife of jullifitation there-are- two branches,. namely, thert of pardon, and of acceptance.


t. The - pardon of fin, whereby the guilt of

eternal viral -may, Heb. via. 12. Their-fins, and

' their inio . remember no more.' The fins of

the clef. b; era4 covenant, imputed to,. ands

. The prongory Part of the Covenant: 117,

laid on Chri-41.; who becoming legally one with them, transferred their debt on himfelf, and undertook. to par the fame a promife- was thereupon made of pardon to. them, and each one of them. Now, as loon as they are, myftically and really united- to him by faith, by means of that union they have communion with him in hisrighteouf, ads whereupon his perfeet fatisfaetion is imputed to. them; and, upon the account of-it alone, and not any deed. of theirs whatfoever, the free promife is ae.complifhed, and the pardon aaually beftowed on them, according to the eternal agreement,.Eph. i. 7. 6 In whom we have rcdemp. tioo through his blood, the forgivenefs of firw,according, '-to the riches of his grace.''

Here is life from the dead ;- a -pardon put into the hand. of the condemned man, difarming the law of its condemns. lag power, and death of its fling, as to him ; caufing him to lift up his head from off the block, and go away with acclamations of praife of the King's mercy, and his Son's merit._ And it is eternal life : for alibis fins paft, prefent, and to come are- pardoned, as to the guilt of eter, nal wrath ;. a formal .reinifRon of thefe of the, two former hindabeing granted, and a mot,. imputing of thefe. of the latter fort,-as to that guilt; being fecured; as the apofile teacheth,. Rom. iv. 7, Blefted are they whole iniquties. '-are forgiven, and whole fins are covered. ver. 8. Defied '-is the man to who:tube Lord will not impute fin.' And God will never revoke his pardons. Chap.. xi. 29. ' Foe 'the gifts. and 'calling of God-are--without repentance.'

2, The other branch-of the promife of jeftification, is the promife of acceptance of their- perlons as righteous in the fight of God ; according- to that, Ifa. xlii. The
Lard is well pleafedfor his righteoufnefe fake.. Compared with Match. iii. i7-. This is ray beloved Son, in whom Ions well pleated; . and• Eph.i. 6. He Bath made- us accepted in the beloved. A holy righteous God, whole judgment is accord., ing to truth, cannot accept fin nerd as righteous, without a righteoufnefs,_even a. perfea righteoufnefs. They that are not truly righteous in law,can never.pals for righteous, but for unrighteous ones, in the view of his piercing eye: r

in *fight, Pays the Pfalmift, Fiat. cxliii. 2. /ball no-ma! isgbejsiftifled;_to wit, by the deeds of the law, or inherit

tig The Para e:f thp CaVenota e-Graele. 'Head 3.

. , .

teoufrrefs, whichis imperfe&, as the apoftle nepoirnds it, Rom. iii. to. But our Lord Jefus hiring in the cove-,Want undertaken to ful61 ail righteaufnefs for them, Who: of themfelves, could fulfil no righteoefirefr ; a protuife was theretrpcm nmete, to accept them, as righteous upon the ac­count of his furety-righteoufnefs, which becomes truly theirs-through faith, and that by a double right. (t.) liy, a right of free gift -received : irstimuch•ns:Chrift's righte­oufnefs being nuide over, in the gufpel; of Heaven's free gift to finners, the gift'is by faith seittally claimed and re: toived ; whence it is Bailed the.gift ofrightroviloft, (Rom.: v. t 7.) revealed unto fuith, (Chap. i. 17.) namely, to be believed on, and fo received. ( z.) 13y right of communion; with Chrift : it-m*1111db as inners being united with him by faith, havestheeeby entrimution, or- a common interett ivith him in lit rightenufnek Philip. iii. 9. ' And be i found in him, nut having mine own right:cool-eels, which t is of the law; but that which is through the faith of 6 Chrift.' Upon thefe grounds, the holinefs of Chrift's nature, the righteonfitefs of his life, and the fatisfaCtion .. Made by his death and fufferings, being the conftiment '- liana of that righttotlfrieft, ares according to the trod, • nnputedta the :believer, or legally reckoned his : and,- u­pon the account hereof precIfily; be is accepted of God is righteoui; befog 4 mute the righteaufnefs of God in 4 hits. 2 Cor: i. 2 a. the righteonfnefs of God beirrg• rp;.: •• 4 on all that believ•' Rom..iii. 22;

II ere is 'life to the font; righteonfnefe 4 unto juilifica•

f life,' Rom. v. Kt .- 4 an everiafting righteoufnefs,'

. 24. a gavnient• that never waxed -old-, is never

, nor collier! I- but efways continues in its eri.

-e, from the moment that it is put on: Where.

life -Inuit needs be eternal, 4 grace muff nteds -

.roughtharrighteoefnifsvnto eternal-life,' Rom.

'.,r . being once put on, it iruever put off .again. for

gent, in time nor eternity.

v, t of juftification, in• both branches

,: the promife ofjuftification. made-to

of the covenant being fulfilled, the • cg. to the. promife ; and then the ii....

Mediator gets aphis difcharge -

Tbrprornifory Part of "theCovenant. /r2

for the whole debt; and then they pleading it by faith fon their own behoof, are difcharged in their own perfons.

H. The promife of a new andlaying Cownant•relation to


The promife of eternal life to the eleti, doth alto com. prebend the promife of a new and laving covenant-rela­tion to God, which they, and each one of them, being. juftified, (hall be brought into : Hof.. ii. 23. ' I will fay

to them which are not my people, Thou art my people ;

and they fhall fay, Thou art my God.' Dying both morally and legally, through the breach of the firft cove. nant, they fall under a relative death too; whereby the bleffed relation between God and them was diffolved :. and it could not be conftituted again, while they lay under the condemnatory fentence of the law. But upon Chrift's undertaking in the covenant, to bring in an everlafting righteoufnefs, the price of the redemption of all Paving be­nefits, this promife was made. Wherefore, they being come to Chrift by faith, united with him, and juflified through his righteoufnefs, which nhey partake of in him ; God meets him there, even in Chrift the appointed meet. ing place : and there, with the fafety of his honour; he takes them by the hand, and joins them again in a faring relation. Thus they Lave a relative life, according to that, Pfalm xxx. 5. In his favour is life. The which life is eternal : forafmuch as the relation is for ever indiffolu­, ble ; the bond of the fecond covenant being fo much fur. er than the bond of the firft, as the fecond Adam's un• dertaking was furer than the firft Adam's.

Now of this promife there are three chief branches ; namely, the promife of reconciliation, of adoption, and of God's being their God.

1. The promife of reconciliation between God and them : Ezek. xxxvii. 26. I will make a covenant of

peace with them ; it (hall he an everlaffing covenant.' They were by fin in a !late of enmity with God: on their part, there was a-real enmity againft God; on God's part, a legal enmity againft them, fuch as a judge bath agai• a rnalefaaor, whom notwithftanding, he may dearly 1 But Jefus Chrift having undertaken, in the covenant

The Parte° f the Coement131-Grace: Head 3. expiate their guilt, by the.facrifice of hiutfelf, the Father made .a. protwife of peace and reconciliation with them thereupon. Hence we are Paid to be reconciled to God sy the-death of his Son, Roin..v. to. inafmuch as by his death and fufferings he purchafed our reconciliation which was prontifed on thefe terms:

Now, this promife is accomplifhed to the juaified firmer:- being pardoned, he is brought . into a {fate-of peace whit God, as faith the apoftle, Rom. v. i. Being juftified-by f faith, we have peace. with God.' God lays down his legal enmity againft him, amr to be taken up again. And more than that, he takes him into a bond of friend. !hip; fig that he is not only at peace with God, but is the friend of God : Janos ii. 23. 4 Abram believed God, and 6 it was imputed unto him for right:owl:1ga: and 11

was called the hiend of God.'

This promife is grafted upon the promife of aceeptance­and jollification made to Chrifl. For his faerifice being accepted as well-pleating. to God, and he difeherged of the (hilt he became furety for, the reconciliation, as well as the pardon, of thufe united to him by faith, natively follows thereupon : 2 Cor. v. 39. God was in Cbriftt . reconciling the world unto himfelf, not imputing their 6 trefpaffes unto them.' Eph. i. iv. He bath made us ao. 4 cepred in the beloved. Ver. 7. In whom we have re• 6 demption through his blood, the forgiven( fs of fins.'

2. Another branch of his promife, is the promife of their adoption into the family of God : Hof. i. SO. g It

than be laid unto them, Ye are the funs of the living.

God.' And this is more than the folmer ; as it is moue to be One's fon, than to be his friend. We have be­f4re declared, how all mankind was, by the raft covenant, i\Nottitoted .God's hired fervants : and by the•breach of

covenant, bond•fervants under the curie : and how (3,14 transferred that Date of fervitude off his fpiritual kid on hisofelf. Now, upon confideration of his taming

kips the form efalllibud•fervant for them, the promife st %kir idoptioak' - ramify cf. God was.snade. He

e, to redeem them that were

Ina nude not

vsssior the Ir "light receive the adoption of

4"n; Cut. iv

be prom fury Part the Covenant. 232

'Arid 'being juftified by faith; and reconciled to God, it is accomplifhed to them : forafmuch as then Chrift's fen- . vice is imputed to them, and a wey is opened withal for their admiffion into the family of God, through their gaunt reconciliation to him : Rom. v. 1. •-Being jai& 4 ed by faith, we have peace -with God, through our Lord

Jefus Chrift. Ver. 2. By whom alfo we have accefs by $ faith into his grace wherein we (tend.' John i. az. 4 As many as received him, to them gave •he power to be­' come the fons of God.' Then -are they taken as chil­dren into the family of Heaven : God becomes their fa­ther in Chrift : And they his fens and daughters, to abide for ever in his houfe, John viii. 35. And fo they have a

right'to all the privileges of that high relation.

Now, this promife is grafted upon the promife made to 'Chrift of a new kind of iotereft in •God as his Father': according to that, John xx. 17. 41 afcend unto my Fa, ther, and your Father.' -For by-the Spirit of adoption, we call God our'Father, in the right of Jefus Chrift our elder brother, fpiritual hufband, and heed: '

3. Thelatilaranch is the' promife of God's being their God : Heb. viii. to. I• will be their God. This is more than reconciliation and adoption : it is the height of the relation to God, which a finful creature could be advanced .unto. They were by nature without -God, Eph. ii. it. but forafmuch as the-Son of God did, in the covenant


dertake to give himfelf for them, in their nature perfedly to fatisfy the'law, in his holy birth, righteouslife, and ex­- quiftte death a •anfom of infinite value, quite beyond all . created things what foever, graces, pardons, heavens, there was made upon that confideration a promife of God's giv_ ing himfelf to them, as the adequate reward of that fervice;

which being performed by the Mediator, this reward was purchafed for them. Hence, God faith to Abraham, Gen_. XV. 1 I am thy exceeding great reward.

Now to the believer being juflified, reconciled, and a­:dopted into the family of God, this heritage falls, in ae­complifhment of this -promife, Rom. viii. 17. And if chil- dren, then heirs ; 'heirs of God, Gal.'iv. 7. And if a


then an heir of God through Chrill : God himfelf being .heritage. He becomes their God : -they-have a rigi

The Part: of the Covenant of Grate. Bead

him, and are poffeffed •of him, as their own property : -property which the thought of men ancl-angels cannot ful­ly reach the contents of. Not only are all•the works and

creatures of God in the heavens, earth, and fear, theirs,

Cot. iii. all are yours ;' but himfelf is theirs; which is more than all that, as the bridegroom is more than all his marriage-robes, or 'his large poffeffions. All his attributes are theirs; his infinite wifdom to dire& them, his power to afford them prote&ion, his juftice to make -all the benefits .purchafed by Chrift for them forthcoming

to them, his holinefs to transform them into the fame i­mage, his mercy to pity and fuccour them, his ,grace to deal bountifully with them, his •aithfulnefs to fulfil all the promifes to them in their time, and all-fufficiency to ren- 'der them completely happy. he is theirs in all his rela­tions: their Shepherd, Provjfor, Prote&or, King, Hof--band, Head, and whatfoever may contribute to their hap­pinefs. All the perfons of the glorious Trinity are theirs;; the Father is theirs, the Son is theirs, and the Holy Spirit is theirs : 'fa. liv. 5. For thy maker is thine bujband, (the Lord of holt it hi: name) : Heb. Thy Makers are thine .kujband t; PHOFAH SABAOTH is bit name*.

This rich promife is grafted upon the promife made to -Chrift of a new kind of intereft-in God as his •God : John ma.. i 7. 1 °fiend -to my God and your God. God being the Mediator's God by purchafe, he becomes our Gbd in him. Ora having performed the condition of the cove­nant, falls heir to the great heritage ; and we fall to it al. :fo in him, being heirs with God, and joint heir: with aril), Rom. viii.

III. The promife of Saniqcation.

In the promife of eternal life to the elea, is compre­hended in like manner the promife of their fan&ificatiore: Ezek. xi. t 9. I will take the Any- heart out of their

.•and will give them an heart of Alb: verfe 20. That they may walk in my flatutes. -See Joel iii. 17, zs. Heb. viii. so. Through the breach of the first covenant, they Ina the image of God : their faculties werefo depraved, that they could neither do,fpeak, nor think any thing truly good and acceptable to God ; they were by nature altogether

Thrpronefes-y Part of the Covenant. 13 3

unholy, unclean" lothfeme, and abominable, in their nature, Heart and And it was quite beyond their power to make thentfebee holly again : for mending of their nature could not effeft ; ill behoved to be renewed, Eph. iv. 23. And the curie of the law lying Lyon them, extinguifhed alt raving relation, between Goer and them ; and fo block­ed op all flying communication. with Heaven : for it bar• red, in point eF jtraice, all fanilifying influences from thence ; thefe being the greatea benefit they were capa­ble of, as affimilaring the creature. unto God himfelf, or taming it like him. The curie fared a gulph betwixt God and them, fo. that fandifyiag influences could not pars from him unto them ; more than their holy clefires tataprayers coedit Paff; front them unto him. So the fal­len angels always were, and, the damned now are, beyond dl pofftbility of famgfificatiom or of receiving, fanetifying inftneneeti from Heaven.; there being no remedy to re­move the eurfe, neither from the one nor from the other. And in this cafe all Mum% pofterity had lain for ever, had not jefue-CbrilL as the head; of the ele&, undertaken in the feeontl covenant to remove-that bar, to fill up the gulpti, and to found a new laving relation between God trod- them,. through his own obedience and death. But iipos that undertaking of the Mediator, the Father didhy' promife, i Mitre their Candlification, that Chrift'spropiefLuld &e wilting in shed,* of his power, in the beauties of holinefr, Pfal. cx. 3o and that a feedfhouldferor him, Pfal. xxii. 30. - Alta this promife, the promife of fanaifieat ion, is indeed the chief promife of the covenant made to Chrik for them : among the ref of that kind, it fhines like the moon a­mong the leffer flare. Sandlification is the very chief fubordinate end.of the covenant of grace, (landing therein teat to the glory of God, which is the chief and ultimate end-thereof. The promife of it, is the cei.tre of alt the reib of tbefe promifes. All the foregoing promifes, the promife tf prefervation, the Spirit, the firft regeneration or quicken... ing of the dead foul, faith, jollification, the new laving re. lotion to God, reconciliation, adoption, and enjoyment of God as our God; do tend unto it as their common cent rk and (land related to it ae means to their end. They -a iccomplithed to !Inners, on delign to make them

134 The Parts if thcCvvenoid'4. Grate. Head 3.

And all'the fubfequeab promifes, even the promife of glori­&cation itfelf are but the fame promife of fanaification en­larged and extended : they are but as fo many rays and beams of light, (hooting forth from it as the centre of them all.

. this appears from the fcriptural defcriptions of the co­venant, in the promiffory part thereof refpeaing the cleft: Luke i. 73. 4 The oath which he fware to our father A­1 braham, ver. 74. That he would grant unto us, that 4 we being delivered out of the bands of our enemies, 4 might ferve him without fear, ver. 75. In holinefs and f righteoufnefs before him, all the days of our life.' Here is the oath, or covenant fworn to Abraham as a type of Chriit ; wherein his fees ferving the Lord in holinefs,• is held forth as the chief thing fworn unto the Mediator by the Father ; and their deliverance from their enemies, a$ the means for that end. See Hob. viii. to, I 1, Is. where God's writing his law in their heart, is fet on the front as the firfi thing in the divine intention, though thelaft in execution, as appears by comparing the IDth and 12th verfes. This matter is alto evident from, the nature of the thing. For the great thing Satan aimed at in tau.' cing our firft parents, was the ruin of the image of God in them, that fo mankind might be no more like God, but like himfelf : and the myflery of God, for the recovery 9f finners is then finifhed, when holinefs is brought in them to perfeEtion in heaven, and not till then.

From all which, one may plainly perceive, that the
fanaification of all that (hall fee heaven, is fecured in the
covenant, upon infallible grounds, beyond all poffibility of
failure : and that the unholy have no Paving part nor lot
in the covenant ; and that the lets holy any man is, the
kfs is the covenant promife accompliffied to him. For
the fanet,:fication of rowers is the great defign of that con.
trivance ; it is that which the Father and the Son, look‑
ing therein to them, had chiefly in their- view : and the
promife thereof is the capital promife of the covenant.
refpeeting them : being as it were written in great letters.
Now, at' the time appointed for every one in the eter‑
nal council, this promife is accompli(hed. The finner be.
u ft i fied by faith, and taken into a laving relation to

' prornifory Part of the Covenant. 535

God, being reconciled, adopted, and made an heir of God through Chrilt,is fanaified. The bar being removed, the gulph filled up as to him, his faring intereft in, and a re­lation to a holy God being eftablifhed ; the communica­tion between heaven and the finner is opened, and faneti­fying influences flow amain, to the fanetifying of -him. throughout.

This is, by fome divines, called the fecond regeneration, agreeable to the fcripture : Tit, iii. 5. ' He fared us by 1 the wafhing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy

Ghoft compared with Eph. v. 26. g That he might g_ fan&ify and deanCe it with the wafliing of water.' 2 Cor. v. 27. ' If any man be in Chrift, he is a new creature ; namely being created in Chrift Jefus unto good works,' as, the apoftle Wall-elf explains it, Eph. ii. 10. And 'as in regeneration, taken ftrietly for the quickening the dead foul, and called the firit regeneration, new vital powers afe given ; fo in regeneration, taken largely for the forming: of the new creature in all its parts and diftina members, which is called the fecond regeneration, there are new qu@ities and habits of grace infufed ;, and it is the fame with the fecond: renewing mentioned in our Shorter. Cate­chifm, on the head of fan8ification,. “Whereby we are re­" ;laved in the whole man, after the image of God." ' The matter lies here.. The finner being by faith unit­ed to Chrift, through the communication of the quicken­ing Spirit from Chrift unto him, and thereupon juilified, reconciled, adopted, and made an heir of God ; there is

meafure of every grace, even the feeds of all faring graces, derived from, and communicated out of the all­,fulnefs of grace in the man Chriff the head, unto the fin-Der as a member of his, by the fame Spirit dwelling in the bead and members. Hereby the man is not only a fpiritu t ally living creature, bat an all-new creature, fanetified wholly or throughout, renewed in the whole man, af.- ter the image of God. For the immediate effea of that communication of grace from Chriff, mull be the fealing of the perfon with the image of Chrift ; forafmuch as he receives grace for grace in Chrift, as the wax doth point for point in the feal. So that the reftored imac cod is expreffed on us immediately from Chriff the is


138 The Parts ftbe Covenant of Grace: Head 3.

hdarnoviro is the image gibe irraiible Gal; even as 'Eve was made after God's image,-being made after Adam's, according to Gen. ii. i8. I will male him an belp meet for hint t marg. as before him, that is, in Iris owsilifcenefs, as if be fat for the pi *ore. Compare t Cor. xi. 7. 1 He ,--<to wit the man) is the image wad glory of God ; but 4 the woman is the glory of the man ; ver. 8. For the man', 4. is not of the woman, but the woman of theman.' And 71 Cor. viii. 23. Oar brethren are the meferigera of the 4 chtirchesourd the glory of Chrift." And thus our twit: jog with Chrift, through the. Spirit, by 'fifth, iffues in our becoming one Spirit, that is, of the fume fpiritual holy nu-. tore with him•; as really as Eve"was onedleth with A. d am, being formed of him, of his IA and of his hones, Gen. ii. 23-. to 4Vhich the apoille alludeir, in the'matter eft the myilical union between ,Chria and believers, Eph. v; 3o, s. For ye are members of his body, of his fiefh, and of g. bin banes.

. This_ is the feripture account of the matter according to 'which, the fawf !ideation of a fmner bath a (pedal relai tion to Jefus Cirri& and his Spirit ; depends withal on out' relative !fate in the divine favour and fo is no lets a thyl­tery than our luflikatior. As the depravation of human nature bath always been Co maaifell, that it could not e.' (cape obfervatiaa in the world; fo,,in all ages, men have been aiming to difcover and compafs the cure thereof, in a right are they apprehended they could make of their tar­vional faculties. The ;foe wherehf bath always been, at belt, but an outward thew and femblance of fen6lifreation,• going under the name of vrtmll virtue, having no fpecial. relation to Jefusatrift and his indwelling Spirit: but Much as it is, made the foundation of men's relative Mate in the favour of God. And 6nce the world by their wifdom, knew not God; it is not at all orange, the produce of their wifdom in the matter of fon6tification, or ellimilation to hie image, lies fo wide of the true fanEtification accept-. *le to hits, difeovered in his word. Truly it is there' only we can learn the swyftery of the fanaification of a. firmer. And there it is revealed, that that _great work is wrought by the Spirit on the fouls of men in a hate of union with }dee Chrift, and after believing. Eph.-i.,

The pronfory Part of the Covenant. 1'37

3. ' In whom alto after that ye believed, ye were felled

with that holy Spirikof promife.' It neceffarili depends on our union with Chrifl, in that we are fanIqed is Chr1 Nits, as members of his body, 2 Cor. i. 2. created itt Chrffl fetus unto good work. ACel faith is the inflrumen­tal caufe of our fanaification, feeing we ale faneiyied by faith, Aas zz:. 18. for thereby it is, that of his jidnele we receive grace for grace, (John i. 16.) the which is communicated to us by his Spirit, who glorifies 'him, by reforming us,after his image, by means of that communi­cation of Oct from Chrift unto us : John xvi. g He
4 !hall glorify me : for he. fhall receive of mine, and (hall

thew it unto you. So beholding as in a glare the glory °, of the Lord (Chrift,)•we are changed into the fame image !, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord,'

Cori iii. 18. Thus one -being in Chrift, is made a new creature::, forafmuch as he is fuch a flock as changes the graft into its own nature : Therefore if any man be in

Cbrill,,he is a new creature, chap.. v. 17. For as many !of you as have been baptized into Chrift, have put on Chrifi,' Gal. iii. 27.

It dependethalfo upon our juIlification and recopcilia.- Ono with God ;. inafmuch as the blood of Chrid, with. which we are fan&ified, according to the fcripture, Rev.. i. S. I Pet. i. 2. r John i. 7. is effective of our fanaifica­tion, as it is the .meritorious caufe thereof: and fo the­fan&ifying virtue of that precious blood, proceeds from its atoning virtue ; it fanaifies us, becaufe it juftifies and re.• conciles us to God ; ,•1-low much more lhalt1

the blood of Chrift, who through the eternal Spirit of. g. fered himfelf without: fpot to God, purge your confci­teOce from dead works to ferve the living God ?' Where­to°, faith the apofile, 1 Tbeff. v. 23.' And the very God. 4' of peace fan&ify, you? In like manner, it prefuppofeth. our adoption ; inafmuch as it is Upon our being adopted: • into the family of God,. that we receive the Spirit of his' Son, conforming-us to his image as our elder brother, which. is the very thing wherein our fauEtification cloth confia r

Fur. whom he did foreknow, he alto did prededinate to g. be oonfortned..to the image of his Son, that he might be

the felt horn among .many bzethren,T Rom. viu.. 29•,
M 3

'38 Tie Pant: of the Caveman( of araei: Head 3.

And becaufe ye are Ions, God hash fent forth the Spirit 4 of his own S n into your hearts, crying, Alba, Father.'.. Gal. iv. 6. 4 We are changed into the fame image, even4*

as by the Spirit of the Lord,' a Cur. iii. 18. And it. Rands in the fame rdation to God's becoming our Crod. Etat. xvi. 8..4 I Iware unto thee, and entered into a cove.

pant with thee, faith the Lord God, and thou became 4 mine. Verfe 9.: Then washed I thee with water : yea, 4.1 thoroughly wafhed away thy blood from thee, and L.

anointed thee with oil.'

Bet although in this work of fan&ification, there is com­municated out of the alIfulnefs of grace in C'brift, a men. fore, and that a predominant unafure of every grate I yet it is not a full meaftwe of any grace. Hence it comes to pars, that howbeit we are thereby renewed in the whole' man, yet we are itill unrenewed in the whole man too: to wit in relptet of two genetalparts, thence called the renewed part, and the unrenewed part. For this communication of grace, being of grace for grace in Chrift, we are there. by renewed io every particular part indeed : but the mew: fore of none of there graces being full in any foul while here, we art not wholly renewed in any filch part, but there are remains of corruption fill indwelling in every Much part, in the mind, will, and affeEtions, and in the body by way, of communication with the unrenewed part. Thus, two-contrary principles, to wit, race and corruption, are in' the fandified ; beg together in loch fort, that in every-particular part where the one is, the other is these ago by-;:..even as in the twilight, light and darknefs are in eve­- 'metolthe hetnifphere, All which the fcripture doth

dandy declare. For what we have of this gracious'

upon us, while here, is but in part ; it is not pet.k41,-

,. Eiii. 9, to. Though there is a new man put an,

is an old man to be put off, Eph. iv. 22, 24.. There

fh as well as fpirit in the bed, Gal. v. 17, wh9 there.

do look forth but as the morning, Cant. vi. to.' or,•

word pro arty fignifies, aa the dawning ; yet as the

)ing dark night, they differ thereby from


horn there is no. light, Ifa. 20.

ice Rom. vii. 14,214 Philip.


Zit priory*" Part' cf tbredvecaiL -

Howbeit, -foratenucli as it is a predominant ineafore of every grace-that is, thus communicated ; this work of fano­'fificatiort cloth iffoe, in a date of death unto fin, and a floc of fife unto vighteoutnefs. .

a. It iffueth in a Rate of death unto fin, or in mortrfica. tion. For, by means of that communication of grace from Cbrift the head, though it is not full, the old man of fin gets his :deadly wound. The reigning power of the whole body of fin is deftroyed inafmuch as a reigning principle of grace is thereby fet up in the believer ; and that ' his

feed vetattineth in him ; and he cannot fm, becauk heir 4 born of Cod, t Vhn iii. 9. Sin fhall not have dominion 4 over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace/ And the total pollution, or defilement, through fin, is by the fame means purged off; inafmuch as the relieved image of God makes •one really and perfonally pure and clean in the fight of God, as far as it goes : Tit. iii. 5. ' He fasted c as bythe-wafhing-of•regeneration, and renewing of the 4. Holy °hod. Compare Col. iii. to. And have put

on the uew man, which is renewed in knowledge after 4

the image of him that created him.' And thus one it pia into a 'Rate of death, in velpet:t of his up-renewed part, Col. iii. 3. For ye are dead a Rom. vi. i i. dead indeed tin: to/n. The-which *ate of death is fuch as a crucified man is in, Who -being nailed to the cross, than never come down Sill he have breathed out his Taft; Gal. vi. t4. 4 The

world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.' Rom. vi. 6. $ Oar old man is crucified with him.'

2. 1t iffueth alto in a Rate of lite unto righteoufnefs, or its vivification. For by means of the fame communication of grace from Chrift the head, one is endued with Unfitted habits of grace, the immediate principles of gracious ae• ions: the law is written in his heart ; and his, heart is oirmernedio lo* the Lord. And thus he is put • into a Ante of life 'unto righteoufnefs, in refpea of his renewed part ; being'dead indeed unto fin,` but alias unto God throngtf Plat Eihrtfil our Lord, Rom. vs. it. So faith the apotile of hinffelf, Gal ii, 20. I am crucified with Chryt: Never.. thelefs I live. And this Rate of life is filch, as a man it in for the common anions of life, which is not only quick. cued, but •ifett and come forth' of the grave : Cal. ii.

1140 .13e Part:ye& Cbgenent If Grace. Head 3.

e are 'rifest with him throsigb the faith of the °prettier, of Oa. Rcim. vi. 4. That like as Chri) was raifeelup by tb., glory of the Father, emenfo we alto Amid wall in newiteji of life. And it is an eternal life ; for the grace communicat­ed from Chria to the believer, for that effeet,./hall lm in him a well of water Swinging up into everkyling 10, John; iv. L4.

Now, this death unto fin, and life unto righteoufnefa, fpring from our communion withChrift in his death and refurreaion. There laft have in them a power and virtue to render his, myftical- members conformable to him in-them. They. have a power and virtue, to caufe in thena ft dying unto fin, as Chrift died for fin, a violent death:, lingering,. and painful, yet voluntary ; and a riling from. In to anew manner of life,- continued during their abode in this world, end perfead in glory ; even as he rote front the dead to a new .manuer of life, continued till his tfcenfion t Philip. ii. to. That I may know him,. and the power of his refurre&ion, and the fellowihip 06 his fufferiegs, being made conformable unto his death.'-' Rom. vi. 4. Therefore we are buried with him by bap. f-Airm unto death :Ant like as Chrift was- railed up by, the glory of the Father, even fo we alfo should walk in newnefs of life. Ver. 5. For if we hive been planted to-f- gether in the likenefs of his death ;_ we (hall be alfoc' g. ill she likenefs of his refurreaion. . Since there ia in Adam's fin and death a malignant virtue, coneorm­ing his natural. Offspring unto' him therein, to their de. Cement ; why should it be thought ftrange, that there • &mid be foch u.benign. virtue in the death, and -refurrec­tion of Chrift thefeeoncl Adam, conforming his myftical; members unto him therein, to- their fauaification ? For at in ildam all die, even .A in Cbrifljball all be made alivea. I Cm. xv: az. The death and,refurreaion of Chrift have, this virtue, infomuch as-he died and role again as a public, perfon, and merited this conformation.of his my-Iliad ruem.- bets to his image, Rom.. vi. 40-12. Eph. ii. 5, 6. And they have this effect, as they are applied to us by the

. For the cafe of eurjaificaLion and fzipaification, iamuch like /that, of the delivering one who is. a prifoner, for debt. Winn the Iarety'a.papnot of the ,debt isles gaily applied to tge prifoner, by the judge fuftaining

73epotty:for, Part te the Covenant. t4t,

eleariag his debt : in the moment of that applicatbse, the prifoser is legally free; • he is M3 more a prifooer in point of right, though fill iatthe prifon, until that nee fent by the judge, apply it to him •molly by opening the prifos. doers to him, and feting him at liberty. Even fo the death of Chrift, and his refuereilion cosfidened as thee- vidence of his complete fatisfaition, being legally applied by God the judge, to a tanner, opewhis believing; they have an immediate elite& on 'him, conftituting him in happy relative Rate, in jollification, and a new relation to God es his Friend, Father, sod God : fo that be .is thane. by freed, even from the dominion and palhstion•of fin, in paint of.risht,as well as he is is fati freed bons the gilt of it : he is by that application legally dead unto On and alive Tinto God: Rom. vi. tel. For itr that he to wit,

Chrift) died, he died unto lin once; bat in that he limb

liveWruntoGod. Ver. it. Likewife reckon ye alio your.

_ (elves to be dead indeed unto fin ; but alive unto God

through Jefus Chrit our Lord.' Now, the curie which food as a legal Isar to fanEtifying ialluences, in refpea tvhereof thefireorh the law, x Cor. xv. 3'6. being
Outs quite removed by the legal application of the death. sod refurreaion of Chrift to the believer; the Spirit cloth wally apply the fame death and rebirre6tion to him, cos. forming him perfosally thereto, through the co•n nunies. tines of grace to him out of the folnefs of grace in Chnift, the head ; without which there cannot be any fuels caw - formation, according to the Rated method-of grace seveal.i ed in the foripture. And thus they have a mediate effea on him, continuing him really and perfonally holy, is fantiiication; Rom. viii. 2. For the law of the Spirit 6 of life, inChrift Jefus, bath made me free from the law of fin and death.' Col. ii. is. Buried with him in back ' taro, wherein alfo ye are rife° with him.' t Cor. art. tip 6 'For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body.' John ay. 4. As the branch cannot bear fruit of Well, etc.

cept it abide in the vine no more can ye, except ye *A

'bide in We.' There was a double fprinkling of the blood of the facrifices, called the blood of the covenant, Exod. axis,. Fait, it was fprinkled on the altar for atonem sad s000neiliation with God for Ifrael, vqr. 6. and

543 The Park of the Covenant of Gram Head 3.

it was fprinkled on the people, for their purffication, vet': 8. its purifying virtue flowing from its atoning virtue. Accordingly, there is a double application or fprinkling of the blood of Chrift, thereby fignified : one, for our juftification and reconciliation with God; mentioned Heb. xii• 2a. reare come.—ver. 24.---to do blood of

thatfpeakdh better thing: than that of "gel, name­ly, in that it fpeaks for mercy and pardon, whereas Abel's (poke for vengeance : and then another, for our fanflifi­cation ; mentioned I Pet. i. 2. Through fanaification 6 of the Spirit unto obedience, and fprinkling of the blood of Jefus Chrift.' And this is the only true fanaificatiots of a tanner, having a fpecial relation to Jefus Chrift and his Spirit.

• Now, the branches of the promife of fanaification are manifold : for it fpreads as,wide as the commandments of the holy law, which, in the ftation it bath in the gofpel­covenant, are all turned into promifes. Thus, whereas the command is, Know the Lord; the promife is, Theyfhalt all low me, faith the Lord, Jer. xxxi. 34. The command. is' Come unto me, Matth. xi. z8. and it is promifed, They­fball soave, Pfal. xxii. 31. The command is, Love the Lordi, Pfsi. xxxi. 23. it is promifed, The Lord will eireumefle Aim heart to lave the Lord, Deut. xxx. 6. It is the corn, mand, Fear God, i Pet. ii. ty. and it is promifed, I will put my fear is their heart:, Jer. xxxii. 40. We are iota-minded to be sleek,' bumble, and lowly, Matth. xi. 29. aud­it is promifed, Ha. xi. 6. The wolf flail dwell with the lamb—and ayoung childflail lead them. And thus it is in all, Cher cafes, the whole commandments of the law in this ation being inlaid with the gofpel-promifes, as appears

um Heb. viii. to. 6 I will put my laws into their minds, and write them in their hearts : and. I will be to them a. 6 God, and they (hall be to me a people.'

But the chief branches are thefe two ; to wit, the pro-mile of repentance, and the promife of natal grace and flrength for all holy obedience.

1):, x. One chief br of the promife of fanaification, is

the promife of cc.' Not that legal repentance

which goes befer laith, being common to the elefk

and reprobate., %angelical repentance, which is

The ironlifory Part of the Coroenant. 143

defcribed in our Catechifm, the feeds of which are, faid, in the'Larger Catechifm, to be put into the heart in fans• tification •' and fo follows faring faitkand juftification, is the order of nature• Ezek. zzzyi. 31. Then (hall ye Mt 4 member your own evil ways, and your -doings that were 4 not good, and .(hall lothe yourfelves in your own fight 4 for your iniquities.: Pfah xxii. 27. "Ail the ensloolthe world (hall remember and turn unto the Lord:Zech. 4 so. They (hall look upon me whom they havepiercedv g and they (hall moutn for him.' The :whole fpiritual feed were, by means of the breach of the fir& covenant, loft fbeep, even as others. Adam left them as fo many waifs and (frays, wandering on the mountains of vanity, ready to become a prey to the roaring lion, who goes a• bout them, Peeking whom he may devour Ifi. liii. 6.- i All we like weep have gone aftray: we have turned eve-4 ry one to his own way. AU of them bad loft the wayv and none of them could find it again. They had gone a• way from God, and could not return. They had turned, to him the back and not the face, and had .become fo

in­dezible, they could not turn about to him and to their du­ty. They had loft their eyes and -could not difcern the way to return :.to do good they bad no .inowledge, jet.. iv. 22. They had loft the power of their limbs, and could no more return, though they had knows the way,•than the (Ethiopian ran"change _hiefkin, or the leopard his fpote, chap., viii. 23. And they had withal loft heart to return ; God• being, to them an unatoned God, his face fet egoista them,• they could not bear to approach him: So they neveo could have turned, although they had been able ; but. each of them would have faid, There is no hope. No, for I have lovedPagers, and after them will Igo, Jet. ii. 25. • Wherefore, had not the. Mediator interpofed, they had )vandered endlefely: had not Jefus Chriii taken the defpe. rate cafe in hand, there had never been a returning tanner -of Adam's family, a true penitent, a heart kindly foftened in forrow for fin, nor turning in hatred againtt: fin as fin, PIM than there is among the fallen angels. But upon confideration of the "fecond Adam's walking with God, the whole way of obedience to the law, which they wc elffrom,; having withal laid on him the iniquities of t'

The Park- Volpe Cawood of Grace. Head 3.

there. was, made a promife of giving thein, repentance, that be Iheeld gather togeMeriir000, tho ebildrnc of God that itrere foreword alrool, -Jabo., xi., 52. In •perforanance of orbit* proinife, after his afeenban into heaven, it wasfonerd, than Gott had sift to the Gewalt graded reprottater

ArieN IL

NSW, -wheameeis jufbified by faith, and• new related to
Gad, an his, Friend, Pother, an Goa, he is fitnaified,
sod bnmgbe to true and-evengeliewireperitanco according
to thin prate& Being conk to Choitt by bath, her.onses
buck moo, Godi by him id repentance, Hebb vii. •5.
Whener it is cabtd rormootwe ;award Gads which in she
aid whereunto faith toward our Loa jeffor Chtif is the
means,: Adte 36X. z I. Then, and not till thee, iris, that
the heart is fat •going in true gofpel•repentance, plea6og
toGoe and acceptable itshisight • according- to the- ferip‑
levet Each. irk 62. And .1 will e4tablifir my covenant
ver„ 63. That thou-rawyet remember and be
coefoundecti and never open, thy mouth any more becaufe
s.of thy theme, when L am pacified towards-thee. Chap.
6 xx. 21. act ye !hall know that. I am the Lord,: whes 1
Shall boil% you into the land ofl hock ver. 43. And there
Shall ye remember your waysi—alui ye flail lathe your
a (tires. .Chap. rixxvi‘ 25. Then will -fprinkle , clout
It water upon you, and ye Oath be clean,—eerie 26. AI
'clew- heart .alfo, will I give you,,,—ver. 2.8.,--And ye
a final be my:people, and will be yam God: ver. 31.
4 Theu fluid ye remember par, own evil ways,--anct Shall
en lathe yourfelvet.' For then it is, that thelove of God to
tile. foul, which lay hid before, doth thine forth more or
lthiclear ; aoclbei ng elifterned by fa it b., according] y winnethe
heart of a ,finger with love to God agoinotocordingto that
John iv. 19. lee love him; becaufe he firlt lo-ved tu. And-that
lova melts into repentance for fin, as is the woman who,
being forgiven much, loved mach ; and 'hewed her love,
by her wafhing our Saviour's/eel with mars, Luke vii. 37,
38, 47. The hard, heart is then laid on the Soft bed, of
the. lose and free grace of God in atria; and the word
of the lbw inlaid with the gofpel, fallen it faying,“ Break,
at for the Lord is gracious. ' Joel ii. 13. Rene your beer4
a—attrigure unto Me Lordyorw. God; for ke irzrriciorw .2nd

Tshe protnifory Part of the Covenant. 145

tnereFul,*-r.and of great kindnefs. And thui, like a hammer' breaketh the rock in pieces. The party, .being as is before declared, renewed in the whole man, put into a state of death unto fin, and life unto rightroufni fs, the new nature

ents.itfelf in an ingenuous and thorough turning from fin unto God, in heart and Lie. By believing, the firmer re-, turns unto God as a portion wherein to refl : in repenting, he returns unto God as a Lord 'and Matter whom he is to obey. He turns from fin unto God, coming back as a runaway fervent to his mailer, returning to his place and duty in the family. And he returns with blufhing and team. He is filled with fcrrow and fhame for offending a good and gracious God. His heart is turned againft in hatred of it : he hates it not only as a hurtful thing, that would ruin him ; but as a filthy and lothfome thing that defiles him. He lothes it as the abominable thing that God hates ; as the .deformity of the foul„ the very reverie of the glorious holinefs of God expreffed in his law. He lothes hitt-Jell for it ; calls himfelf fool and bean, for his entertaining it : fmites on his breaft, as if he would bruile tHat-breaft it was bred in ; and fmites on his thigh, as if be would break the legs that carried him in the way of it, Luke xv. 20, 2 I. and xviii. 13. Jer. xxxi. 18, • 9. And

- he returns with full purpofe of and endeavour after new obedience; with a heart inclined to keep God's ftatutes always even unto the end, Plal. cxix. 33. and filled with carefulnefs in that point and vehement dare of it, and zeal for it, 2 COI. vii. I I.

, z. The other chief branch of the promife of fanetifi‑

cationis the promife of altual grace and firength for all holy obedience ; whereby one may he enabled acceptably to perform obedience, in all and every a& of mortification or dying unto fin, and of living unto righteoufnefs; to do .every duty that is required of him, and to bear whatfoe‑

er afilietion is lai.d upon him, Pfa•m xxii. so. A feedflail ferve him. Zech. x.Nt 2. And L milli prenthen them in the Lord, and -they (hall walk up and down in his name. Hof. 3419. 9. The ways of the Lord are rigit, and the jrffl fi'd1 walk in them. .Exek. xxxvi. 27. And 1 will caul; walk ttsnty.flatutes, and ye /hall keep my judgments. them. Deut. xxx. the roiit•protnife of fandit.

146 .The Parts of the Covenant of Grace: Head 3.

in eireumcifing of the heart to love the Lord, is in the hrtt place propofed, vote 6. and then follow both the branches thereof together, to wit, the promife of. repent.. ance, and of adual grace for new:obedience, verfe 6. ..4nd thou/halt return and obey the voice of the Lord, and do all his command:vents. God planted Adam a noble vine~ made him as a green tree full of lap, for bringing forth all fruits of hands : but, breaking the firft covenant, he and all mankind in him withered and died under the curie; upon,which enfuecl an abfolute barrennefe, that no fruit of hands could b,e expelled from them more. But the lc. coact Adam having engaged to fatisfy the law, by bearing the curie, there was thereupon made a promife of railing them up again to walk hi newnefs of life. And it is performed in their habitual fandification wrought in theta immediately upon their union- with Chrift : for, though fa ndification cloth in the order of nature follow juffification, and the new relation to God, as a Friend, Father, and God; yet, in refped of time, it is together and at once~ with them : in the fame moment that a finner isjuftified, he is alfo fanailiod. But even when we are habitually fandified, through the habits of grace infufed into us by the Spirit, we are not of ourfelves, that is to fay, merely upon that stock, without new communications of afloat grace by the fame Spirit, able to bring forth any fruit of holinefs; even-of our gracious felves we can do nothing, as our Saviour teacheth, John xv. 4, 5. And the apoille profeffeth, in his own name, and in the name of all other gracious 'perfons, 2 Col'. iii. 4.. And fuck !roil have we through Chrill note Godward, ver. 51 Not that we are jilf. fuient of ourfelves to think any thing as of ourfelves; but our fafficiency is of God. ;For (faith he, Phillip. ii, t3.) it is God aubieh worketh in you both to will and to do. And this is no more ftrange in the difpenfation of glace, than that, in •ature, fleth Seed Town in good ground, yet cannot fpriag up, and• bring forth fruit, without warming and rnoiften­ing influences from the heavens; or; that we have a pow­-.er of natural motion, and yet cannot adually move a fin­ger; without a common providential influence of the Bpi­rit of God, in (or by) lam we live, and move, Ads xv.i. 243. Wherefore the promife is, extended, as we have livid,

The promilAry Part of the Covenant. 147

unto aaual grace and ftrength for the stets of holy obedi­ence; and is fo made forthcoming to believers in their ad11- W and progreffive fanelification:

And thus Inch a fufficient provilion and ailowarce of grace is made in the covenant for believers, as that it is coffible for them, even in this life, to perform obedience to the law- of Chrifl, the ten commandments, the eternal rule of righteoufoefs, in all the parts thereof acceptably : fo that there is no corruption In ftrong, but one may get

acceptably mortified ; nor does the Lord require any duty fodiffitult;but one may get it acceptably done ; -nor is there anytrial or of lielion fo heavy but one may get them ac­ceptablyborne. If it had not been fo, our Lord would not have trade doing whatfoever he commands, the ditiinguifhing

maik.of his-friends, John xv. 14 The apofile doth indeed. deny that we are fufficient ofOurfelres; but withal he teach­eth

that there is a fufficiency-for us of God, 2 Cor.iii.5. So the Lord himfelf taught him, in his own cafe, Chap. xti. 9. -My grace is fufficient for thee. Without it were fu, Chrill's yoke could not be eafy, nor his burden light, blatth. vi. ,30. Nay, they would be lite the yoke and burden of the law as a covenant of works, grievous to le borne, chap. xxxiii. 4. But hie commandments are not grievous, 1 John v..

3. It was no vain boatling the apoffle tiled, -when he laid,. I can do all things through Chrg, which firengtheneth me, Philip. iv. 13. Nor was Epaphras out, in fuppofing that the Coloffian believers mighty ;la mullet( in• all the will ti God, CIA. iv. 12. David had God's own tellimony, as-to faec in that matter, As xii. 22: I- have found
'4 David, a man after mitre own heart, which (hall fulfil call my will

This bears no prejudice to the doelrine of the imperfec­tien of the obedience of the faints in this life, maintained by orthodox divines againtl. the Papifis and other Perfec­.tionifts : which, as it is abundantly evident from the ho. ly-fcriptures, bath alfo a concurring tellimony td the truth thereof in the breaffs of all the ferious godly, to whom it is given by the Spirit to difcern the holinefs of God, the

pirituality of the law, and the corruption of their own nature. But I am perfuaded, that through the fleight of Satan, that dotiriae is, as fevers! other precious truths are, a Done of stumbling to many, through their not adverting

N 2

148 The Parts of the Covenant of Grate. Head 3.

to the provifion and allowance of grace made in this promife of the covenant, and that by this means many a poor fin.. Der is (oared and ruined, and the hands of many faints 'weakened lo the praetice of hoboes, to the great difad­vantage of the caufe of holinefs.in the world.

To break that fnarecand fee this matter in a clear light* there are three things carefully to be dillingt4lhed.

a. Diftingtfifh between performing obcdience,in all the parts thereof, and in•ail the degrees of thefe parts. The Litter indeed no min can,.at any rate,do in this life, James: iii. 2. Ecclef. vii. 2o. But the former every true believer may do, yea, and a&ually doth, fr far as theft parts are known to him, as appears from the text above dllcdged. In confounding of thefe there lies a Mare.- 4. The beft of 44 men," fay crafty (inners, " do in many thing come

fhort of the obedience required of them : and but fo do. '4 we." Nbw, that the faints do come ithort of the de­grees of every part of obedience required of them, is very true: but that they come (h•rt of any of the parts them­felves known to them, which is the cafe of the crafty fin­Ler feekiog filcher for his firs here is falfe. • And herein t be former do really diftinguith themfelves from the latter; as David (hewed himfelf of another make than Saul, by his fulfilling all God's will, in the feveral parts thereof, which Saul did nut,. As xiii. 22. It is here as in the Rafe of a. family, confining of pliable children, and refracs tory fervants. The matter of the family prefcribes feveral­pieces of work to be done by them all ; and his grown. children, who have perk& !kill of their bufinefs do then all extietly according to his mind: and thus glorified faints obey ; the younger children, who are but learning to work, -d4, out of regard to their father's cobamand, indeed put hand to every. one of them, but they can do none of them welly :_ even fo it is with the faints on. earth : but re­fradory fervants put hand to fome of them, but quite ne­glea others of them : and this is the manner of the wick­ed and florhful fervant, who leeks fhelter here for, his (loth, and his partiality in obedience.

2.. Diftinguifh between performing obedience•erfealy, and performing it acceptably.. No man can parform obe­fence perfe8ly in this life,, Philip.. iii.. t 2, But every

The promifory Part of the Cuvencnt. 149

trite believer performs obedience acceptably APRs x. 35. .6 He that fitareth him, and worketh rieiteoufnefs, is ac­cepted with him.' In confounding of thee there is a !Hare. The crafty firmer faith, There is none that gg performeth obedience perfealy : and I am lure I do 46 many things, though indeed not all." New, that the true believers do not pert-min obedience perfealy, is very tree ; but that they do not perform it acceptably, which is. the cafe of the crafty firmer, as not univerfal, and there: fore not fincere, in his obedience, is altogethe r falfe. They who are mailers, know very well haw to make this ditlinc. tion in their domeitic affairs. If a child, or pliable fen' want, thew a real-gond will to obey their orders, they will accept of their work, though it is not done, in every point, as they would have it : fo, if there be fart! a willing mind, difcovered in fincere encleavoars, it is accepted of God for the fake of Chriff, according to that a num bath, 2 Con viii. .12-. But if a fervent (hall quite neglel to put hand to a thing, which he is peremptorily ordered to do, bccaufe he cannot di; it every way fo ae the matter would have it done; this is conftrued to be a contempt of the matter's authority. . And what other account can men imagine will be made in heaven of their condo& in inthinces of plain and unque• &tumble duty, which they quite neglect; and of fin, that they indulge thernfelves in?

3: Dittiuguith between ability in ourfelves for perform­ing obedience in all the parts thereof acceptably, and a­bility for it in Chritt to be fetched in by faith. Neither faints nor.finners have the former, 2 Cur. iii. 5. but all -true believers have the latter : they have Inch ability in <MTh} their head, Col. ii. to. re are compleat in him. Phi. IT. iv. 53. I can do all thinge, through Cl,.'?!! which firength. meth me.. And it is in the gofpel offered to all,, fo that •whofuever will, may have it ; Matth. xi. 28. Come unto me, ail ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will gime you refl. Verfe 29.. Take my yule upon you. If a difcreet matter coM• mend his fervant to go and do a particular piece of work, it• will not excufe- the fervant's negled thereof, that 1' • wanted inffruments ncceffary for it ; becaufe he w;'

on, that his bidding him do the wolk, did fnppc lowing him iiiitrumeuts, without which it coul,

N 3

Tie Parts of the Covenant-olGrati, }read 3: done: and that the fervant ought to have called for•them But-here lies a-mining (flare to-many.. " We can do no‑

. " thing of curl-elves," fay they :- and hereupon the flug• gard puts his. hand in.his.bofom, and does nothing ;. but; having laid his head on his loft pillow, he ilteps to death • on the bed•of-11.4h and carnaleafeJ 0. that men would open their. eyes. and fee. through this piece of raining de. . ceit ! 1n1,3 man (hall be able to exoufe himfclf hereby, for the performance of holy, obedience in all the parts.thereoh Nay, this,his condua will bring him: undera double guilt;- one, of neglecting what it was his.duty to-do ; another of defpifing the. grace offered bim, to enable him thereto and to he will be condemned,. not becaufe• he amid not o. bey, but becaufe he would not God hash never been a.- bard mailer to mankind,. reaping where4e did not low ; but* hath always made a fuitab!e allowance of grace-anditrength to them for his_woik, Lo the. covenant of• works, only perfea obedicrice could be accepted..at th•hands.of the - covenant.people: and there was an allowance of grace and ikrength conform,„made to, them in it... God -made max.- upright, able to obey the law in perfeaian. And the law judly a ails for- perfeaion of obedience•fill, upon the gr,:und of. that provifion which was-made for it,. though

it is. now LAI ;. teeing that, it was-loll by man'sown fault... Lt the covenant of grace, 'A hid] is adapted .to ouc fallen aate, finoere- obedience- may be, accepted, natwithfland­ieg of imperfeaiona attending it. And accordingly, in it : "...re is made a provifiors.and allowance of fuck a fufficien6y.

:ace.and fty.engtb,.as.thereby every.piece•f obedience,‑

red: of thecovensant.people, may be done: even in this.

hough not as it.f};yuld.be done, yet.fo as-it may be‑

ed.: accepted I fay, not for his ow-n false. indeed",

the worker's fake neither ; but, for Chrift's fake,,
!lac.. name it is required. to be done and offered to ,

as a fpiritual facricze;,acceptable to God by .,7efus

- ,ii.. 5. This is .evident from the forecited paffages,

. i i. 5. ar.d xii. 9., Philip..iv. 1.3, But withal, this

of grace. andAtength for that effect, is.not.lodg.

in the covenant theinfelves.; but in Chrill their

..aa5 in whoro t it-, VA the branches have a fuffici;


of tap, c _vine, for .theis .bringing, fort.L.

The .Aromifory Pais of the Caveman. r51

fruit in the feafon : Ifa. xlv. 24. Surely (ball one fay, in the Lord have I righteovfnefr•and flrength. 2 Tim. ii. 1-. Thou therefore, my fon, be 'irons in the grace that is in Chriji yefitr. And it is fetched into the foul by faith, believing • the promife : Jer. xvii. 5. Blied it the man that trufteth in the Lord. Verfe 8. For he fheill be. as a tree planted by the watery. Pfal. xxviii. 7. My heart trufteth in him, and I am helped. And fo every command of Chrift in this co. versant, fuppofeth an allowance of grace and ftrength, fuffi-eient for the performing of it in an acceptable manner. Ac­eordingly,.the declaration of grace fiends on the front of the ten commandments, Exod. xxi 2. I am the Lord thy God,.---verfe 3. Thou flesh have no other gods before me, &c. If the law came to us without the gofpel, we might lave fome•excufe,for-not doing what we are commanded t yet not fo {bong; but that it would be overtltrown, as in the cafe of Pagans, Rom. ii. re. But thee, with the .commands of the law requiring obedience, the gofpel alfb come; to.us, lbewing how we may be enabled to obey them acceptably, and offering us that ability in Chriftiefus ; we are inexcufable in that matter : the plea of the wicked and flothful frrvant is rajeaed ; and he is condemned, not only for not giving obedience, but for refufing grace and itrength offered hint, to enable him thereto..

Wherefore, let us firmly believe this promife of the go. fpel.covenant, that we may give obedience to the corn­.mm16 of the law : for where there is no hope of perform­ing acceptably what is required, theic can be-no faitable endeavour after it. If the heart is hopelefs in the matter, the hands will certainly hang down : and the iffue mutt needa be,eitber a ceafmg from the duty.altogether, or elfe a. very faint performance thereof, unacceptable to God. But. the,faith of this promife will remove the-cover of (loth, animate to every good work, and bring in grace and firi•ngth. for all holy' obedience : Having therefore MO pro­aufis,.dearlybeloved, let us cleanfe ourfelves from allfhhinefe of thejlelb and fpirit, perfeaing holirieft in-the fear of God, a.Cor. vii. 14

Since God.hath not-given to the church-the comrr' - of• fanaitication to be obeyed, without the promi' Sitaaification to be.believed ; bit he that.hath faid,.

152 The Parts of the Ctreniast cf Grate. Head 3.

ge, make>on ckan, path laid alfo, I will frrinkle clean qua• ter upon yam, and Jo all he dean; eo man bath ground to imagine, that he doth fo much as codcavour to comply with the true defiga of the command of fam5lification, who doth not fir& believe and embrace the promife of fanitificatioa; but falls to work with the nitre and foap of his own faith. tele endeavours, to wait himfelf clean. Such a one mil.- -lakes the true intent and import of the command of lane­ti6cation as it (lands in his Bible; and that as far as the command of a difcreet mailer would be miftalren by a fool. ifh fervent, who being bid to go and dig a parcel of ground-, . fhuuld thereupon fall a digging it with his ..nails, never looking after a fpade, mattock, or any otherlinfterment proper to dig with.

Neva, the pro-naife of famEtification, . with- its feveral branches, is gratfed upon the promife of a refinraftion .made to Chrift. For the condition of the-covenant being fulfilled, he, as the head, was, according to the promife, 6 brought again from the dead, and lives unto God, death having no more dominion over him :' and in vittoe hereof Wain, his members ate brought to g repentailce ham dead

works, and unto newnefs of life.. Hence we are faid to be begotten again, by the refurreetion of jeftis Chritt

from the dead,' r Pet. i. g..• as we are railed

with him ( Col. iii. 1.) alto newnefsoflife Rom. vi. 3;) according to the promife, Ile. xxvi. 19. Thy dead men (hall live, together with my dead body than they arile.t—s The earth fluid call out the dead ; namely, in the firft place, . the head Cbrid jefus the firi-born from the dead, Col. i. 9. and then his -myflical members after bim in their order. Compare Hof. vi. a. In the third day he will raife as up,. 4 and we (hall live in his

Thus far of the proraife -of fanaifieation. Follows,

IV.- The troraift of Perfeverance in Grate.

he promife cf eternal life doth, in like manner, cony- -end the prornife of perfeverance in grace, to be con- -d on all the covenant-people, being jultified, ntw. re-

- fanaifiel ; lo that being once brought -

Ito grace, they fhall never fall away froin it

,o' vti, Thin gtoreife we hare, Jer. xxxii. 443.-

The promfrory Part of the Covenant. 153

And I will make an -everlaiting covenant with theme

that I will not turn away from them, to do them goods

but I will put my fear in their hearts, that they (hall not •• depart from me.' Here they are fecured on both fides; that God will never caft them off, and that they (hall ne­ver defert him. And that this benefit is included in the promife of eternal life, is clear from the apoftle's ad--clueing this fall to prove it, Heb. a. 38. Now thejufl

live by faith. Such is the malice of Satan, and the advantage he hatkagainft the faints in this life ; fo mani­fold arc the fnares for them in the prefent evil world.; inch a tender bud of heaven is the implanted grace of God in them ; and fo corrupt, fickle, and inconDant are the hearts of the bell, while here : that if their perfever. -once had not been fecured by promife in the cuvenant, but made the condition of the covenant, and left to the management of their own free-will, they would have had but a Corry reftoration of it into the Date of grace ; much as if they bad got a fpark of fire to keep alive in the mrdfl of an ocean. A t that rate they might all have pc­riihed ; and refus Chrift, notwithflanding cf the fl\edding of bis blcod for them, 'might hate• eternally remained a bead without members, a king without fubjeas : But the glory of aril}, and the falvation of his redeemed, were not left at fuch uncertainty. That perfeverance which the firft Adam failed of, and was made the condition of the fecond covenant, the fecund Adam did undertake in their name: and hereupon was made the promife of their perfeverance. And he having accordingly Ferfevered un­to the end, in obedience to the law fur them, being obedi­ent even to the death, it was purchafed for them.• Thus, Chrift's perfeverance in obedience to the law, till the con­dition of the covenant was perfeetly fulfilled, is the ground in law upon which the perseverance of the faints is infalli­- bly fecured, iu iirtue of the faithfulnefs of God in the .prornife.

Now this promife begins to be performed to them as loon as they are united unto Chrift ; and it goes on all a, long unto their death, that ,they enter into glory : yca, llrialy (peaking, death is not. laft, but a middle ter: of their perfeverance ; after which it proceeds fat: tm.,

I S4 The Parteof the Covenant of Grate. Head 3.

illuftrioufly than before. Upon their union with the iv­cond Adam, being favingly intereded in his obedience, which he perfevered in unto the end, they are confirmed that they can no more fall away: even as the firft Adam's natural feed would have been confirmed, upon his having completed the comic of his probationary obedience, and frtlfilling the condition of the covenant of works. The myftical members of Chrift do then obtain the former, as the reward of his continued obedience ; as in the other fuppofed event, Adam's natural feed would have. obtained the latter, as the reward of his continued obedience.

The promife of the perfeverance of the faints, fermata be grafted upon the promife of afliflance made to Chrit in his work. The Father promifed to him, that he woilld uphold him, fo as he fhould not fail, Ifa. xlii. 1, 4 The which promife being made to him as a public perfort, carries along with it the prefervation, and fupport of his members, in all their temptations, trials, and dangers of perithing ; enfuring the fafe conduit, as of the head, fo of the myfiical members, through this world, till they be out of the reach of danger.

Now, of the prothife of perfeverance there are two chief branches.

t. A promife of continued influences of grace to be from time to time conferred on them, being once brought into a (late of grace : Ha. xxvii. 3. I will water it every moment. Their flock of inherent grace would foon

if they were kft to live upon it, without fupp(y coming in from another band : of itfelf it would wither away and die out, if it were not fed, Luke xxii. 32. John xv. 6._ Innocent Adam had a larger dock of inherent grace than any one of the faints in this life, and yet he loft it. But the grace of God in believers cannot be fo loft: for in virtue of the promife, there are continued influences fe. erred for them ; namely, preferving influences, whereby

tee given, is kept from dying out, that as they are Ante‑

as God the Feather, fo they are frefirved iw ye/at arty,

t. exciting influences, whereby the grace preferred

g to langnifh, or being brought low by the pre‑

of eorrttptton and temptation, is flirted ep and put

spin; and drengthening influences, whereby

' The proanfory Part the CoVexarti. 15 5

the grace excited is increafed, and gathers more Orength, to the overtopping of corruption, and 'repelling of temp. tation: Hof. mg. 7. `They fhall revive as the corn, and grow as the vine. Accordingly, their faith is never fuf. fered to fail totally; but is preferred, excited, and llrength• ened ; and ail the other graces with it, and by it. And this is brought to pats through the communication of new firpplies of graoe to them, by the Spirit, from Chrift their head, from all which the body having nourithment

I-Mitered, (namely, through the fupply of the Spirit,

i. is.) increafed with the increafe of God,' Col. ii. 19.

2. The other chief branch of this promife is* promife of pardon, continued pardon for the fins of their daily walk: whereby emergent differences betwixt God and them, come to be done away from time to time, to that a total rupture is prevented : Jer. xxxiii. 8. I will pardon all their iniqui­t ties.' Howbeit the juftified have, as to their Kate, no need of a new formal pardon, but only by a manifetlatinn of their former pardon ; ftnce the pardon given is joftifi­cation, is never revoked, though by means of their after fins they may lufe fight of it : yet as to their daily walk, they have great need of a formal pardon ; forst:ouch as they are daily contraaing new guilt : John xiii. to. He that is wafted, beedeth not, favelo waft) his feet. For how-. beit no 'fins of the jeflified can bring them any more an.• der the guilt of eternal wrath ; neverthelefs they do bring the guilt of the fatherly anger, Pfal. lixxix. 3o, 3t, 3z. And therefore they need to pray every day, Our Father,. forgive us our debts.'

This pardonis given them, upon their renewed acing of faith in JefusChrift, and of repentance towards. God ; yet not for their believing and repenting, but fur Chria's fake,. area as the &ft pardon is given, ; John ii. 1, z and i. 7. Applying the blood of Chrift afreih tonheirfouls, they are. xmw•oved to repentance, tinning from their fins with ha­tred of them, furrow, fhame, and felt loathing for them. Looking by faith on him whom they have pierced, they mourn in renewed repentance ; and (*receive this pardon. Yor ahhongh repentance Both not go before, but follows Jett= the pardon of flu is jugification ; yet not only faith

t 56 The Parts of the Covenant of Grate. Head 3.

but repentance alfo, goes before the pardon given to thole already juflified t John i. 7. 6 Ff we walk in the light, $ as he is in the light, we have fellowfhip one with another, 6 and the blood of Jefus Chrift his Son cleanfeth us from 4 all fin. Verfe 9. If we confefe our fins, he is faithful, and • ilia to forgive us our fins, and to cleanfe us.' Therefore we are ordered to pray thus, Our Father forgive us our

debts, as we forgive our debtors,' Matth. vi. 9, 12. to teach all the children of God, that if they would have their Father's forgivenefs, they muff in the firft place forgive o­thers ; which is yet more clearly intimated, Luke xi. 4: 6 And forgive us our fins ; for we alfo forgive every one 6 that ikindebted to us.' But the matter is not fo Rated, with refpeet to the pardon of fin in juRification ; but that pardon is the fpring of our forgiving others, Matth. xviii. 32, 33. For our hearty and acceptable forgiving of others, proceeds from true Chriftian love to our neighbour ; and that flows from love to God ; the which is kindled in our hearts by God's pardoning grace to us, Luke vii. 47. Eph. iv. 32. The reafoo of the difference lies here, The unjutti­fied finner is under the guilt of revenging wrath, which Peeks not the amendment, but the dettruetion of the guil­ty : wherefore till once it isrernoved, there can be no true evangelical repentance, no acceptable amendment, in the firmer ; there being really a reftoration of him to life, in­compatible with a legal deffination of him to deftruftion. But the juftified faint is only under the guilt of fatherly an­ger, which feeks not the deftruetion, but the recovery and amendment of the guilty : and therefore it is not removed until he repent, turning from his fin unto God, in an ac­ceptable manner ; and that is the very amendment God feeketh in (hewing his anger againft him, as itithe cafe of David and of Peter.

And thus are the faints caufed to perfevere in grace, both real and relative. The promife of continued influences fe­cures not only the prefervation, but the renewed exercife of their grace, particularly of their faith and repentance : and the promife of continued pardon to them, believing and repenting, fecures the removal of the guilt of fatherly an gam. The Spirit of Christ ever dwells in them, and fo con. times an inviolable bond .of their union with bim ; and

The promifory Part of the Covenant. 157

dwelling in them, he recovers them when they are fallen, flits up the holy fire of grace lying hid with the afhes of .corruption. Then the withered hand of faith is again &etched out ; and the'man believes the promife of the par- don of guilt of eternal wrath, as to all his fins ; this melts his heart in kindly repentance ; and fo he believes the pro-wife of continued pardon, as to fatherly anger, with refpe& to the fins the caufes of God's prefent controverfy with ,him, and obtains pardon accordingly. By thefe means, .matters are always kept from coming to a total rup­ture. ,

V. The Promift of Temporal Benylit.

In the fifth and laft place, the promife of_eternal life to the cleft, confidered in this period, comprehends a promife of temporal benefits to be conferred on them, and every one of them, being united to Chrift ; and that in fuch dealt:ire, as God, fees meet for his own glory and their good. This promife {lands embodied with the fpiritual promifes in the covenant, Beek. xxxvi. 29. I will alfo rave you from all 4 your uncleanneffes, and I will call for the corn and increafe -s it.' Hof.ii. 22: The earth shall bear the corn, and the wine„, 4 and the oil, and they (hall bear Jezreel.' Indeed this is not the principal thing contained in the promiffory part of the covenant ; but it is a necefTary addition thereto : as the prefent ftate of the faints, while in this world, doth _require, Math. vi. 33. And thus godlinefs, as the apoille obferves, a Tim. iv. 8. s hath promife of the life that now 4 is, and of that which is to come.'

When God took man into the firft covenant, he made provicton in it for his temporal as well as for his fpiritual ,and eternal welfare. He gave him a right to, and domini­on over the creatures in the earth, fea, and air ; giving and granting unto him full power foberly to ufe them, and. to clifpofe of them, for Gud's glory and his own comfort ; and this lordfhip to be holden of him as fovereigii lord of all, firm and irreverfible, by the tenor of that covenant, as long as he fhould continue in his obedience'; but to be for­feited to all intents and purpofes, in cafe he fhould

tranfgreffion break the covenant, Gen. i. 28. and i, 17. But man continued not in this honour ; he 1.


158 The Paris of the Covers:at of Grace. Head 3.

God's covenant, and fo fell from that his right to, and dominion over the creatures. By his tranfgreffion he for­feited life itfelf; and confequently loft his covenant right to all the means and comforts of life. And in this condition. are 211 natural men, with refpeft to thefe things. They have no covenant-right to the mesas and comforts of fife, whatever portion of them they are poffeffed of. All the -right that they have to them, is a mere providential, pre­carious right ; fuch as a'condemnedman bath to hisifood, -daring the time his executioa is delaysd, at the pleafare of the prince. This is a moil uncertain and uncomfortable holding ; neverthelers it fo far avails, that they are not, properly fpeaking, violent-poffefFora of temporal benefits having ilia the fame right to them as to their forfeited life, ;while it is left them by the difpofal of providence. Where.. fore the word of men may lawfullyeatand drink, and take-,the benefit of other neoeffarics of life, whatever Satan may rugged to the contrary in the hour of temptation ; yea, they ought to do it, and they fin egainft God _egregioutly if they do it not becaufe he halt raid, Thonficir not

Bat the fecond Adam haiing undertaken to bear -the mirk, and to give perfe& obedience to the law, in the -name of his fpiritual _feed ; there was thereupon made a ,promife of redwing to them the forfeited life, with all the means thereof; and particularly, a promife of the good Chit ge requifite for the rapport and comfort of their tem­poral life in this world, till at death they be carried home 4o heaven. And the performance of this promife to them, is begun -immediately upon their uniting with Chriftt then their covenant-relation to the firlt Adam is found to be lawfully diffolved ; the forfeiture is taken -of; and a new covenant-right to .the creatures is given them: t Con.

2 2, 23. •4 All are yours ; and _ye are Chrift's: And at fines on all along till death ; fo much of this their hock being from time to time put into their hands, as the greet -Adminittrator fees needful for them. And whether that -he little or much, they do from that moment poffefs it by a new title : it is theirs by covenant.

Now, this .promife is grafted upon the promife made to Christ of his inheriting all -things. For they that are his ;Ale joist-heirs with -him, Row. viii. 37. to inherit .41

The pronnyjary Part cf the Covenant. 159

things too, through him, Rev. xxi. 7. The date and honour which the firft Adam lott for himfelf and family, by his difobedience in breaking of the firft covenant, was, in the fecond covenant, made over by protnife to Chrift the fecond Adam, for him and his, upon the condition of his obedience. The which obedience being performed, the whole ancient eftate of the family was recovered, together with the honours thereunto belonging. The ancient do­minion was reftored, in the perfon of Chrift as fecond A­dam: and alt his myftical members partake thereof in him. This the Pfalmift teacheth, Pfalm viii. 4. What is man, that thou art mindful of him ? and the fun of man, that thou vifit­tfr him ? Verfe 5. For thou haft made kiln a little lower than the angels, and haft crowned gm with glory and honour.' Verfe 6. T'hott madefl him to have dominion over the works of thy hands : thou haft put all things under his feet : Verfe

All and oxen, yea, and the beafis of the field : Verfe

The fowl of the air, and theffh of the lea, and whatfbever- fraffeth through the paths of the fens. Though there is here a manifeft view to the firtt Adam,•and all•mankind in him, as they were happily and honourably Rated at their crea­tion ; yet we are infallibly affured by the apoffle, that this 'mirage is meant of Chrift the fecond Adam, Heb. ii. 6, 7, 8, 9. and his myftical members in him, verfe 6. Accord­ingly, Abraham had the promife, that he fhould be heir of the world, and he had it through the righteoufnefs of faith, i. e. the righteoufnefs which faith apprehends, Rom. iv 13.•Now, Abraham was a type of Chrift, and the fa­ther of the faithful, who are all bkffed as he was. There­fore this promife was primarily to Chrift, through the righteoufnefs by him wrought, fecondarily to his mem­bers, through the fame righteoufnefs apprehended by faith.

This promife of temporal benefits, carries believers' pot­feffion of the fame, as far as their need in that kind' doth go, Phillip. iv. 19. Of which need, not they thernfelves, but the Father is•the fit judge, Matth. vi. 32. Accord­ingly, there are two chief branches of the promirr, nr

ly, a promife of provifion, and a promife obproseEt

1. A promife of provifion of good things neo this life: upon which they may confidently truft

0 2

r 6o The Part; of the Covenant of Grace. Head 1.

them, whatever ftraits they are at any time reduced to :
xxxiv. r o. The young lions do lack and fuffer hun‑
ger : but they that fcek the Lord (hall not want any

good thing.' Their meat and drink are fecured for ttlem in the covenant the which being perceived by faith, c moot mils to give them a particular relifh, however mean Vim- fare be, as to quantity or quality ; Ifa. xxxiii. 16.

Bread (hall be given him, his water (hall be lure.' They ill 11 be fed, though they be not leaded ; Pfalm xxxvii. 3.

Verily thou (halt be fed.' They (hall have enough, they mall be fatisfied, Joel ii. 26. And even days of famine fh:11 not 'marr that their fatisfaaion ; Pfalm xxxvii. 19.

In the days of famine they (hall be fatisfied.' And as flxp for their refreftment is neceffary too, the' promife bears it alfo : Prov. iii. 24. 4 Thou (halt lie down, and

thy fleep (hall be fweet.' They need cloathing, and pro­v;fill is made as to it : Matth. vi. 3o. If God fo clothe

the grafs of the field--(hall he not much more clothe

you, 0 ye of little faith ?' Having made them, by cove­nant, a new grant of life and of a body, which is more than meat and cloathing, he will not refute them thefe lei­fer things ,neceifary for the fupport of the greater : verfe 25. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment ?' T,hus our fallen firft parents, having believed and embraced the promife of life, had, with the new grant of life, food and raiment provided for them, as is particular­ly taken notice of, Gen. iii. 15, 18, 21. A bltffing alto on their labours is promifed, and fuccefs in tbeir lawful cal-hogs and affairs, Ifa. lxv. 21, 22, 23. To a word, the covenant bears, that God ' will with-hold no good thing

from them that live uprightly,' Pfalm lxxxiv. i 1. 2. There is alfo a promife of protem1ion from the evil things that concern this life : Pfalm xci. to. There (hall

no evil befal thee. Vale 11. For he (ball give his an‑

gels charge over thee, tq keep thee in all thy ways.' .To­gether with the bread and the water provided by the cove._ rant for them to live on, the munition of rocks are fecured to them for a place of defence, where they may fafely enjoy them, Ha. xxxiii. t6. The fame Lord wbo is a fun to non. rich them, will be a fhield to protea them, Pfalm lxxxiv. 11. ,He will be a wai: of fire round about them, to che.

. •

The proMiAry Pert of the Covenant. r 61

AM them, and to keep off, fcare, and fright away their enemies, Zech. ii. S. The covenant yields a broad covert for the fafety of believers: Pfalm xci. 4. €. He {hall 4 cover thee with his feathers.' The covert of the cove­nant is ftretched out over their bodies; over their health, to preferve it, while it is neceffary for God's honotir and their Own good, Prow. iii. 7. Fear the Lord, and depart frOm € evil. Verfe 8. It 'hail be health to thy navel, andmarrow to

thy bones ;' aver their lives, as long as God has any fer­vice for them in this world: fain ficknefs they are carefully fern to, Pfalm xli. 3. 'Thou wilt make all his bed in lick,

nefs :' their difeafes healed and they recovered, Plaint cal'. 3, 4• And they are delivered from enemies that leek their life, Plaint tell. 2. Yea, when death rides in triumph, having made havock on all fides ofthem, as by fword or peftilence, they are found fate under the covert of the covenant, Plains xci. 6, 7. This covert is ftretched over their names, credit and reputation; Job v. 2 1. Thou

!hale be hid frotWthe fcaurge of the tongue either the tongues of virulent men flail not reach them ; or they Nall not be able to make the dirt to ftic• on them ; or rife if they fhall be permitted to make it hick for a while, the covert of the covenant fhall wipe all off at length, and their sighteoufuefs theft be brought forth Ai the light, and their judgment as the noonday, Pfahn xxxvii. 6 It is ftretehed over their houfes and dwelling-places : Plaint xci. to. Neither flail any plague conic nigh thy dwelling. hi gums round about their fubttance, making a hedge about all that they have, Job i, to. Yea, and there is a lap of it to call over their widows and children, when they are dead' and gone : Jer. xlix. t 1. Leave thy fatherlefi children, avid preferve them alive, and let thy widows it-0 in me.

Thus far of the promife of eternal life, confidered in the fecomd period, to wit, from union with Chrill, until death..


From death, through eternity.

T remains, that we confider the promife of

1. to the cleft, as it is accomplifhed to, and

fed upon deal, Item their death all along t,

0 3

162 The Parts sf she Covenant of Grace. Head 3.

pity. And fo the great lines of it are two ; to witi'a promife of viaory over death, and a promife of everlafling life in heaven. And thefe things I fhall touch more briefly, having handled them at large elfewhere.

I. The promife of V&eory over Death.

The promife of eternal life comprehends a promife of siaory over death, to be conferred on all and every one of the fpiritual feed, in the encounter with that laft enemy: Ha. xxv. 8. He will!wallow up death in viiivry, and the-Lord God will wipe away tears from fall faces. After the wearifome march, and the reiterated fight of faith they have in their paffage through the wildernefs of this world, they have to pafs the Jordan of death, and to fight the Taft battle with that enemy. But the victory is fecured on their fide by promife ; of which there are two chief lvanches, to wit, a promife of difarming death, and a pro-mite of deftroyitsg_ it.

1. There is a promife of difarming death to the dying-believer ; fathat it fhall at no rate be able to reach him a riinatingftrolte :- Hof. xiii. 14. 0 death, I will be thy plague; namely, by taking the Ring quite away. 1 Core xy. 55. When fin entered the world, death followed : and fin furnifhed death with an envenomed Ring, wherewith to

finner, both foul and body at once : the holy law, _ with its -curie, fixed the fling in death's hand; having Erft,fo pointed it, that it could not snits of doing execu­tion. But Chrift the fecond Adam, having undertaken to. bear the 'curie, and to die in. the room and Read of his people there was thereupon made a promife of difarming death to them, fince the Surety fuffering the pains of death.armed with its fling, the principal behoved to be li­berate from fufferiog the fame over again. And thus the covenant fecures believers from death.% harm. Yea,. it fo alters the nature thereof, that it makes it a quite new thing to them from what it was originally. Hence death. iv found in the inventory of the faints treafure, I Cor. 22. ' Whether life, or death, or things prefent, or things to come all are yours.' Not only is life theirs by the-covenant, but death is theirs too by the fame tenor. And Weed as it is new framed by the covenants it is of end-.

• • ' The promy'ory Part of the Covenant. 148

lent ufe to them, bringing them into a Rate of perfeaioa and everlafting reit, Heb. xii. 23. Rev. xiv. 13.

- This promife is grafted upon the promife of vi Cory made to Chrift, as appears from the forecited Ifa. xxv. 8. He encountered death armed with its Ring, on purpofe to difarm it to his people : be received the fling thereof in, to.his own foul and body, that they might be delivered from it. Wherefore the promife of vi Cory over death made to him, fecures the difarming of it to them. And as the promife, makes them fafe, in the encounter with that laft enemy : to the lively faith of it mardeliver from fear in the cafe.

2. There is a promife of def1roying death to the dead believer, by a glorious refurreaion at the laft day : Ho­fea xiii. 0 grave, I will be thy deftruetion.' When death entered into the world by fin, then came the grave, as death's attendant to keep fall his prifoners for him, till the general judgment : and thus the grave ferves death,. in the cafe of all who die in a Rate of enmity with God. But Chrift, the fccond Adam, having in the fecond cove. nant engaged to go, in the room and Read of his people, death's prifoner, into the grave, and there to lie till their debt fhould be fully paid ; there was made thereupon a promife of a glorious refurreaion to hie members, where­by they (hall be put out of the reach of death for good and all, at the fall day: for then (hall be brought to pats the

laying that is written, Death is fwallowed up in viaory,' a Cur. xv. 54. and then (hall they triumphantly ling, 0 6 death, where is thy fling ? Ograve, where is thy viaory P verfe 55. And thus the covenant fecures the forming a­new of their diffolved Indies, the return of their departed fouls into them, and their coming forth of their graves glorious, immortal, and incorruptible. In the faith of which, the faints may with comfort confider the grave as but a retiring place, from whence, after a while they Shall come forth with unfpeakable joy.

This promife is grafted upon the provide of a refur. reaion made to C11/ill, Ifa. xxvi. 19. Thy dead

fhall live, together with my dead body (hall they

The promife of a refurreEtion being made to h
public perfon, it mutt take place aKo ia his myttic

' I154 The -Parte of the Covenant of Cavite.' Head 3.

bersi whofe federal head he wan. Hence the Pfahnift. lays, his Jo pull refl in hope, namely, in the grave, ire hope of a glorious refurreetion, becaufe the holy one yefue was not to fee corruption, Pfalm avi. 9, to. with Afts

35. thereby teaching, that Chritt's refurredion would: Wore his glorious refurrettion, as a member of the my. Oka! body by faith. And indeed-there ie fuela a con.' neetion between Chriftlprefurreition and the happy re­fbrreftion of the faints, that they &and end fait together :- x Cor. xv. For if the dead rife- not, then is not

Chrift raifed.1 .

The prof,* of Eyerlaling Life in Heaven:-

The prornife of eternal Iife doth, in the laft place, eore.• prebend a *attire of everlafting life in; heaven; to be eott-• ferre• on ail' arid' evee'. one of the fpiritual feed after death : • Dan: And' many of them that fieep in the duff volthe earth Mall awake, forne to everlafting life.' This; was more fparing/y revealed under the Old Teltament: than under the New, 2 Tim. i. to. yet was it, even then,- fo clearly revealed, that a& the holy patriarchs lived and', died in the faith of it, Hely. xi. 13,-16. The fathers be. fbre Abraham law it in the promife of the feed of the ow.' man, which was to Bruifr the firpent's head; and from A.:. braham they faw it in the- promife of Canaan. But now:, by the gapel this life and immortality are fet in a felt light. By the breach of the firft covenant that life was-forfeited, the heavenly paradife loft to Adam and all man­kind: in token whereof he was turned out of the earthly' paradife." But the fecond Adam having, in the fecund' covenant, undertaken the redemption of the forfeited in.' beritance, there was a new promife of it made in favour. of his feed ; and they are invefied with an inclefeafible­right thereto, in the firft moment of their union with

by faith ; howbeit they are not inftantly put in.-

,n thereof. And when they do come to the poffef.-

not given them all at once, but at• two different

rerit,meafurre; according to the two chieF

promife thereof, namely, a prornife of

fouls into heaven at death, and a pro•

g them foul and body-thither at the;

The prOmYory Part of the CoVenont. 165

a. There is a promife of tranfporting their fouls, fepa­rate from their hodies,into heaven,tbere to behold and enj(,y the face of Gott. And it is accomplifhed to them immedi­ately after their death., It was mod plainly declared and applied by our Saviour to the penitent thief on the crofs, Luke xxiii. 43. g To-day (halt thou be with me in para. 6 dife.' Lot it was in the faith of it, that the covenant was to David, even in the face of death, all his falvation, and all his defire, 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. and thatiPaul had a de-fire to depart, knowing that he was to be with Chrift upon his departure, Philip. i. 23. And it is in the faith of

the fame, that the whole church militant cloth groan ear‑

nefily, defiring to be cloathed upon with the houfe which

is from heaven, that is, the heavenly glory,' 2 Cor. v. 2. Indeed the curfe of the firth covenant did, upon the breaking of that covenant fall to their lot, as well as to the red of mankind : and that curfe would natively have iffued in cutting them afunder as covenant-breakers, and appoint­ing them their portion with the hypocrites ; buethat be­ing executed to the full on Chrift their head, to the parting afunder of his holy foul and body, it can operate no mare on them. Wherefore, howbeit others die in virtue ()eche curfe, feparating their fouls and bodies, the one to the place of torment, the other to the gravy, till the laft day ; yet they do not fo die. Being redeemed from the curfe, Gal.

13. they (hall never fee fuch death, John viii. 5 t. But they die in conformity to Chrift their head, being predef­tinate to be conformed to his image, (Rom. viii. 29.) who is the fird-born from the dead, Col. i. 18. and the &It fruits of them that fleep, which every mao is to follow in his own order, t Cor. xv. 20, 23. That, as in the cafe of the head, fo in the cafe of the members, as death came on by fin, fin may go off by death. In virtue of their communion with Chrift in his death, the union betwixt their fouls and mor­tal bodies is diffblved : their fouls difmiffed in peace into the heavenly glory, there to remain till fuch time as their, bodies, laid down in the grave, come, in virtue of their corn-grunion with Chrift in his refurreetion, to put on incorr, tion and immortality.

This promife is grafted upon the promife of ace made to Chrift, when he Should make his foul an

1:66 •ne Parts of the Covenant of Grace. Head g.

for fin. • In confidence of which acceptance, dying on the drofs he commended his fpirit, or foul, into the hands or his Father, Luke xxiii. 46. and told the penitent thief, he was to be that very day in paradife, though then it wan towards the evening of it, ver. 43. The words in which he commended his foul to:his Father, were DaviiYs, PIA xxx.

Into thine hand I commit my ffiirit; thereby indulging,' that the reception of the fouls of his dying people into the bands of the Father, depends on the reception ofisis four into them. For his foul was, in virtue of the covenant, fo received, as a public foul, reprefenting the fouls of the whole. feed ' • whence David, Speaking of Chris, faith, Thou

wilt not leave my font in hell,' xvL so. with Alts
ii..3r. Wherefore, in the pmmife of receiving Chrifre foul; Was comprehended a promife of receiving the fouls of air liis myffical members,

2. There is a promife of tranfporting them, foul and' Body, into heaven, there to be ever with the Lord ; which, it to be accomplithed unto them at the fall day : Dan. NIL, 1. 4 And•many of them that ficep in the duft of the earth. '' (MI awake, Tome to everlatling life, and fome to fhame­4 and everlefting contempt, verfe 3. And they that be wife,-

fhal] ffrine as the hrightneit of the firmament.; an3 they 6 that turn many unto righteonfnefs, (or rather they that

do rightenuffy, of the many) as the liars for ever and e.

ver." Whereas-the many mentioned, verfe 2. and corn. prehending"th, are there divided into two forts, in refpeect of their future Rate in the event of the refurreftion the happy part being the firft fort of them, is defig,ued, verfe flom their prefent (late in this life, the wife, and they that do. righteoully ; that is, in New Telarnent language, the righteous, bfattb. xiii. 43. and they that have done g.:c1c1",. John v. -29. in oppofition to the foolifh, and they that have done evil, Thole having come forth, unto the sefurreci rr or life, John v. 29. than Chine as the brighr-,efs of t,te

firmament, and as the ffars fox: ever, and ever : yea, 11;:y`

(halt thine forth as the fun, in the kingdom of their Fa­ther,' Match*. xiii. 43. This is the higheft pinaele of the faints' hopes; wherein theyrin their whole man, (hail have the whole of eternal life to its perfeelions. Man bad a conditional promife hereof, in the covenant of works : but

The prarniAvy Part tfike Covenant. 16y

the oanditioa being broken, the benefit promifed was loft; heaven's gates were Phut againit Adam and all his natural feed. Howbeit, Chrift the focond Adam, laving under­taken to fulfil the condition of the fecood covenant, which was hated from ao exaa confideration of the demands that the broken frit covenant had on his fpiritual feed : there was a new promife of it made in their favour ; and it ob. 4olute. And to his fulfilling of that condition, both the making aad performing of this promife are owing allenarly. None other's works but his could ever have availed to re:- duce the forfeiture, and pinhole a new right: and hia vorka do it fo effectually, that they fecune the patting all his feed is aaual poireffion of the purchafed inheritance; fo that they $ than reign in life by one, Jefus Chrilt,' Rom. v. 17.

This is the promife of the covenant, which is the laft of all in performing : as being the confummation of all the reit, not to be accompliftted until the myftery of God be &ratted. The Old Teftanaent faints died in the faith .of it ; and it is not as yet peiformed to them: nay, the .New Testament faints have died and fliti mull die, in the -faith of it : not having it performed to them neither, till it foe at once accomplithed to the whole feed together, at the end of the world. Thus this promife remains to bean mi­lieu objea of faith to the church militant ; and to the church triumphant too, whole Seth mutt reft in hope till that day, Plal. xvi. 9. But becaufe the term prefixed for performing thereof, is, in the depth of fovereign wifdomo for reafons becoming the divine perfeaions, fet at fuch a .diitance,; there have been fome fignal pledges given of it to confirm the church's faith in the cafe. Such was the Aranilating of Enoch, foul and body, into heaven, in the patriarcbaiperiod; Elias, inthe time of the law; and our foleffed Saviour in the time of the gofpet

This promife is grafted upon the promife of a glorious ,exaltation made to. Chrilt ; by which was fecured to him his afcenfion, in foul and body, into heaven, and entering into his glory Luke xxiv. 26. • Ought not Chrift to ',,ve. s (offered flack things, and to enter into his glory 7'

there were neceffary in refpeet of the covenant :

dog was aeceffary, in relpta of the condition ther

168 • The Paris of the Cos eaant of Grace. Head 3.

behoved to be fulfilled by him ; and his entering into his glory was neceffary, in refpeet of the promife thereof, which behoved to be fulfilled unto him. Now, Chrift afcended and entered into glory as a public perfon, as a forerunner entering for us, Heb. vi. zo.; and therefore the promife, in ,virtue of which he afcended and entered into it, corn. prehends the afcenfion and glory of all his myftical mem­hers, who are therefore faid to ' fit together in heavenly 4 places, in Chrift Jefus ' Eph. ii. 6. And then, and not till then, will the promife be perfealy fulfilled to him, when all the myftical members are perfonafly there, toge­ther with their head ; when the whole feed, perfeetly re­' covered from death, (hall reign there, together with him in life, for evermore. •

And this (hall fuffice to have been raid here of the pro-mire of eternal life, in the laft period thereof.

INFERENCE from the promife of. Eternal L.

Thus we have opened the promife of eternal life to the flea, with the effeets thereof on them, in its feveral

ods ; to wit1 before their union with Chrift,; and then, from their union with Chrift until death ; and finally, from 'their death, through eternity : the whole fpringing out of the promifes peculiar to Chrift bimfelf. For as thefe laft were fulfilled, in preferving the root of Jeffe, notwithftand­ing of the various changes that family did undergo, in which it was often in hazard of extine.tion, until fuch time as Chrift fprang out of it, as a root out of a dry ground, Ifa. xi. 1, to. and liii. z. and then, in carrying him up, and carrying him through in his work, notwithllanding of the load of imputed fin that lay upon him, and the oppofition he met with from the world, and the powers of hell enga­ged againft him, Ifa. xlix. 8. and I. 7, 8, 9. and 'finally in raifing him from the dead;taking him up into heaven, and glorifying him there for everand ever, a Tim. iii. 16. E‑

n fo the promife of eternal life to the elea, included .lerein, is fulfilled, in preferving them in their unconverted

till fuch time as they are united to Chrift by faith :

in carrying them up, and carrying them through,

nd c .mmunion with God, during the whole time

,atinuauce in- this world, notwithflanding all the

Ile pronifory Part of the Covenant. 169

'oppofition from the devil, the world, and the fief!): and laftly, in railing them up at the tall day, and receiving them, foul and body, into heaven, there to be ever with the Lord.

And now, from the whole of what bath been faid on that point, we deduce the following Inference, to wit, 4 That all the benefits of the covenant of grace bellowed, 4 or to be bellowed on finners, are the fore mercies of Da-4 vid,' Ha. Iv. 3. 'Ilia may be taken up in thefe three things following.

a. They are all of them mercies, pure mercies, without refpea to-any vvorthinefs in the receivers. They are all free-grace gifts; for the covenant is to us a covenant of grace, from the firit to the lalt Eph. ii. 7. That in the 4 ages to come, he night Phew the exceeding riches of his 4 grace, in his kindnefs towards us, through Chrift Jefos. • Wt.. 8. For by grace are ye faved, through faith ; and 4 that not of yourfelves: it is the gift of God.' 1"he re­ceiving of_believers into glory, is, after all their working, as much of free grace, as the quickening of them, When being dead in fin, they could do no good work at all. They have their faith and their works, their grace and their glory, their temporal and their eternal good things, all of them equally of free grace : for they are all fecured to them in, and flow from the promife of the covenant made before the world began; and are founded on a ground which they had no manner of hand in the laying of.

2. They all are the mercies of David, that is, of Jelin Chrill.the Son of David. His obedience and death are the alone channel wherein the free grace of the covenant runs, bringing along with it all thole mercies, Eph. ii. 7, It is to the hand's of his nature, the righteoufnefs of his life, and the fatisfaetion made by his death, they are all owing ; for upon thefe alone, and upon nothing in us, whether before or after converlion, is the promife of eter_ pal life founded. Our believing through grace, while o­thers continue in unbelief; our feeing God in glory, while others are caft into utter darknefs; the bread we eat, —

the water we drink, in this life, together with tic manna we shall eat of, and the rivers of pleafurc,

17o The Park of the Covenant "Grace. Head 3.

drink ef, in heaven, are all equally the purchafe of our Redeemer's blood.

3. L,,/11y, They are all of the-m •fitre mercies. What of them the faints have already got, they could not have miffed of ; and what of them they have not as yet received, is as lure as if they had it in hand, 2 Sam. XXIII; 5. ' David

perceived that the Lord had confirmed him king over

Ifrael ;' and that upon this ground, , fqr his -kingdom

was lift up on high,',1 Chron. xiv. 2. Now, Saul's king‑

dom was lift up on high too; and yet he loll it. But Da­vid had his kingdom by the covenant; Saul, not fo: hence the former, feeing the promife begin to be accomplifhed, rightly concluded, that it fhould.hold on till it was fully rtiorrned notwithlanding that the latter fell from his excellency. Uncovenantecl mercies are tottering mercies; but the covenant mercies are ftire. The former may flow plentifully for a while, and yet at length be quite dried up forever; but the (print; of the latter ;being once opened, will flow for evermore without interruption. The proi0fe is infallibly Cure, and cannot mifcarry : it is Pure from the nature of God who made it; even from his infallible truth, and from his juilice too in refpea of Chrilt, 2 Theff. i. 6,7.

Thus far of the fecund part of the covenant, namely, The promilory part.

No proper Penally of the Covenant of Grace.

A penalty is no cffential part of a proper covenant. Tt

if, but accidental only, ariting not from the nature of a co­-nant, but from the nature of the covenanters, who being "-le, may break either the condition, or the ptorniftii

;licit cafe a penalty is annexed, to fecure the perform‑

of the condition on the one fide, and of the promife he other: Wherefore, fince the party contracaing on is fide, on whom it lay to perform the condition of this enant, was i' ible ; as was the party contraaing on caven's,fi

om it lay to perform the promife of

_t ; there, -4:e at all for a penalty thereof, proper.

ly fo call • was none in the &ft covenant, but

pan ot! he fecund covenant, the Father and

Soi fled each the other. Upon the cle-

slit of! ther received all the Old 're:lament-

No proper Penalty of the Covenant cf Crate. 171,

faints into heaven, before the price of their redemption was paid ; and upon the credit of the Father, the Son, above feventeen hundred years ago, paid the full price of the re­demption of the elect, while vat multitudes of them were not as yet born into the world, and, many.uf them are not evert to this day. •

It is true, the parties contra6ted for, are fallible: but then the performing of the condition of this covenant, as fuCh, doth in no cafe lie upon them : Chrift having taken it entirely on himfelf, and accordirrgly performed it alr&a. dv. While they continue 'in their natural Etc., without Chrifl, they are perfonally in the covenant of works, not in the covenant of grace. And being once become be­lievers in Chrilt, the promife of the covenant of grace (lands always entire to them, notwithflanding4. f all their failures; and mutt needs (land fo, in virtue of the co edition of the covenant already performed, and judicially fuftained, as performed by Jefus Chria for them. And though they are fallible in refpea of their at-lions, as long as they are in this world ; yet from the moment of their Uilk)l) with Chrill by faith, they are not 1.11ible in refpea of their (late: they can no more fill out of their (fate of grace, than the faints in heaven can. •Hence, even in their cafe, there is no place for the curie or eternal wrath, the only penalty by which they fhould lore their right to the promife of the Covenant. They are indeed liable to God's fatherly angtr and chaftifements for their fins; but forafinuch as bythcie there is no intercifion of their right to the promife, and that they are nut vindiaive, but medicinal ; they cannot - be accounted 'a proper penalty uf the covenant of grace, however they may be improperly fo called : but do daily belong to the promiffory part, and achniniftration of the covenant, Pfalm lxxxix. 3o, 31, 32, 33, 34. Ifa. xxvii, 9. Heb. xii. 5, 6, 7. Where the conition ,f a covenant is fully performed, and legally futlained as fuch, in favour of the party who-is to receive the benefit pronnifed, it is evi­dent there can be no mt.re.place for a proper penalty of the covenant on that fide ; and fo it is here in the cafe ,f7 believers.

And thus we have difpatched the third head, r ?be parts of the covenant.

- a

172 The Admen ration of the Coy. of Grace. Head 4..


The Adminiftration of the -Cotenant of Grace.

TT remains now to confider the adminiftration 'of the co‑

venant. And fence the falvation of finneradoth entirely depend on this covenant ; and that all the difrufations of Cod toward them, for carrying on and compleating that gracious defign, are regulated accordipert' to it ; and fince- withal it is in itfelf the deepefi fecret,being a compact entered into betwixt the Father and the -Son, before the world h-gaa : its altogether neceffary, that there be an adminittration of it, whereby it may be rendered effeaual' to the end f.u. which it was made. And hereof we will have a view, by confidering, 1. The party on whom the adminifiration ofthe covenant is devolved: 2. The objeE?s. of the adminiftrat ion ; 3. The ends of it; and 4. The na­ture of it. Of all which in order.

T. Ur.ifl the Adminiflrator of the Covenant:

UCH is the nature of the thing, the weight 'and

portance of this adminifiration, that none who was-not fit to he a party-contraaor in the covenant, could be­me!t to be intrusted therewith. Wherefore the admini­firation of the covenant was devolved upon no mere man or angel, but on the Lord Jefus Chrift the fecond Adam: and he bath it by the covenant itfelf as a reward of his work. It was therein made over to biro by promife particularly, by the promife of a glorious exaltation, to be the Father's honorary fervant, prime minifter of Heaven, mentioned be. fore, and now to be more fully and diffinaly unfolded. It was for this caufe the lafl Adam was made a quic4ening spi­rit,. as faith the text, x C‘ir. are 45. with which we dull' compare the promife.

Ifa., xlix. 8. I will give thee for a covenant of the

Thefe are the Father's words to Chrift the feconi A­dam, the great• furety-fervant, chofen. to make reparation. of the injury done to the honour of God by the fpiritual. l cart, ver. 3, the light of the Gentile's, vet. 6. which ia.none!

ChrYi the ildrnitzlfirator of the Covenant:

other but he, Luke ii. 32. A6ls xiii. 4.7. whole appearing in the world made the acceptable time, the.day of falVation, as in the preceding part of this Sth verfe, compared with 2 Cor: vi. 2. And they are a promife made to him of a reward of his work, in fulfilling of tie condition of tile co­venant by his obedience and death : for they are immediate­ly fubjoined to the promife of affiftance therein ; I will preferve thee, (namely, in the courfe of thy obedience, do-. ing and dying, fo that thou (halt not be utterly fwallowed, up of death, but fwina through thele deepeft wat..-rs fafe afhore,) and g:ve thee for a. covenant of the people; 'or Simply, of people. Not that Chrift was never given for a covenant' of the people till he arofe from the dead ; nay, he was fir given, immediately after the fall, Gen. iii. but that it was always upon the view, and in conlideratiou of his obe­dience and death he was in given ; and that he was at his refurreaion and afcenfion folemuly invett6d with that office

This giving, according to the fcripture phrafeology`,. imports-a divine conftitution or fettlement. So it is laid,. verfe 6. I will give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that' thou mayell be my falvation unto the end of the earth ;


will conaitute or fet thee for a light ;. even as God fet gave) the fun and moon in the firmament °f­ele heaven, to give light upon the earth. Gen. i. Thus the people making or appointing a captain, are faid­to give a head or captain, Numb, xiv. 4. Nell. ix. 17.. Wherefore to give Chri JI for a covenant of the people, is to eonflitute or make him the covenant; whereby the people,. any people, Jews or Gentiles, become God's, eople, and receive al! the benefits of that covena'nt.relation to God.. ThiS then fpeaks Jefus Chill to be the ordinance of (loci far the reconciliation of (inners to God, and their partak­ing of all the benefits of the covenant ; even- as the fun is the ordinance of heaven far light to the world, unto, whole light all have free access though in the mean time it cloth not enlighten the blind, nor than who will needs• live in clarkeef.„ becaufe- they hate the light.. This ho. flour was fecured to him in the prorniffory part of • no veriant, in confiLleration of his"; fulfilling the

part thereof..

174- Tge .tflmilgratibn of the a.m. of Grace. Head 4..

Now, that Chrift is by the authority of Heaven confli­tute or made the covenant, imports thefe two things: (1.) He is conftitute adniiniftrator of the covenant: he had the burden of purchafing the promifed benefits, fo he hath • the honour of difiributing and conferring them on (inners:. This meaning of the phrafe appears from the following words, declaring the end of this: conftitution, to eftablith

the earth, to caufe to inherit the defolate heritages: verfe

9. That tfiou mayaft fay to- the prifoners, go forth.'

See chap. xlii. 6, 7. (2.) The whole of the covenant is in him ; fo that he that bath Chrift, bath-the covenant, the whole of the covenant ; he that bath not Chrift, bath no Paving part nor lut in it. This is the native import of-this unufual phrafe, occurring only here and chap. 6. and is confirmed by the following words, to eitablifh the earth.' A.covenant is an eftablifhing thing. When tge firft covenant was broken,, the fouodations of the earth were, Jo to fpfak, knifened; that it could no more (land firm,. until Chrift was given for a covenant to dia.- blifh it•again : he bore up the pillars thereof in virtue of the new covenant in himfelf. And if his adminiftration of the covenant were once at an end on the earth, the earth (hall Rand no longer, but be reduced to afhes. The fa) ing concerning the facramental cup, This cup it the near. teflament in my blood, t Cor. 25 is fornewhat a kin to the expreffion in the text, and ferves to confirm the fenfe given of it,.For it finely bears, (I.) That the facramental cup is the miniftration of the new teftament to helieving: receivers ; fo that receiving the one in faith,. they re-, ceive the other too. (2.) That the new teftament-is in-(Thrift's blood; fo that their communion of the benefits of the teflament is by their communion of the Mood of ChriN.

Cor. X. 16.

Now, from thefe texts compared, it appears, g That­& thtoadminiffration of the covenant of grace is devolved on Jefus Chrift, the fecond Adam, for that end madea 4-quickening Spirit, having, the whole of the covenant is him.'

This conflitution, lodging the adminiftration of the co. versant in the perfun of the Mediator, Chrift Jefue, is at once fuited to the glory. of C,Tod,,the cafe 'of fincers,,and the honour of Chrift

Chrift the ilihniniiirator oftlie Covenant. rrs

i. It is fuited to the glory of God the offended party. in the face of Jefus, the adminiftrator, fhines forth the glory of the God of covenant, 2 Car. iv. 6. His fpot­lefs holinefs, and tremendous juftice, appear there; toge. ther with his matchlefs love, freeft grace, and tenderefE mercy. God is in Chrift reconciling the world to himfelf, with the fafety of his glory, giving forth his peace and pardons freely, without any merit of the receivers, and yet not without fuffieient fatisfa&ion to his juftice, and corn­penfation of his injured honour: as from a throre of grace, eftablifhed upon juftice fatisfied, andjudgment fut. ly executed, the firm balls thereof.

It is Inked to the cafe of finners, the offending, party. in Chrift, the adminiftrator of the covenant, they have to do with a God, whole rays of majefty, that the guilty are not able to behold, are wailed with the robe of a fpot­lefs humanity.. An inviting fweetnefs appears in the face of the adminifirator, full of grace and truth, John i. 14. In him they may fee their falvation fo dear to the God that made them, that he himfelf would put on their na. ture, to eftablifh by his own blood a covenant of peace be­tween Heaven and them. He is true man, of the fame family of Adam with themfelves ; unto whom therefore they may confidently draw near, joining themfelves to him as the head of the covenant : and withal, he is the true Ged, undoubtedly able to make the covenant effeau­al for their falvation, notwithftanding of all their unwor­thinefs.

It is fuited to the honour of Chrift himfelf, the peace. maker,-who bath it as the reward of his work. Jofeph, being fold for a bond.fervant, behaved himfelf with all meeknefe, patience, and faithfulnefs, in that low chara6ter; the which was afterwards, by all-ruling Providence, abun­dantly rewarded with honour, in his being advanced to be the prime minifter of the kingdom of Egypt, having the adminiftrat;on of-the whole kingdom committed to him, Pfal. cv. Herein he was a type of Chrift.
Lord Jefus did -voluntarily fubmit himfelf to th­ftep of reproach and difgrace, taking upon him

of a bond•fervant, and humbling himfelf in r

even unto the death of the erofe ; and that to pc.

. 176 The ildminiftrition of the Cov. of Grace. Head 4; condition of the covenant, for the glory of God, and the falvation of his people : and therefore he was exalted to the higheft pinnacle of honour, being advanced to the prime mirriftry of heaven, having the adminiftration of the covenant put into his hand, ruling over all under his rather, whereby isgiven him a name, which is above every name, whether of men or angels, all things being put under his feet, Phil!. ii 7, 8, 9. Eph. i. 20, 21, 22, 23. In re. fped hereof, he is 'often called the Father's fervant, namely, Lis honorary fervant : and his honour in that charaicier is often promifed to be made very great, Ifa. xlix. 6. and la, 23, 14, 15. ach. iii. 8. with vi. 12, 13.

And forafmuch as the everlafting covenant %till con-. tinue to be the ground and rule of God's difpenfati n to. wards his people for evermore, by the conftitution lodging the adminiftration of the covenant in the perfon of atilt,_ he is to enjoy that honour and dignity for ever and ever ;

For unto the Son be faith, Thy throne, 0 God, is for 0 ever and ever,' Heb. i. 8. Dien of his kingdom, which is given him, that is,' his mediatory' kingdom anti admi­niftration, there (hall he no end, Luke i. 32., 33. The‑
time, comes, indeed, wherein he will deliver up the kirgdone to God, even the Father ; prefenting to him at the !aft day, the whole church, and every member thereof,. brought by his adminiftration, according to his commit. fion, into a Rate of perfeEtion. And then cornet!' the. end, t Cor. xv. 24 namely, the end of the world, but not the end of his adminifiration : for, being conflitute

niftrator of the covenant, there was given him dornini:.. * on and glory, and a kingdom ; and his dominion is an

everlafting dominion, which (hall not pafs away, (as the

world (hall, i Cor. vii. 31.) and his kingdom that 0- which (hail not be deftroyed,' (as all the four monarchies, Have been,. Dan. vii. 14.

And thus we have Peen Chrift to be the party on whom: +•e adminiftration of the covenant is devolved.

ers of Mankind the Objea of the ildmingration of

the Covenant.

°Nee of the adminiftration of the covenant, ,-Inkind,, indefinitely ; that is to fay, Chrift is,

Chrill the Zdminifirator of the Covenant. r77

empowered, by commiflion from his Father, t9 adminiftrate the covenant of grace to any of all mankind, the finners of the family of Adam without exception : he is atithorifed to receive them into the covenant, and to confer on,them all the benefits thereof to their eternal falvation, according to the fettled order of the covenant. The eleetion of par­ticular perfons is a fecret, not to be dircovered in the admi. nitration of the covenant, according to the eflablifhed or­der thereof, till fuch time as the limier have received the-covenant, by coming perfonally into U. A'hd the extent of the adminiflration is not founded on eleEtion, but on the fufEciency of Chrift's obedience and death for the falvation of all ; neither is it regulated thereby, but by the fuhiefs of power in heaven and earth given to Jefus Chrift, as a re­ward ofhis becoming obedient even unto the death.

For confirming of this truth, let the following things be confidered

a. The grant which the Father bath made of Chrift crucified, as his ordinance for the falvation of loft finners of mankind. In the cafe of the Ifraelites in the wilder-stele, bitten by fiery ferpents, God inditnted an ordinance for their cure, namely, a brazen ferpent lifted up upon a pole ; and made a grant thereof to whofoever would ufe it for that purpofe, by looking to it. No body what foever that needed healing was excepted : the grant was conceiv. ed in the molt ample'terms, Numb. xxi. 8. It flail come to pafr, that every one that is bitten, when he looleth upon it, flail live.. So all mankind, being bitten by the uld

pent, the devil, and fin, as his deadly poifon, lilt in them,. God hath appointed Jefus Chrid the ordinance of heaven for their falvation. There is a word of divine appointment paffed upon a crucified Chria, making and conflituting him the ordinance of God for falvation of finners; and God bath made a grant of him as fuch, to whofoever of Adam's lot race will make ufe of him for that purpofe, by believ. ing on him ; in the which grant none of the world of man. kind is excepted. All this is clear from John iii. 14, 15, i6. ' And as Moles lifted up the ferpent in the wilder

6 even fo muff the Son of man be lifted up, that whof 4- believeth on him, fhould not perifh, but have eterna

For God fo loved the world, that he gave his on],

r 78 The Admingratica ofthe Coo. of Grate. Head 4.. gotten Son, that whofoever believeth in him, (honk! not 6 peri(h, but have everlafiing life.' Now, the ad l,,i'lra­tion of the covenant being fettled, in purfuance of this grant therein made, for a reward of the Mediator's obedi­ence, the obje8 of the former can be no lefs extenfive than that of the latter.

2. The Mediator's commiffion for the adrniniftration,
is conceived in the molt ample terms.; and he is clothed
with mod ample powers, with relation to that bofinefs. It
carries his adminiffering the covenant, not only to the meek,
the poor, the broken-hearted ; but to the captives, blind,
bruifed, prifoners, bond-men, and broken men„ who have
fold their inheritance and thernfelves, and canhave no hope
of relief but by a jubilee, Luke iv. 18, 19. with Ifa. lxi.
1, 2. What fort of tanners of mankind can one imagine,
that will not fall under foine of thefe denominations? Chrift
indeed is given for a covenart of people ; not of this or
that people, but of people indefinitely: All power is given
him in heaven and in earth, Matth. xxviii. t d. So there
are none in earth excepted from hii adminittering the co•
versant to them. He is empowered to Cave the gniFylaw.
condemned world, by adMiniacring it to them ; For God
o fent not his Sun into the world to condemn the world ;
but that,the world through him might be laved.' John
iii. 17. forafmnch as he is the ordinance of God for tak‑
. irg away the fin of the world, Chap. i. 29. tho' many to
whom he offers the covenant, do refufe it, end fo are not
faved'eventually. Accordingly, from this fulnefs of pow‑
er he Mies forth the general offer of the gorpti : wherein
all without exception are declared welcome to come and
fuck of the full breafts of the divine confolations in the co‑
venant : Matth. xi. 27. All things are dblivered onto me
of my Father. Ver. 28. Come unto me, all ye that la‑
ir and are heavy laden, and I will give you reft.
xxviii. 18. All power is given unto me in heaven
Ver. 19. Go ye therefore and teach all
Mark. xvi. 15. Preach the gofpel to every

:ecutes his commiffion in an unhampered man. Bring the covenant to any linnets of !mankind: Unto you, 0 men, I call, and my voice is tad*

.Sinners of ?Mankind the Ohjeg;f the Covenant. r79 Eons of men. The object of his adminiftration is not this or that party of mankind, under this or the other denomi­nation : but men, any men, funs of men indefinitely. So the gofpel, in which he adminifters the covenant, is good tidings to all people, Luke ii. to. a fead made unto all

people, Ifa. xxv. 6. though many, not •elifhing the tid­ings, never teat .of the feaft. Accordingly, he-comtnif­fioned his apoilles for that effeEt, in terms than which-none can imagine more extenfive, Mark xvi. 15. Go ye into all the world, and preach the gypel to every creature. The Jews called man the creature, as being God's creature by way of eminence ; fo by every creature is meant .every man. There are in the world, fame men, who by reafon of their monftroue wickednefa, are like devils ; there are other men, who, by reafon of their favagenefs, Emil to dif­fer little from brutes : but our Lord faith here in effort, 4, Be what tliey will, if ye can but know them to be men, ‘, ails no (pavilions about them on this head, what fort of 4' men they are : being meat, preach the gofpel to them, 4' offer them the covenant; and if they receive it, give them

4 the feals thereof; my Father made• them, I will lave '' them."

4. If we enquire, who they are to whom Chrift (lands related 'as a Saviour ? or whole Saviour he is, according to the fcripture ?, we find, that confidered as an actual Savi­oUr laving actually and eventually, he is indeed only Saviour of the body, Eph. v. 23. but confidered as an official-Sa­viour, a Saviour by office, he is the Saviour of the world,' a John iv. 14. John iv, 42. Thus one having a commif­flon to be the phyfician of a fociety, is the phyfician of the whole fociety, by office ; and fo hands related to every man of them, as his phylician : howbeit, he is not adually a healer to any of uteri, bit fuch as employ him. Tho' fume of that fociety fhould not employ him at all, but on _every ocQcfion call another phyfician ; yet he is dill their' phyfician by office : though they fhould die of iteir


cafe, being averfe from calling him : yet dill it is tr' that he was their phyfician, they might have cal:, ' and had his remedies ; and it was piaci), their ov,

that they were not healed by him. Even fo Jefus-Cluilt bath (leaven's, patent, conftituting .


t So The ildmitgration of the Coy. of Grace. Head

Saviour of the world : by the authority of his Father he is invefled with that office : and wherefoever the gofpel comes, his patent for that effeel is intimated, t John iv. 5.}­ find we have feen and do WI., that the Father feat the Son to be the Saviour of the world. Wherefore, none of us (hall perifh for want of a Saviour. Jefus Chrift is the Saviour of the world ; he Is your Saviour, and my Saviour, be your cafe what it will : and God, in and by him, is the Saviour of all own, fpeciaily thofe that believe, i Tim. iv. TO. Hence Chrift's falvation is the common falvation, Jude 3. and the gofpel is the grace of God that bringeth falvation to all Men, Tit ii. 11. marg. Chrift then (lands related as a Saviour by office to the world of mankind : he is their Saviour.: and he is fo related to every one of them, as fin­ners, loft finnerirof that,fociety, I Tim. i. 15. Chrifl ye-fits came into the world to favefinners. Luke xix. to. The Son of man is come to:feek and to ,fave that which is loft. Let no man fay, " Alas! I have nothing to do with Chrift, " nor he with me : for I am a finner, and a loft firmer." Nay, upon that very ground there is a relation between him and you. Since you are a firmer of mankind, Chrift is your Saviour ; for he is by office Saviour of the family whereof you are a branch; If you will employ another than him, or pine away in your difeafe, rather than put yourfelf in his hand, ye do it upon your peril ; but know affuredly, that you have a Saviour of your own, chofen of God for you, whether you employ him or not. He is by his Father's "appointment the pflrfician of fouls ; ye are the fick ; and the leCs fenfibleye are, the more dangerouf­ly tick there is a valuable relation then betwixt Chrift and you, as fuch, Matth. ix. II, 12. He is the great burden-bearer, that gives reft to them that labour and are heavy laden, Matth. xi. 28. Pfal. 22. Ye labour, (pend­ing your labour for that which fatisfieth not : and are laden with iniquity', even heavy laden, and nothing the lets fo, that-ye are not duly fenfible thereof: there is a relation then betwixt Chrift and you on that very fcore. Now, if Chrift (lands related to the world of mankind finners, as their Saviour, then they are the objea of his adminiftraticid of the covenant.

5. Ley, If it were not fo, then there would be fora{

, Sinner: of Maniihd the Ob)e8 of the Covenant. tilt,

excepted perfons of the world of mankind-tanners, for whom there is no warrant, more than for devils, to take hold of the covenant, by believing in Chriff ; contrary to the con­Ilant voice of the gofpel, JohC iii. 16. Mark xvi. 15., For Curtly they have no warrant to take hold of the cove­nant, to whom the adminifirator is not impowered to give it. Which of the world of mankind-finners can thofe ac­cepted perfons be Not Pagans and other infidels, who bear not-the gofpel ; for howbeit, in the depth of fove­reign wifdom, that warrant is not intimated to them ; yet it doth really extend to them as included under that gene­ral term, Whofiever, John iii. i6. And if it did not ex­tend to them, the covenant could,not lawfully be preached and offered to them by windier; of the gofpel ; more than a courier could lawfully go and proclaim and offer the king's indemnity to thofe who have no concern in it, but are excepted out of it. The minifierial gofprl offer is un­doubtedly null and void, as far as it exceeds the bounds of the objefa of Chrift's adminiltration of the covenant ; as being, in fo far, from one or more having no power to wake it. Neither are any who hear the gofpel accepted: for the not taking hold of the covenant by faith in Chrifi, is the great fin and condenmation,of all who, having the Opel, do fo entertain it, Prov. viii. 36. John iii. 19, Mark xvi. 16. But it could not be the fin of such per-fans ; becaufe it .can never he one's fin, not to do a thing which he bad no warrant from God to do. Much lefs are the non-cleft excepted : for at that rate, not only fhould their mifbelief be none of their fin,; but the eleoct themfelves could never believe, till filch time as their eleftion were is the firfi place revealed to them, which is contrary to the hated method of grace ; for none can believe in Chrift, till once they fee their warrant ; forafmuch as that warrant is the ground of faith. ,

Wherefore we conclude, that tanners of mankind inde­fnitely are the obieEt of Chriit's adininifiration of the co­venatit ; that be is impowered to adminifier it to you, and every one of you, whatever you are or have been : and that you muff either take hold of the covenant for HE

falvation, or perilh as defpifers of it, fince ye have laca I


ti3 Of dr ithniniftration of the CovetheOff. Head 4.

III. The Ends of At ildmingration of the Covenant.

The ends of the adminiftration of the covenant, which make the bufinefs of the adminiftrator as filch; are theft three : to wit, ( 1.) The bringing of fanners into the co. venant ; (2.) The management of them therein, accord' ing to it, in this-world; and (3.) The completing of their happinefs, according to it, in the other world.

I. The bringing of fanners perfonally and favirtgly in to the covenant, Ifa. xlix. 5. glad now, faith the Lord that formed me in the womb to be his lemons, to bring Jacob again to him, though Ifrael be not gathered, yet fhall I be glorious' in the eyes of the Lord. Though the covenant was co• chided from eternity when we could neither confect nor diffent ; yet, by the conftitution thereof, it is provided, that, even to the end of time, any firmer of the race-of Adam, who fhall believe, his receiving and embracing the covenant by faith, fhall be as good and-valid to enter bias into it, as if he had perfonally fubfcribed it at the mak­ing thereof, John iii. 16. Thus it is left open to mankind• ruiners, that they may come into it, taking place therein under Chrift the head ; and fo become perfonally confedee rate with Heaven, to their eternal falvation. And there in room enough within the compafii of the infinite name of the fecund Adam, for all of us to fubfcribe our little names. Wherefore, notwithftanding of all that have already fob' fcribed, in that name, faying, 1 am the Lord's, i. e. the Lord Chrift's, Ifa. xliv. 5. fince Eve firft fet down her name there, by believing the promife firft, whereby fhe Awn commenced, and a&ually was the mother of all living, Gen. iii. zo. yet the voice of the gofper Rill is, and will

011ie even to the end, And yet there is room, Luke xiv. 22.

br typifying of which, Noah's ark was, by the appoint•

cot of Heaven, made all little rooms, Gen. vi. 15. call.

' in the margin there, NC/qt. Now the Mediator is au.

,y'r o treat with finners, rebels to God, and fubjeat

-gdom, to bring them over to Heaven's fide

,r that effea to adminifter the covenant unto

pole it to them, and gather them into the

. Wherefore, having gone ford; on that er'

iftto his earneftaefs in the work, Manta

C4r4,f the ilAtninOrator Vat Cotenant. - 18s Hove often would I have 'gathered thy children and- declares himfelf the door of the fheep, John x. y,

2. The management of them in the covenant, according to it, daring their continuance in this world. When fin-were are, by the Mediator's tdminiftration, brought with. in the hood of the covenant, they are not henceforth trailed with the management of themfelves and their flock : but their flock being lodged with him, they are put udder his hand as their folemu manager, the chief Shepherd and Bi-

affault, unto whale overfight the !trays once returned are committed, I Pet. ii. 25. Whatever they need, they rauft-receive from him : he is to difpenfe all the benefits of the covenant, of whatever kind, unto them. Are they to be juftifird f he is to pafa the fentence, thy fins be for-, 'given thee, Matth ht. 2, 6. Are they-to be brought in-- to a new Caving relation to God ? he is to give them pow.. er to become the fens of -God, John i. 12. Are they to lie fanitifted ? he is to wail:, faufiify, and cleanfe them, Jahn xiii. 8. Eph. v. 26. and to give them repentance, au swell as forgivesefs of fine, Aels v. 31.. Are they to be caufed to.peofevere ? he is to -keep them, and to account for each one of them to his Father, John, xvii. rt. Are -they to' be Peen to in all their' temporal .concerns ? the care of -them all lies upon him, i Pet. v. 7. He is our jofeph, who bath all the flores of the covenant in his hand:. and of }vim God lath faid, as Pharaoh Paid to his famifh• sag people, crying- note him for bread, Go to Joieph,•

.X11. Syr. Moreover, they mutt receive all their or­ders from him, touching their duty in allpoiots, They muff receive-the law at his mouth ; faceit is by him God ipearaiunto them, according to the conlitution of the co. seisaut • for which caufe God lath given a foie= charge to all the onvenant-peeple, laying, "This is my beloved !Son, in whom I am well {leafed : hear ye him,' Matth. evil. 5.

. 3. and 141y, The completing of their happinefs, ac.
sterdiug to the covenant, in the other world : Eph. v. 27.

That -be might prefent it to himfelf a glorious chi:10•. £not having fpot or wrinkle, or any fuck thing.' I• the toad= of believers, that Jefus Guilt adminifters

14 The AdmInlfiration of the Coy. of Grace.- Head 4. covenant in this world : fo that whatever part thereof they may be driven to, they ,can never be driven to any part into which his adminiftration doth not extend. Howbeit, the molt glorious part of bis-adminiftration takes its place in the other world : for it is in heaven that the promifes of the covenant have their perfe& accomplifhment : the which makes heaven home to believers. 1, 01 but the a' paffage betwixt the-two worlds is a dark, dangerous o' and gloomy one ! Who can without horror think of the " Jordan of death, and the darkfome region of, the " grave I" But withal, God's covenant people thould ' member, that the Lord bath bufmefs in that paffage, as well as on either fide of it. The line of the covenant is drawn through it, making a path by which the redeemed fairly pafs. So there alfo is the fcene of Chrift'a admini­itration of-the coveliant ; he bath the keys of hell and of death, Rev. i. 18. It is great weaknefs to think that he cloth only, as it were, had on the other fide of the riser* direaing the believer in his ;mirage, and ready to receive him when come alhare : nay, it lies on him, as ad rni niftrator of the covenant, oven to go into the water with the paffen. ger, 'to take him by the arm, and going between him and the ftream, to break the force thereof unto him, and to bring him Cafe afhore Phial xxiii. 4. Though I walk ''through the valley of the fhadow of death, I will feat no evil ; for thou art with me.' In the Ifraelites' pal. ling over to Canaan, the ark went firft into Jordan, and was Taft in coming out, being there till all the people, were paged clean over, Jofh. chap. iii. 4.. The ark being 'n aype'of Chrift, as Canaan was of heaven, this teacheth we, that our Lord jefus will have bufinefs in the paffage be­tween the two worlds, is long as there is one of his people to pals that way; and that his admiaiftration there will never be at an end, until the laff man within the hood of the covenant isfaftly landed on the other fide. This. done. he is to adminifter the covenant to them there aifo4 coinp pleting their happinefa by a Perfe& accompliihment of all the promiles thereof unto them. Ad jefus is the author,, fo he is the finifher of our faith., Heb. xii. 2.. In which ;text there is an allufion to the rants famous among the eur­eka Greeks, wherein the re was one that opened thexacei taak

arse*)! Me iftiminsfirator of the Cotenant. IR 5

andiment on the head of all the reit ; another who wee -fet on a.theone.at the end of the race, and gave the prize to -fuch,as wonit. In the fpiritual race, Curia a6leboth tilde ;parts. As performer of the condition of the covenant, is the eourfe of his obedience, wherein be endured the crofs, alefpifing-the. flume, he is the author of our faith, or the chief leader, exprefely called the forerunner; chap. vi. -in bringing many fons unto glory, going on•their head as +captain or.ohief leader, chap. ii. to. Then ae adminiltrater .of -the cavonant„be is the- linither of our faith, or the per­tfeeter that gives the crown to the runners, and is, fit clown' .at,the right hand of the throne of God. And thus it is his -Witte-fit to put the crown of glory on the heads of thole -whom, br his grace he bath made conquerors. From his 'land Paul expetiteth it, 2 Tim. iv.-8. Henceforth there b.- slaid.ap fa -one-a.eronon of rightsoufoefr, whioh she Lord the righteous judge (to wit, Chrift the Judge a the woad) /ball give- me at that day. To him.it.belungs,to grant to the overcOmers to fit with him on his throne, 'Rev. in. 2 I. • Andithereforei cannot help thinking, that the text,Matth. wx. 23. May-faftlY be read vFithout the fupplernent, To fit *iv my right band and on-my lefi, is not mine to give, bid for whom prepared of.my Father. So the particle but is • tried exceptively, z Cor. ii. 5. 'for face, Mark -ix. 3: The 'Woe& of power given to the Mediator coin-Frei:ends all power in' heave& as well-as in earth : accordingly, he--pre­pares the-place for his fevers} people its his Father's hutife• iltaviag-the whole-at his'difpofal as adminitlrator. of the có.. servant. And he is to adminiftet- the covenant to them, -net' only attheir• arft entrance into the regions of blifs,but ill along through the ages.of eternity, being to remnio the eternal bond of'union and mean of communication betwixt. Godand the faints frir ever, Bab. vii. 25. Rev. vi.

Acd thefe are-ere-ends of the-adininiftration of the co­venant: Follows, ,

IV.. The Nature of the'ildminiPation of the Covenant!•,

- The met:re-of this-adminifiration offers itfelft.o•ot1,- ' in the relations arid bath to the covenanuael, nittrator thereof. We have already leen, how

became the Mediator of the•covenant, boti, and ofE,:ial; and have obferved that his


48 The ianiniftration of the Cob. of ("',race Head 46...

runs through the whole of the covinaot : and we have-taken notice of a threefold relation of his onto it, namely. his being, at, The Kinfinan.redeemer in it. zd, The Surety of it. And, 3d, The Prick the facrificing prieft a it ; the which parts of his mediation, refpeeting the condition of the covenant, do belong to the making of it.. We !hall now confider his other relations thereto, bearing, thole parts of his mediation, which retpteling the pronaifete of the covenant, do belong to the adminiftration of it.. Ands they drethefe five 1,.. He is the Truffee of the covenant.. 2. The Teftator of the covenant. I.. The Prophet olf the covenant.. 4. The King of the covenant.. And, The Interceffor of the covenant :, each of which is a fyl­, fable of the name above every name, given him of the Fa-. . ;her, as the reward of his work.. And in viewing of thek­in order, the nature of the adminiftratiom of thecosenank. will plainly appear:.

,Chi fp' the- Truffeeof the. Covenant:

Our Lord- Jefus, as adminiftrator is,, in the firit place, the Trultee_of the covenant, havin•the covenant, and agt

tbe benefits thereof„committed to his truft ; i..
L4 For it pleafed the Father that is him &mild all fulnele

dwell.' This greateft of all truth, too great for any .,rnere, man; or angsl, our bleffed -Redeemer,, was perfetaly qualified for : and fo was fet over the houfe of God the: molt precious; thing. thereof being pat under, his. ban& What is•feakd up from, the highett angel, he bath acceflt­to ; he is trotted to look the teals, for he is worthy,, Rev.,

v. 2,--5. A holy jealous-God-pine no trt0 in hie fervanN, and his angels he yharged wish :. for they were fallit
hlc ; there was a puffibility of their betraying their true, Job iv. x8. But it pleated him to troll the hleffed Jefus, that in him, akan infallible adminilftatorEall fuluefir fhould.

high truft was a,neceffary prerequifite of the zdErii., : and thergore, upon his engagement to fulfil the ;up of, the covenant, reputed in heaven as fore as if tteg n aelually performed, all the benefits: of the

see. not only made over to him in point of, right,_ Iitercd oNcx into his had is a4nalipoirofflon,, •

GeV? the Truflee of the Covenant.

that he might difpenfe them to finners, according to the method therein Rated and agreed upon : John iii. 35. . • The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things

into his hand.' Matth. xi. 27. All things are delivered

unto me of my Father. Verfe 28. Come unto me, all

` ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you.

reft.' Hence it was that he entered upon the adminit­firation of the covenant long before his incarnation.; even as foon as there Was any place for the achniniftering there­of, which was in-Paradife after the fall a though the folero. shy of his inveftiture, and taking poffeffion, was referved unto his afcenfion into heaven, when the man Chritt was let at God's right hand, Gem iii. 8-15. with Pfalm 28. Eph. i. 20, 23, 22.

Thus. the fulnefs of the covenant is in him : and thh truft makes the unfearchable riches of Chrift not to be par­.ticularly inventoried by us, fince they are unfearchable.. But, agreeable to what bath been faid before, we !hall, for opening thereof, mark the following things :

T. The unfeen guard of the covenant is under his hand. There is given unto him all power over natural and fpiri. tual things, to manage the fame for the prefervation, pro­teetion, and rearaint of thole fornetime to be brought into the covenant ; while yet they are bangers from it, and :neither perceive the guard about them, nor the commander thereof : John v. 22. The Father—bath committed a}1 .• judgment unto the Son : 'Hof. xi. 3. I taught Ephraim

alfo to go, taking them by their arms, but they knew not

that 1 healed them.' Sometimes they are, during their bate of blindnefs, in imminent hazard of their lives, and itarrowly efcape, before the ftream of ftrong temptations threatening to carry them quite away ; and yet the force of there is broken one way or other, and they brought back .from the very brink of ruin ; and they never truly know

whole debtors they are for thefe things, nor fee the love. deign in them, until converting grace has reached them ;• and then they hear the Captain of that guard laying to them, as he faid to Cyrus, Ifa. xlv. S. I girded thee,. thouy? thou haft not known the. So the mountain was full of ' fns and chari..,ts of fire, for the defence of Elifha /avant, while yet the fervant faw mu of them, bu:

Met The ihitesisiftraiiantir.ehe Gkitee. Head 44.

Againft them, until the Lord opened his eyes§ 2 'Kings

2. The quickening. Spirit of 'the -covenant is in him, 'whereby to quicken dead fmnera, and caufe them to live.. 'The .Spirit of life behoved to he purchafed for firmer*, ts­ftherwife there-was no lifefor.them. Now,tite fulnefs there--of is purchafed, and adually lodged in the Mediator, ac-- toweling to the covenant. Hence, Chrill propofeth hiatfelf to dead Sardis., as having the (even.Spirits of God, r.-.iii.

1. and faith to. the Jews, John v. 28. The dead (hall 1..hear,the voice of the Son-of Gode that is,dead.fonIstfhalt lbe,quickoned, and being quickened, {hall believe. Tbe­firft being made-a living foul, was capable to com­municate natural life, but not bring madesa iquichening­*irk, he cawld not-satire life-once loft ; but the left .Adam was •saatlela ,quickening_ fpirit, to leitore fpiritual lifeto finners,dencl in trefpalres and fins. So, in Chrift assbe

Truftee of Abe covenant, is the fountain 'of life. Adaures, fin put out the lights of the whole world.; andlis natural. Afoot ing were all left by him eel° many blind candles: • but Abe fecond Adam is made, and fet up, a flaming.latnp Co. lighten them *gain.; and as many of them ,as it .touchetb,. ,do inllantly flame >too t and could-they all but =much it,. pad none are, fosbiddert, they fbould all he lighted again,. .and .fltine with the light of fpiritual life, partaking .of •he.- 444 of life in, Christ Jcfus.

8. 'Phe'righteoufnefs of thev.twenant is. in biro, where--by to jutliiy the ungodly that have no righteoufnefw *f: their own. Hence his name ill, The Lord our righleoufieefr,-

6. Righteoufnefs ofman before-the Lord was-War mono out ; -there Was :nothing of that kind left npoa _

r Adam's children, it is written, There is ;none‑
us, no not one,' Rom. iii. to. But Jefus Chn in dtishirth, life, and death.,.veronght -oat the righ­...s•of the now .covenant, brought it in,and prefenttcd,. blailtsr, Dan. ix. Z4. with Lev, xvi. r5. And.

and.acoepted as 'the .new covenant rights-

,•;,fying all: that _believe ; and was lodged'

%hereof, intruded with it as adminiftratoe‑

euce, be is-laid to he made unto its



- Chrifi the Trziffee of the Covenant. $tfr

*Ten as he was made the covenant. And intimation hero. of is made unto loners in the gofpel, for a ground of faith, Ifs. xlv. 24. ' Surely, than one fay, in the Lord 4 have I righteonfnefs. Bch. Only in the Lord (concern‑

ing me he hath laid) is righteoufnefs.'. They are the' words of the Lord Jefus Chrift, narrating the divine con­flitution concerning himfelf. Compare ver. 23: with Rom. xiv. to, rt. Wherefore the gofpel is called the mi­tujiration of righteoufnefr, 2 Cor. iii. 9. and his minifters, minifters of 'righteoufnefr, chap. xi. 15. he being intrufted with the new covenant righteoufnefs, for to adminifter it to koners unto jollification of life, as the phrafe,is Rom. v. 18.

4. The new covenant-right to God is in his perfon as

Mediator : and he is a&trally poll-tired of the fulnefs of the

Godhead, as he is adminiftrator of the covenant, to com‑

municate of that fulnefs to all that (hall believe, Col. ii.
9. , For in him dwelleth all the ruiners of the Godhead

bodily. Verfe toz And ye are complete in him, which is the head.' Our Lord Jefus, as the eternal Son of God, had a natural indefeafible right to the ruiners of the Godhead : but as the fecund Adam, be took out a new right thereto, purchafing the fame by his obedience and death: and as filch, it is now lodged with him, to be communicated by him. And thus the peace of the co­venant, peace with God, is in him, Eph. ii. 14. the fors-;{hip of the onvenantr the adoption into the family of God, is•n him as the firft,born among many brethren, Pak lxxxix. 27. with John i. 12. the covenant•intereft in Go4 as ope's own God, is in him, John xx. 17. And to ob­tain all there in one, let the Inner but receive Chrift by faith, and he bath them ; for they are all under his hand as Truftee of the covenant, yea, in him as the ftorehonfe of the covenant.

5. The covenant fulnefa of the Spirit of fanaification is in him, whereby to make ruiners holy : Col. i. 19. ft pealed the Pother, that in him lhould all fulnefi

John i: u5. And of his _lane!: have all eve received, and grace for grace. Having purchafed the Issue with his ow* blood, it is lodged in him as Adminiftrator of the co Want, in refpeiEt of which he is faid to be made <Linda:460o, Cor. Therefore, out of hl

c190 The ifiieninifiratios of i& Cov."ef Grua. Head 4: ad fide came there forth blood and water ; blood to re. MOW the guilt of fin, water to wafh away the defilement thereof. So he is the' fountain opened .for fin and for

unoksonefs 4! not a reffel of that water of purification, - -Which, how full foever, would lack as much as it %odd -communicate ; but a fountain, a living fpriog of it, so dimply-the needs of the unclean, without any lack in it-dell : For Ged shatb not the Spirit by.rstafure auto his, john iii. 34. wherefore, there is in him fuel a fulnefs of the Spirit of holinefs, as is, by the infinite efficacy thereof, ..fofficient to fan&ify the whole family of Adam, sad MR .the wont of them. There is a fulnefs of aligtoce in him, eto be .communicated for the repairing of the &o& image of God in us. Them is grace enough in him, to melt the -hard& heart . to evangelical repentance, Allis v. 31. to mortify the firongefi lull, Gal. v. 23. and to quicken and Ito fisengthen unto holy obedience, 2 Tim. ii. 1.

The eftablifhing grace of the common is in him, orhereby 10 conk the molt fickle and inconfiant, once in Aim, to perfevere unto-the end: Jude, ver. 1. Them that 4' are fanelified by God the Father, and preferred is jeiiaa

Chrifi.' He is conaituted the head of influences •for all his znyftical members, which arc to have their nourilli‑

- -aunt minikered from hien, Col. ii. 19. The giving not of continued pardons, necelfary for them is this their 'Moe of imperfedion, hallo is his land,as the 'Prager d' the covenant,. award to be a Prince and a Saviour, feria-- Ow orpentosaa.te .1fr.adand forgivenefi office, Aelloo.

-Thos he is fully fornifbed for preferring o•them in a tiste• of game, haviog .a dolma Of grace in .hitofelf to conorsonit rate into them, fuitable to all their exigencies, whether _ in swipe& -of the tower, or .of.the guilt of thek..fin.

The temporal things of the covenant.are all in his fiand, wherebyto provide foroutdafford proteaion_to hie. rpecple,.doring: their continuance in thiturstrid. In the covenant there -soli atadetto',hinra promife of his inherit.. rsg sili•hings,os the firli horn.,of the family of Heaven3 and in his perfonaseheinft Adam, the ancient dominion aver the matures. was reficredom we.heard "before, Now, as be is the Tr oilee of the covenant, the heritage of the wor', .6E1 411.-things•theicia,, istitually .ddlivared..evcr

Chrs i tht .71.4ke the toversaiti, rstir

to' biabaricl: fo that he is not only Lord of the world is point of right, bat in fa&, having the power cif all there.' in, from the ftnaileft rag for covering of oakednefs, even bathe crowns and fceptres. This he himfelf witneffeth, Match. NXViii. 18. All power is given tintome itt heaven' 4• Tavel in earth. Chap. al' 27. All things are delivered' f. unto me of my Father.' Hence, to encourage his im•' poverifhed people in' thtir .building of the fecond• temple,' he faith, Hags R.. B. The flyer is mine, and the gold is' mitre,' namely, to give them to whorls I will. And that' thefe are Chrift's words., appears from verfe 6. compared' with kleb. xii. 2-6. Accordingly, from Plaint xxiv. t. I. The earth is the Lord's, and the. fulnefs thereof,' the apoftle clears believers' right to the creatures, I Con a.'

a6, And thus he is fatly furnifhed for affording RIP manner of provilion to his people, in temporal things f' and,all proteaiort from whatever dangers they can-he-ia while here.. The fun, moon, and itars, the earth, fea and air, with all that in them is, are under his harid, as the 'Pollee of the covenant ; and he caa difpofe of them all kir the ends of the covenant, as the glory of God and the welfare of his people do require.

S. The covenant.fhltrefs of power over death and the grave is' labia hand, whereby to -deform death of its fling, *ad 'Whig about, a glorious refurrealon, I, faith he, have toe keys ghee! and death, Rev. i. IS. Death goes through the World is a mighty conqueror, whom none is able to re.' fill ; the grave follows, and none can keep back its prey, nor caufe it to give up again. But the Mediator bath an efff&ttal cheek upon them both. They are not abfolute potentates, as mighty as they are : there is one above them, to vvhofe orders they mud precifely flick. Death may indeed enter in within the boundaries of the covenant, and carry off the covenant people as well as others : but at the border it mutt drop its ding, and enter without it ; for the power of death is now in Chrift's hand, and he will not fuffer it to enter there with it. And the time cometh, wherein he will fay to the grave, Give up ; and then the bars thereof will be broken afunder, the pa

thereof fly (pen, and it will deliver up to him its lode for he is intruded as Adminiftrator of the covenant full power over death and the grave.

192, The AimingAfation of the Coat. of Grlee. Head 4.

9. La.14, The eternal confummate happinefe of the co.. venant is in his hand, whereby. to render the fouls of hi• people happy immediately after tleatb, and...then foul and. body together happy at the lad day : for all power in hea. ven is given him. The Father hath made him the great repofitory of eternal life, the •fountain from whence it !hal Bream forth to all the heirs of life : and the difpenfing of it is intrufled to him ; z John v. z a. God hath given to;

us eternal life: and this life is in his Son.' ,. John xvi. 2.. 4 As thou halt given him power over all &lb, that he

lhould give eternallife to as many as thou haft given him.', Wherefore, his dying people do in faith commit their fouls to him, as Stephen, Aas vii. 59. ' Saying, Lord Jefus,

receive my fpirit.' And at the lea day, he pronounced:: the fentence, and folemnly receives them into the kingdom. of heaven, Mattb. xxv. 24.

, And thus Chrift is the Truftee of the covenant.

II. Chrili the Teaor of the Covenant.

In the next place, our Lord Jefus,is the Teltator of the covenant, as the apodle teacbeth, Belo, ix. x5, z6, 17. By the conditionary part of the covenant, God had'a corn.: penfation of the wrong done to his glory by finners : and by the promiffory part, Chrift had unfearchable riches to, communicate unto them, whereby they might be made, happy ; and being to die in the caufe according to his co.., venant, he timely made his tellament, as a deed of convey­ance thereof unto them; turning the promiffory part .of the covenant, refpeeting loft finners, into a teflament in their: favour, r Cor. xi. 25.' This cup is the new teftament ia

my blood.'

Hence it appears, that this belongs to the adminiftration, of the co4enant, committed to him, for Making finners par takers of the covenant-benefits; yea, and that it is the firft. and fundamental at of that his adminifiration, laid as a foundation of all the other Bets thereof, which are but fo, many means of executing the teftament. Upon the Me­diator's undertaking to fulfil the condition of the covenant, the Father made to him a difpofition of the covenant-be. nefits contained in the promiffory part : and the benefits fo difponed, were a&ually delivered over into his hand, as the

Chrifi the relator of the Covende. • 1•9s

appointed truftee of the covenant, as we have already feen. Now,• he having them all thus in his hand, hath made a dif­pofition of them to poor finners, by way of tefiament, Luke xxii. 29. And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father bath appointed unto me. Or, And, I difporte to you, as my Father dfponed unto me a kingdom. The wotd here tiled, fignifies to difpone ; and bath in it the notion of a -federal or covenant difpofition, and a teftamentary difpofition tae. Of the former fort, was the difpofition made by the Father to Chrift, namely, a federal difpofition ; as being made on a molt onerous caufe, a condition properly fo called, to wit, his making his foul an offering for fin : and it can by no means be a tetiamentary difpofition, fince, where a tyla­tnent it, there mull alfo of necejfity he the death-of the teltator, 1-feb. ix. r6. the which it is evident, could have no place in the cafe of the Father. Of the latter fort is the difpos Edon made by Jefus Chrift to finners, namely, a teftamen.= tary difpofition, which, of its own nature, is a deed or con. veyance of grace and liberality, without conditions pro­perly fo called ; and forafmuch as finners were under an utter difability to perform conditions properly fo coiled: it,was therefore neceffary, for their behoof, to make it a . teftamentary difpofition or teftament.

For clearing of the nature of this teftament, which is of fo great importance for all to know, who have any concern for their falvation, we (hall confider : I. The making thereof. 2. The legatees. The executor. And, 4. The legacies.

Firfi, As to the making of Chrift's teftament ; it is first of all to be obferved, that though the covenant was indeed from eternity, the teftament was not fo. For Chrift made his teftament as adminiftrator of the covenant ; which ad­sniniftration he did not enter upon but in time. He was from eternity the truftee of the covenant, which grand unit was a neceffary prerequifite of his adminiftration : yet, for­afmuch as his commencing teflator of the covenant was an ad of his adminiftration thereof, there could be no place for it until there was place for adminiftering the covenant, which there was not, till once the covenant of works

broken. And hereto belt agreeth the nature of meet, which is not limply will, but a will do la!

r9i The nrffiratioii of the Coro. of Grace. Head q.

lied, and fignifred by word or writ, or force one- or other external fign pleadable by the lcgateea, in ender to their ubtaiuing of the legacies bequeathed.

Chritl's teftameut, which, for fubaance, is but one, is yet twofold, in refpe8 of different cireumflaaces wherewith it bath been vetted, namely, the old or firft teftameat, and the new teftament, a Cor: iii. r4. Heb. ix. 15.

Chtift's old teftament is the declaration of the Taft will of our dying Saviour, touching his unfearchable riches, eon• firmed by (lain facrifices of divine inftitution, feal'ed with the feals of circumeifion and the paftover, and enduring in the church till the futnefs of time, and the nranifeftation of himfeif to Ifrsel in the lleth, Heb. ix. 20. Rom. iv. as. a Cor. v. 7. Luke xvi. Y 6. This his teftament was origi. nally made byword of mouth; which kind of teftament is called a nuncupative teftament: but it was afterwards corn• mitted to writing; fo that there was- not only a word of the te{lameut to be heard, but a bock of the teflament to be read, by the legatees, Heb. ix. t6, 20. And fo we }gave it a written teftament, in that part of the holy fcrip• ture called by the name of the Old Teftament.

Chrift's new teftament is the declaration of the fame Taft will 1f our dying Saviour, touching his unfearchable riches, confirmed by his own death on the crufs, fealed with the Peals of baptifin and the Lord's fupper, and to continue for evermore, 1 Cur. xi. 23, 24, 25. Matth. xxv. 19. Heb. vii. 12, t6, 17. This aifo was originally made by word of ,n ,uth, in the time of his public miniltry, wherein he de-dared his will anent the ' great falbation, which,' as the a. poftle obfervcs, ' at firlt began to be fpokcn by the Lord,t Heb. ii. 3. And it was in like mrnner afterwards commit­ted to writing : aad we have it too a written teltament1 iu than part of the holy fcripture called by the name of tbt New Teftament.

If we look for the original date of Chrift's old or firl&
m:nt, we find his teltament to be of a dice as early as
e of the thing c uld bear ; being made in paradifee
lay of Adam's fall in the cool of the d.y, Gen. iii;
:wife called the time between the two evenings,
~i},-6. that is, between three an fie o'ch ck in the
at the whit± time, our Lsr.d Jefus did, ip tho

Ckrifi the Tefiator of she Covertane, t q's

prnmife of the' feed of the woman to bruife the head of 3 the ferpent,' which • amid bruife his heel,' Gen. iii. ftgrri fy his death, and declare his will for the benefits of hilt ipuichafe, their accruing to finners thereby. And that day I judge to have been the flath day of the creation, the fame day wherein man was created ; reckoning that the feripture teachetb, that Adam lodged not one night in ht• -flour, as Come do, agreeable to the original, read Pfalm xlix. .12. They who cannot think that the events recorded front Gen. ii. 7. to the end of the third chapter, were crouded within the compafs cf one•day, may weigh therewith the events relating to the death of Chrill, which are recorded :Luke xxii. 66. to the end, Chap. xxiii. 1,-33. John xix. i. Mattb. xxvii. 27, 28. John xix. 2, 59 9,-15. Matthe

XXiii. 24. All which things were done in the fpace of

half a day t for Chritt was crucified about twelve of the clock, Luke xxiii. 44,-46.

Some, through an unwillingnefs to think of their death,. -do put off the me king of their teflaments unto a death bed:, but fo very willing was Chr ill, the fecund Adam, to die -for us,-that he let his houfe in order, and fo prepared him. fell for death, that very day wherein the fieft Adam fell.

The bufinefs of the great Ki,T, and the bothers- of the ru­ined world of mankind, required trifle. The whole fabric: -of the world was by Adam's fall f3-unhinged, that it was battening to a total difli lotion, and mankind about to pe. fith in the ruins ; till the fecond Adam went in,- and bore -up the pillars thereof, in virtue of his death to ettablifh the earth again, Ifa. xlix. 8. Wherefore, in paradife he made. his teftament in a few words, containing a difpofition of the: tenefitoof the covenant in favour of poor finners, Gen. iii. vs. and typically went in under that weight of wrath, -which was prating down all : and fo he etiablifbed the earth again.. In this form it was, that they of the fiat a‑

es of the world had the telament. But it was repeated 'end renewed to Abraham, to whom the promifes were made, Gal. hi. i6. comprehended under the name cf the

covenants or teflatnents of promile, Eph. ii. t2. As alto to Mad in the wildernefs, whom Moles fptinkled blood, fay ing, This is the blood of the teftament, 11S • to, And this was Chrift's old teftament, upon


19.6 The 1-Inuai1?ration of the Coo.'sof Gram. Head 4. that believed, from Adam to thrift, built their faith, and hope of obtaining the legacies left therein ; though it was upwards of four thoufand years, from the firft making of the teftament, unto the death of the Teftator by which the new teftament was confirmed.,

"" Now, the apottle faith, that • a teftament is of force 4 after rnen are dead ; ntherwife it is of no ftreogth at all twhilft theteflator liveth,' Heb. ix. ‘7. Was thrift's tefta­ment then of no force all that time ? Yea, it was of forces and that by means of a pre-confirmation, being confirmed before, Gal. iii. 17. The confirmation of a teftament, in the kale of the holy fcripture, is by the death of the teas-tor, as th'e apoftle, in the forecited text, teacheth the Hebrews. And in fcripture reckoning, there was a two­fold death of the Teflator here : one typical, another real. In refpeet of the former of thefe, t hritt was • the Lamb

flair) from the foundation of the world,' Rom xiii. 8. hav­ing died typically in the facrifices then offered, Gen. iii. 21. and thereafter all along under the Old Teftament. And by that death of the Testator, was the pre-confirmation of the teftament : fo that from the day it was firft made, it was of force, for the legatees obtaining the legacies there­in bequeathed, forafmuch as it was then alto confirmed. Wherefore, the apoIlle obferves, that, in full confiftency with that known maxim anent teftaments, Heb. ix. 17. a­bove cited, • Neither the firft teftament was dedicated • without blood, verfe i 3. What the apoftle means by. the dedication of the teftament will be plain, if it is con­. fidered, that what our verfion of the Bible calls dedication, is, in the fcripture-ufe of words fo rendered therein, no­thing elle but an entering on, or a firft, or new tiling of a perfon, or thing, to what they were defigned for.: info. much that the very dedication of the temple was no more but that, as appears by comparing z Chron. v. 13. Chap vi. and vii. 1. with 4, S. Wherefore, by the dedication of the teftament, mutt be meant the legatees' beginning 4) claim and obtain the legacies, ,upon the teftarnent. And this, the apoftle faith, was not done without the teftament'; being confirmed by blood or death ; the which, though rally the blood or death of beafts facrificed ; yet, accord,. ing to the apoftle's reafoning, were reckoned the b19.4

aril? theTeflotcr ef the Covenant. 157

or death of the Teltator, they being facrificed as types of him.

And hence it appears, that whatever have been the dif­ferent-circumftances wherewith the teftament in different periods bath been velted; the Old and New Teflament, nuncupative and written, are for fubflance but the one eettarnent of Jefus ChrO,the fameyeflerday, and to.dery, and for ever, Heb. xiii. S. having the fame force and effect for full remiffion of fin and 'eternal- falvation, legacies claimed and obtained by faith, in virtue of the'teftament, Aas xv 14. Rom. iv. r3. only, what was-firtt declared by word of mouth, the fame was thereafter written.- The legacies at. Arft bequeathed in general comprehenfive terms, were after­wards particularly nominated : and in the New Tettament­they are more clearly expreffed than in the Old. The• former was a copy of the tettament, fitted for the time be fore the Tellator really died ; the latter, fitted for all times. thereafter, to the end of the world ; and therefore no ther copy is to be accepted after it.

Secondly, It is to be inquired, Who are the legatees, the-parties in whole favour the tetiament was made, and who may in the method of the tettarnent, claim and obtain the le­gaciesthereinbequeathed? Chrift'a makirg his teflament be­ing the fundamental aa of his adminiftration of the cove• rant, as we have already feen ; the legatees in the tefla• meat mull needs be the fame as the objeas of his adminie­ftration of the covenant,. that is to fay, (inners of man•- kind indefinitely*: for if Chrift is aathorifed by the Fa­ther to adminifter the covenant to man-kind.finners inde, finitely : and hath accordingly made his teflament for • that effe&, ferely none can be excepted out- of the tetta+• meat, that are not excepted out, of his adminittration.• Therefore the apoftle lays down, for the foundation of faith to thofe who had even imbrued their hands- in the blood of the Lord of.glory, their intereft the. promife,.
Aas ii..39. i-For the promife is unto yo-t, and to your "children, and to all that are afar off, even as many. as the‑

Lord- our God fhall call- To whoinfoever then the - gofpel comes, we may warrantably fay, the promife is you, and to you, and every one of you, even the

tithe. tail:tient and ye have accefs to claim it


198 ?lie ildntirgration of Coo,. of Grace.. Head 4.

as your own legacy, your own mercy, Jonah ii. 8. And all the arguments adduced on the head of the objet of Chrift's adminiaration, which need not to be repeated here, do prove this.

And it is molt agreeable to the nature of the thing. In Chrift's tettament, the legatees are not expreffed by their names, as in teflaments where thetettator hath hischildren and friends about him, to whom he leaves his legacies but it is here, as in thecafe wherein fome of, the children, or friends of the tettator, are not come into the world at the time of the making of the teftament ; who mutt there­fore have their legacies kft to them under force general defignation. Multitudes, multitudes of Chrift's legatee, were not born when he died ; and multitudes of them have net to this day fern the fun I nay, when Chrift firft made his teftament, there were but two perfons in the world. Therefore the legatees have been expreffed in it under a greneral.delignation, as thofe of fuel: a family. Now, the general defignation of the legatees in Chrift's tefidtnent is not aetual believers, that is, fuel: as have already &Nev. ed ; for a6lual believing is the legatees' claiming of the legacies left them, whereby they are put in poffeflion there­of; the which claim muft, of neceffity, have a foundation in the teftament prior unto it. And indeed the teftament is the ground of faith. Therefore it was made before there was one gluel believer. in the world, being made in parndift, and there recited in the hearing of our guilty firft parents, who, upon the hearing of at, Gen. iii. Is. believed, and fa were put in poffeffion of their legacies. And thus will it be to the end of the world : faith will come by hearing of the teftament, Rom. x. 17. Gal iii. 2. Neither is it the cleft : for, howbeit in them only is the teftament effe6tual, yet it is not to them only the legacies are-left; they are not the only perfons in whole favour the uflament was made. For eleElion being a fecret not to be known by .us, until once we believe, cannot be the ground and warrant of believing, or embracing the tette. anent, and claiming the legacies. Betides, at that rate; unbelievers continuing fo to the end, could not be juftly reckoned refufers and (lighters of Chrift's teftament, as bavim; no portion. nor concern in it more than fallen angels: But the general defignation of the legatees .in Cluilt't teal‑

MO the Teliator of the Covenant. 599

ment is mankind•finners indefinitely : to thofe of the fa­mily of Adam are the legacies left to be claimed and pof­Riled of them by faith : Prov. viii. Unto you, 0 men 4. I call, and my voice is to the Eons of men.' Rev. xxii. 17. ' Whofoever will, let him take the water of life freely.' John. iv. 37. ' Him that cosneth to me, i will in noways caft out.

Put the cafe, that a rich man Should, for the love and favour he bears to a ,particular family, leave his fubnance to them by teflament, to be, divided among them : in this cafe it is evident, that however numerous that family be, all and every one of them are this man's legatees, howbeit, their names are not particularly expreffed in the tenement ; and they need no more to clear their claim, each to his Share of the legacy, but that they are of that family. And upon the executors making lawful intimation to that family, that fuch a teftament being made in favour of them, they come, claim, and get their legacies, in the method of the teflament : it is manifeft, that all of them, who ac­cordingly come and make their claim, as members of that family, will obtain a (hare of the legacy : but in cafe there be any of them, who will not come and make any claim thereto, they will juitly lofe theebenefit thereof, and may die of want for all the legacy that was left to them in that teflament : Our Lord icing Chrift has made Inch a tefta­ment : the loft family of Adam is the family conftitute his legatees ; and the gofpel is the lawful 'intimation made to them, to come to the executor,_ and receive their legacies. All that believe get the legacy : all unbelievers foie it, and perifh under the want thereof : and they perin: without all excufe. They cannot pretend, that there was nothing left them by the Teltator, which is the cafe of the fallen angels: nor yet, that it was not intimate unto them, which is the cafe of thofe that never heard the gofpel. But they pe­rah, becaufe, howbeit there was a rich legacy left them, yet they undervalued the teflator's kindnefs, and would ne­ver come and claim it by faith. Hence the benefits of the covenant of grace, even.in refpeet of unbelievers, are cal­led their own, namely, in virtue of the right they have t, them by the tenor of Chrift's teflament ; Jonah i They that oblerve lying vanities, forfake their own 1,

moo The vialoninOrte finis of the Coy.' of Gewe. Head 4E, .Accordingly, to the elder brother in the parable, Luke ar. the father faith, retie 3t. ' Son, all that I have is thine._

So chap. mi. I a. If ye have not been.faitbful in that 4 which is another man's, who than give you that which is

your own? that is,the true riches,' ver. T T. And their ruin is lodged at the door of their unbelief, in not coming to Chrift to receive them, John v. 4. And ye will not P- some to me, that ye might have life.' Chra's promifes­4o his tefiament are to mankind.finners, as the promife Canaan was to the lfraelites in Egypt, indefinitely, thofe not excepted, whofe aureoles fell in the wildernefs,. Exod'. lei. 6. Say unto the children of Ifrael; I am the Lord.

—Verfe 8._ And 1 will ,bring you in ante the land

eeming the which I did Swear.' Thus was there a pro.

mile left chant. of entering into the reit of Canaan : and thofe who believed it, got the poffeffion accordingly ; thofe. who bell wednot did lofe it. And they fell fhort of it,. not becaufe it was not left to them, but .becaufei, though it was left to them, as well as to thofe that entered, yet they believed it not. So, fags the apoflle, They could not en. 1. ter in.becaufe of unbelie,' Heb. iii. 19. And this was-no imputation on the faithfulnefs of God : for even in pro. miles, as well es in•covenants, there is a seceflity of mots. alsconfent unto the fame thing ;- the party. to whom the: promife is made, his acceptance thereof being neoeffitry to complete the obligation on the promifer to make it effec­tual : becaufe none making a promife of a benefit to atm.- ther, can.in reafon be thought either to bind himfelf there­by to intrude his benefit on the other againft his will, or­yetito give up with,it, as a thing to be abandoned by hiss. r :uy rate. Now, to this very purpofe-the apatite makes•

that cafe of the Ifraelites having the promife of Ca.

ieft them, and yet c,ming lhott of it through nnbe.

lieb. iv. 1. ' Let us• therefore fear, left a -promife


kft us of entering into his-reit, any. of you fhould­in to 0383C fhort of it. Verfe 2. For unto us was­' ;are! preached,as well as unto them : but the word

I did not profit them, nor I:wing mixed.with faith. ‑

. that heard it.'_ Compare Exod. iv. 9.

,;lake. unto the children of lfrael, but they heark)


MO the relator gibe Covenant.

. Thirdly, It is to be inquired, Who is the execrator of the telfament ? In testaments among men, the tefiator and executor are always different perfons : and it muff needs be fo, beeaufe the teftator dying, cannot live again to fee his will execute : therefore one or, more, who live when he is gone, muff be nominated for that purpofe. But here that reafon ceafeth. jefus Chrift could well be the execu, for of his own testament, and needed not to appoint any other to fee to thatmatter. He was the Lord of life and


death, and it was not poffiblc he ihould be holden of death, As ii. 24. Though he was really to die, to'confirnt­Iris teftament ; yet he was quickly to rife again, for the ef­fectual execution thereof; accordingly the apofile obferves, that he 4 was delivered for our offences, and was railed

gain for our juttification,' Rom. iv. 25. s And he liven

for evermore.' Even when he was in the grave, he was

capable of executing his.teitament, being God as well as man, having a' life which could not be loft, no not for a moment, namely, the divine life. And the executing of it then, when the human nature was in the Rate of death, was much the faine as his executing of it before he had ac­tually affumed the human nature at all.

And that jefus Chrift really is the executor of his owa tellament, appears from his being confiitute by the Father adminifirator of the covenant, to difpenfe the benefits there‑

, of as great Steward of the houfe of Heaven ; and from the alts of that his adminiftration, both in this life, and in that which is to come ; for he it is that bath in his hand the conferring of grace, both real and relative, on finners ; and the conferring of glory on faints ; the which are the exe­cuting of his teftament, as well as the adminiftering of the covenant ; the former being fubordinated to the latter., Meanwhile it cannot be refufal, that he executes it by his Spirit, and employs gofpel-miniflers in the matter. Where­fore, whofoever would have any living benefit by Chrift's teffament, or would partake of the legacies therein be­queathed, muff come to himfelf to receive them, fince he is the executor of his own teffament. And therefore the conflant call of tire gofpel to perifhing finners,ls, to come to Chrift for life and falvation ; and the complaint on 6, ,who forfakc his own mercy, is, that they will aot con

sot The Almdnpreition of the Coy: of Gram. Head 4.,

tiro, John v. 4o. And the whole life of believers mull be

coming to him, t Pet. ii. 4. that is, a living by faith ih him, Gal. ii. 20. whereby they may be daily receiving of the legacies, according to their exigencies.

Fourthly, In the laft place, it is to be inquired, What are the legacies left in Chrift's tettament, to poor &antra of mankind, his only legatees? In the general, there is left to them therein what is fufficient to make them happy ft* time and-eternity, even all- the benefits of the covenant to be received by faith. There are Chrift himfelf, and all things in and with him, Rom. viii. 32. And the gene. ref claufe of the teitament is, According to your faith 0 be it unto you,' 'Staub. ix. 29. It being beyond our reach fully to reckon up the particulars, it (hall fuffice to point at a few things, as the comprehenfive 1-gacies, left by jetties Chrilt in his tefiament, to finners of mankind bide-finitely.

Legacy t. His own complete righteoofnefs, to cover no before the Lord ; hence called the gift of righte6ufnefs, Rom. g. 17. as being made over to us in his teftament, to be received by faith ; in which fenfe it is laid to be reveaf­ed unto faith, that is, to be believed or trufled on, and fo received and put on, chap. i. t 7. Dying perform are wont to leave (nits of mourning to their poor friends: but our dying Saviour left to all his legatees, The garments of

falvation, the robe of righteoufnefs,' Ifa. lxi. to. beau­tiful garments,' chap. 1k. t ' white raiment,' Rev. iii.

`as a fuit of rejoicing ; for that, though he was dead, he it -alive, and lives for evermove. Our father Adam left us naked, to our flume ; yet need we nut go naked, nor our the3 rn e be ken. For, by the fecund Adam's teftament,.

qicient clothing is left to our father's broken family ;

,2o the robe of his own righteoufnefs : and nothing re‑

ains, but that we receive it as his legacy to us, and put

en. A holy .God cannot admit us into his pretence in

fpiritual nakedi efs : the law requires us to appear

him in nnfpotted holinefs of nature, and perfeft

iChefs of life, as the condition of life ; and with‑

-it 'a fatisfglion to jultice, by fuffering, becaufe

tied. But how can we make loch an ap­him We can by no means- put out.

Chrifi the relator rphe Comettrmt. 2ag

felvee in fuck a condition, by any thing we can do ov.fttiferii Yet is not wreak hopelefs. We have a good. friend,the Lord Jefus Chriti, who bath left us by tenement, the ho. 'liners of his nature, wherewith he was born ;. the rights.. miners of his life, even • all the good works he wrought is obedience to the ten commandments, during his life on earth ; and the fatisfae.tion made by hie death and loner. ings from the womb to the grave : he bath madvail there one undivided gift of righteoufnefs, and bequeathed the fame to us in his tenement, to be received by faith. By meats hereof, the molt wretched finners of ue all may ,b4 beautified in the fight of a holy God, hare wherewith to anfwer all the demands of the law for life, and obtain a full pardon and, acceptance with God, as righteous in his fight. How fhall we efcape, if, never claiming thieles gacy, we trample on the Teftator's kindnefs

Legacy 2. His new-covenant 'interen in God, whereby . to render us happy: Heb. viii. so. Pseill be tathena a Goat Our father Adam left his whole family withal,' God in ofre •

iuorkl, Eph. ii. s z. This was an unfpeakable tors, a ruin, ing lots: all mifery in time and eternity was wrapt up iti it. It was a Ws that could never have been compenfat. ed :

and to us it was irrecoverable. But Jefus Cheat bath recovered for us the loft covenant.intereft in God, and bequeathed it to us in his tenement. This'is a legacy full beyond our comprehenfron. Who can conceive fully what is in that, I will be your God? Surely all bleffed, nets is in it, for time and eternity : Pfal. cxliv. 15. Hap,

py is the people, whore God is the Lord." Herein is left you peace and reconciliation with God, John xiv. vy. adoption into the family of God, 2 Cor. vi. 16, 17, 13. yea, that ye {hall have Gad for your own. G ,d, your own heritage, in a j int heiifhip with Chrifl., Rota. viii. 17. all the perrons of the Godhead to he yours ; the Father to be your Father, the Son your Saviour, the Holy Gholt your Sanaificr ; and all the attributes of God to he em. ployecl for your happinefs. Nothing on CLAWS part, nothing on GoTs part, [lands between you and all this: nothing can make you come Ilion of it but unbelief. That new-covenant interett in God is purchal,:d by the4) 01 tilt everlading covenant; it is given over tut.'

*04 rbe .etiorinifiratioss of the Cov. of Grare. Head 4.

as adminiftrator of the covenant; and he again hath made it over to you by teftament. And what remains, but that, ye come to the executor, and receive your legacy, by faith ? Alas! that any fhould be found, who have no heart to it.

Legacy 3. His Spirit of grace, we fo much need. Hear the wprds of the teftament, Prov. i. 23. g Turn you at 4 my reproof : behold, I will pour out my Spirit unto • you.' Chrift bath the feven fpirits of God,' even a ful­nefs of the Spirit in himfelf to communicate; audhath made over the faire, by his teftament, to firmer. of Adam's race: withal, as executor of the teftament, he bath made inti­mation thereof, declai ing himfelf ready to give. the Spirit untwall that come to him accordingly : John vii. 37. je­s fus (toad and cried, laying, If any man thirft, let him 4 tome unto me, and drink. Ver. 38. He that believeth on me, as the fcripture bath faid, out of his belly !hall flow rivers of living water. Ver. 39. But this fpake he 4 of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should re-4 ceivs,' 0 luitable legacy for Adam's children.! Here is life for us, life for our dead fouls : for- his Spirit is the Spirit of life, loofing the bands of fin and death, Rom. viii. s. How .(hall dead fouls live ? Our Lord himfelf anfwers that queftion atlarge, John vi. (hewing himfelf to be the life-giving bread, that giveth life unto the world, verfe 33. that it is by eating this bread fouls (hall live, verfe 57. that the quickening Spirit is in it, verfe 63. and that is to be eaten by faith, ver. 35, 63, 64. Whither then fhould the foul go for life, but to Chrift as executor of his own teftarnent ? ver. 68. For as we derived death from

e fira 'Adam, fo we muff derive life from the fecond A‑

n, elfe we cannot have it, ver. 53. Here is regenerat‑

and fantlifying grace for us, whereby our natures

y be changed, Ezek. xxxvi. 26. the image of God re‑

lired in us, through grace received, anfwering to the

a in the man.Chrift, as the wax to-the feal, John i. 16.

IWthis worketh the Spirit of Chrift in thole who be‑

ph. t3. Here is made over to us grace, where‑

y be enabled to true evangelical repentance, Zech.

xxxvi. 31. to walk in newnefs of life, verfe ottify the deeds of the body, Rom. viii.

Chill) the Teflator ef the Covenant. 205

Here is bequeathed unto us enlightening grace, whereby we may difcern our duty ; for the Spirit is the Spirit of light and direCtion, John xvi. 13. exciting and ftrength­ening grace, which comes by the fupply of the Spirit, Philip. i. 19. Eph. iii. 16. comforting grace in all trial, and afflietions, for he is,the Comforter abiding for ever, where once he comes, John xiv. t6, and eftablifhinggrace, whereby the firmer once in Chrift, is for ever kept from falling away, either totally or finally, verfe 17. 1 John ii. 2.7. In a word, Chrift having left us the Spirit of grace in his teftament, all grace fuitable to our needs lies open to us. Wherefore, none that hear the gofpel remain -de­ftitute of grace, but becaufe they will not come to Chrift for it.

Legacy 4. A fuitable portion of the good things of this life, as infinite wifdom fees needful; Pr 1

- .8.. xxxviii. 3. 6 Thou (halt dwell in the land, and verily thou (halt be g fed.' Chrift in his teftament, has difponed to finners a kingdom, even the kingdom of God, and adding thofe things thereunto, Match. vi. 33. His teftament is fuited to all our need, even in temporal things : he bath feen to our provifion and protection, according to the promifes made thereanent in the covenant. 'I'hefe promifes pri­marily made to hitnfelf in the eternal covenant, he bath by his teftament, as it were indorfed to us, to be made forthcoming to all who by faith embrace it, and claim them upon it. 'Wherefore, believers may go to Chrift for their daily bread, as well as for fpiritual benefits ; plead­ing the teftainent for the one, as for the other. And to receive the bread and the water in virtue of Chrift's tefta­ment, will be more fatisfying to a Chriflian in the exercife of faith, than all the fulnefs of worldly men can be ; for­afmuch as at that rate they have them as the purchafe of the precious blood of the Teflator and his Father's blef­fing therewith.

Legacy 5. An unflinged death : John viii. 51. If a man keekmy Paying, hefhall never fee death. Meli in their teflaments make provifion for the comfortable life of their legatees ; but they can leave them nothing to make 0.C',./1 'fate and comfortable to them. But in Chrift's ty''

there ii a ,fpecial provifion for his legatees in

206 The .4dnditiltratioa eft& Coo. of Grace. Heat! 4.
well as in life ; and in the faith thereof, the faints have
weldomed the grim mciTenger, dying comfortably in the
faith of the Pealed teflament, Heb. xi. 13. Our Lord Je‑
tts being to encounter death armed with its fling, and
that in its full firength given it by the broken law, war{
perIcaly Pure of the viaory fo making his tellament, he‑
Left it as a part of his laft will, that finners of Adam's race‑
Mould be free from the fling of death, through faith in.
him. A precious legacy, which he could well bequeath,
becaufe purchafed by his own death ; and which he can.
and will make effeetual, lance the fu!nefs of power over
death and the grave is in his hand, and he is executor
it is own tellatnent. How lamentable is it that men, know‑
ing they .tnuft die, fhould flight the tellament, and; the‑
kindnefs of their bell friend, appearing here where.norte
elf& are capable to help I

Legacy b. and loft. Everlalling life on the other fide, of death : John vi. 58. He that meth of this bread, 'hall live for ever. Chat's tellament looks not only to this, but the other world ; in it is provifion made not only for time, but for eternity : he bath difponed in,it a kingdom, the kingdsm of heaven, as an everlafl.ing inheritance foe the legatees, Luke xxii. 29. This comprehends the hap. pinefs of the foul in its feparate (hate; the- glorious{ refutre8ion of the body at the Ian day: and the complete, bappinefs of foul and body together, from heneeforth and for evermore. The importance thereof who can ex. Frets ! But whatever is in it, it is in the tenement marks

o finners of mankind.: and whofuever of them come}

for it, (hall, upon the ground of his faithfulnefsi,

,111 peradventure obtain it.

are the comprehenfive legacies of Chrift's tena.

I.(' enter more particularly into the detail of them,

„old be no end. Ye have the book of the tena,

oth d new, among your hands: read it

Chrift's tenement, as indeed it is; and

ill perceive of the unfearchable riches,

hat it nearly conceins you, and every

ies legatees in whole favour it was ,ad, men, tons of men, Prov. viii. 4. the

tituate to you, both by the preach?.


Chrift the Prophet of the Covenant. 201

ting of the word, and by putting a copy of it, a Bible, in your hands. And ye are called to come to Chrill as ex­ecutor of it,by faith in him, to receive your legacies. Hap. py will you be, if ye .anfwer the call. But if ye do hot, it quill be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment than for you :.for it will aggravate your condern. nation, that not only were all thefe legacies left you in Chritt's teflament, but the fame was intimate unto you, and ye were called to come to the executor to receive them, but ye believe not, ye would not.

Thus for of Chrift the Teltator of the covenant.

III. Chrill the Prophet of the Covenant.

The covenant being an eternal traafglion, which IVY creature had ,accefs to be witriefs onto ;. the being thereof was an abfolute fecret to the whole creation : and, in that it was a myftery of the manifold wildorn of God, Eph. ao. no-creature was fufiicient to unfold the nature thereof. Upon the which accounts, the apollle calls it the wifdorn of Cod at a myfiery, eve the hidden wifdom, which God or derived before the world, t Con ii. 7. And hence appears a neceffity of conftituting a prophet of this covenant ; and that none but a divine perfon was fit to he the original prophet thereof ; end this fo much the more, that, by teafon of the fpiritual blindnefs of the parties ueto whom It was to be revealed, a mere objeative relatiotteould not be fufficient in the cafe : For the natural man, received) not the things of the Spirit of God : for they are foolifbneft to firn: neither can he know them, becaufe they are

difcerned, verfe rq.. Wherefore jelbsChrift was, as ad. miniftrato•of the covenant, conftitute the prophet thereoft­being he of•whom, by the epoftle's teflimony, Mofes truly fold unto the fathers, .A prophet fkall the Lord your God raift up unto you, of your brethren, like unto me, Adis

is2. And whofoever elle were at any time prophets there. cif, he alone was the original prophet of it, John i.

/Vo man hash feen .God at anytime ; the only begotten Sony which is in the bcfim of the Father, he path declared him.

And in this charader Chrift was conditule, (i.) TI,•- Mellinger, (z.)-The Witnefs, and (3.) The Intt,--

esi the oovenant.

S 3


sob. The oidminifiratioti of the Cov. of Grate. Head 4,

In the capacity of Prophet, he was conflituted the Ideffenger of the covenant, Mal. iii. t. to bring the good tidings of that treaty of peace into the world and not only fo, but by the authority of Heaven, to proclaim the treaty to finners, to offer them the benefit thereof, and to deal with them to accept, by coming into it perfonally. A co­venant Purely of unparalleled weight and importance, that had fuch a meffenger thereof.

In the fame capacity he was conflitute the Witnefa of the covenant, Ifa. Iv. 4. Behold I have given hiM for a avitnefi to the people. God knew the world to be a guilty world, whole•confcience witneffed their demerit of death ; and that therefore they would be very flow to believe the goad news from heaven, touching the covenant of peate: and Tor this caufe he would give them one competent to witnefs the truth thereof ; and pitched upon Jefus Chrift for that effea. He was a fon of Adam : fo the more fit to attelt it unto men : he was the eternal Son of Gud : and therefore not liable to error or naifiake in his teflimo­ny : he was an eye-witnefs to the eternal tranfaaion, and fo he could fpeak in the matter that which he had feet; with his Father, John viii. 38- He came down from heaven, where the covenant was made, unto the earth, in favour of which it was made : wherefore he could witnefs in earth what he had feen in heaven about it, chap. iii. 31. He that cometh from heaven is above all. Verfe 32. And what he hash feen and heard, that he teftifieth. In him we hive .4a twofold witnefs, which is full evidence in law. He is the Amen, the faithful and true witnefs, Rev. iii. 14. In

e havcthe witnefs of man ; ip refpea whereof he is

ful witnefs: and the witnefs of God ; in refpeft

he is the true witnefs, even truth itfelf. Compare

1. 18. I am one that bear witnefs of m jfelf; where

as a 'vine witnefs, in refi,ea of his Godhead, is

I efs of himfelf, as a man appearing in the
the covenant. • And in refpea of both

whole witnefs confirms and deter. the matter in law.

fame capacity conftitute the Interpreter b xxxiii. 23. to teach it unto Meth W to believe the covenant, but it is

• Cie* the Prvbet of the Covenant. 209

hard for us to underhand it. It lies fo far beyond the reach of our natural underftanding, that we cannot under. Rand it in a faving manner, unlefs the Son of God bath given us an underftanding (a fupernatural one) that we may know him that isdrue, 1 John v. 20. And whofoever (hall fo noderftand it, mutt .be all taught of God, John vi. 45.. that is of Jefus Chrift, ver. 46. So he is by the Father conftitute interpreter, and great teacher of the myllery of the covenant :"and all the children of the covenant lima be his difciples, and learn of him.

Now, Chrift's adminiftration of the covenant, as the Prophet thereof, may be taken up in theft three things, following.

1. His intimating and offering•the covenant to finners, by his word, for bringing them perfonally into it. This be did from the time of Adam's fall, is now doing, and will do even unto the end of time, that .the myffery of • God [hall be finned. He began the Old teftament dif-- p,enfation thereof, in perfon. Appearing in human thape,. with his own mouth he gave the firft notice of the covenant. that ever there was in the world, and made the firft offer, of it in paradife, Gen. ill. 8, 15. He carried it on by• prophets and ordinary teachers, whom he commillionated! for that effeel,and furnifhed with gifts for the work.. The former of tbete he employed to write in his name, as well' ;is to (peak-therein, in that matter :.an`cl by both he fpcke' to linnets, intimating and offering the covenant unto them,- by their means :. whether thropgh the word written or' fpoken. And ,thus he managed that work, to the falvation of tk.,fe who believed, in the patriarchial ages before andl after the flood ; and all along the time of the Jewifh church,, from Motes to the end of that ditpenfation, then he al-­fo began the New Tellament difpenfation in his own per.. fon.. Having by his incarnation become man, he applied? himfelf to this work. Though he was born king of the: Jewsi Matth. ii. 2, and many of them would have had him, to have mounted their throne, John vi. 15. yet he chard rather to appear in the chara6ter of a prophet, ,and- betake himfelf unto the work of the miniftry for to peach the: gofpel, and intimate and offer the covenant w pc rill,.

NO and fo he was a miniller of the circulnelc

2 to The eltiminifiradon of eis;, Coo. if Crate. Head 4. xv. 48. Of him, in this capacity particularly, Solomon, that king preacher, was a type, Eccl. i. a. And this al­fo he did, and {till doth carry on immediately and by proxy, efpecially after bisafcenfion into heaven : and that partly by his apoftles and other extraordinary officers, whom he em­ployed to write, as well as to fpeak, in his name ; and part-iv by ordinary minifters of the gofpel, to be continued in the church to the end of the world, Eph. iv. i 1, 52, 13. Thus he is now adm•niftering the covenant unto us, by

, putting his written word of the Old and New 'Feftament in our hands, and fending men in his name to preach the gofpel unto us. By thefe means he fpealcs to (inners, mating and offering them the covenant : and fo he carries on the work, to the falvation of thole that believes and rendering unbelievers inexcufable, 2 Cor. v. 20. Rev. iii. 22. Luke x. 16. Wherefore the offer of the covenant made to us in the gofpel, is his offer and though the Word is fent to us by men, they are but his voice in the matter, he is the fpeaker, Then fee that ye refufe hint not that fpeaketh,' Heb. xii.

2. His making the intimation and offer of the covenant effecinal to the eleei, by the Spirit, 1 Pet. i. Ia. By

them that have preached the gofpel unto you, with the

Holy Ohoft fent down from heaven.' Thegreat Prophet

of the covenant cap effeatually teach the molt unteachable fiuners of mankind ; caufing light not only to break forth in a dark world, by his word, but in dark hearts, by his Spirit : for the fulnefs of the- Spirit of light is in him, and be hath eyefalve for the fpiritually blind, Rev. iii. 18. He knoweth who are his, in whole name he contratled with the Father, and received the promife of the Spirit : and, fooner or later, he fo enlightens them that he relents them from under the power of their fpiritual darknefs, and ren­ders the adminiftration of the covenant effeEtuaI to them, howev er ineffeanal it be to others, Col. i. t3. And this he doth, by bringing his word to them with power, through the efficacy of his Spirit opening their eyes. In the fiat place. by his Spirit actin:; upon them, as a Spirit of bond­age, lets home -on their confeiences the holy law in the commands and curie thereof, as of divine authority, and binding-on them in particular. Hereby they are convinced

their fin and mifery, leein• their fin is heinous in the

Chrig the Prophet of the Covenant, 2zs

fight of God, and his wrath due to them for their fin : they are filled with remorfe, terror and anxiety ; are made to pant for relief, feel an abfolute need of Chrift and his 'righteoufnefs, and defpair of relief by any other way, Ads ii. 37. and xvi. 29, 3o. And then, by the fame Spirit acing within them as a Spirit of life, and communicated unto them from himfelf, in the word of the gofpel, hefeti home on their hearts and confciences the glorious gofpel in its free promite of life and falvation to 'inners through Jefua•Chrift, as it Hands in the holy fcriptnres; clearing and demonftrating the fame unto them; to be the infallible word of the eternal God, and his word to them in particu­lar : z Theft ii. Ye received it not as the word of 6 men, but, (as it is in truth) the word of God.' Chap. i. 5. ' For our gofpel came not unto you in word only, 6 but alto in power, and in the Holy GhOft, and iri much affurance.' This demonftration of the Spirit is that which immediately cleareth to them the ground of their believing in particular ; as faith. the apoftle, 1 Cor. ii.4, 5. My preaching was—in demonftration of the Spirit, 41, and of power : that your faith fhould not nand In wifdom of men, but in the power of God.' And it is an internal atteftation of the word of thegOtpel unto them, diftina from the cleareit external or miniflerial atteftation of it ; according to the laying of-our Saviour, John xv. 26. The Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Fa.

ther, he (hall teftify of me. Wife 27. And ye alto (hall bear witnefs.' By the power hereof, getting, by way of fpiritual fight, John vi. 40. a knowledge of Chrift in hit tranfcendant glory and excellency, exhibited to them in the free promite of the gospel, they • are infallibly brought to believe. The Si ii it thus applying the word of the gofpel to them, they greedily embrace it, ai,c1 apply it to them•. 'felves by faith ; as may be ken in thefe converts, AC-Is ii. 38.. Then Peter laid unto them, Repent, and be baptized 6 every one of you iu the rame of Jefus Chrift, for the re. million of tins. Vcr. 39. For the pronlife is unto you. 4, Ver. 41. Then they that gladly received his word, were • baptized.'

3. Ltytly, His teaching and inftrueting they word and Spirit, from thenceforth, as childr

s The itiatinifirationsy-the .Cay.. of $raee. Head 4. covenant, his. own difeiplee. The .whole plan of faivatioa is laid down in the coienaat, being a myilery of the mani­fold wifdom .if God, wherefore there is Rill mere and snore to he leaned :. and Chrift is the great Prophet to-teach it. Aad 'the fecret of the Lord is with them that

fear him; sod. he will thew them his covenant,' Plaint =v. 14. The faints, by melon of the remains of _darkaefs in their.inis while here, are apt to lofe fight of the par­ties in the covenant;:but the great Prophet is to Phew them the-Father, and to manifelt hirnfelf unto them, by the Spirit. The condition of the covenant, the :Media.

ee's own righteoufaefs, the foie ground of all their hopes,. cannot be kept in view, but by means of the light.of life from :hirrifelf. And in his light only, can they have a be­lieving view of theromifes and privileges of the covenant.. The duties of the covenant, whereof the exceeding broad law of the ten commands is the rule,, are many:. and though they be clear in themfelves yet they are often fo ;lark and perplexed to us, that we cannot- diftinguifh be­tween fin and duty : but the children of the covenant: have an infallible teacher, whom they may confult in all­oafes,..and of whom they. may learn ihow to fteer their. 12ourie in every point ; and the meek will he guile in judg­ment, the meek will he teeteb.his way, MI. xxv. 9.

The darknefs brought on mankind by fin, nothing but the grace of the new coveoantean efreaually difpel. The true light is a benefit of that covenant, pucchafed by the blood of Chrift ; and lodged with him among the reft cg the benefits of his great twit and -he bath the difpenfing­of it, as the great Prophetof the covenant.. To him the* pull we have our recourfe for light in all cafes, whether

under the. midnight darkbefs of a natural ftate, or uoder the twilight clailtnefs of the prefect impertedion of {late of grace : yea, in the mid•day light of glory. tbe. 40,4 is the h .ht 4.)t the heavenly city, Rev. xxi. 23, And.thus ChritLis the Prophet of thtcovenant..

IV. Chrill the King of the Covenant..

.ethe. covenant of-grace is a matter of fo vaft importance,-.
honour of God, and the good of fouls ; and'
ye. and gperal concern to mankind, Alias.

• • ; • thrill the Xing of the Covenant. .

the adminiftration thereof required one invefted with kingly power and authority for that effe&. And the difpolition of the parties, objeas of the adminiftration, together with the nature of the thing itfelf, ,which concerns the inner- man chiefly, and the difpofal of the choiceft of Heaven's favours, at once laid slide the greateft of men, and the higheft of angels, as no more fit to hear that office, than to produce another world out of nothing. Wherefote,•the Father's choice in that matter natively fell on his own So% the fecond Adam : and he was made King of the cove‑


God, as Creator of the world, is King of the fame, by an original, underived right : and fo he bath the fopreing power over it, of which he can no more divert himfelf, than of his being. This is the effential. kingdom, common to the three Perfons in the glorious Godhead,the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghoft.

But the kingdom of the covenant, whereof we fpeak, is a derived, delegated one, which the Mediator,Chritt,holds of his Father by the tenor of the covenant, fur the admi­niftration thereof; as is declared, Pfalm ii. 6.. Yet have I fet my king upon my holy hill of Zion.' Now the great detign of that adminittration is to gather together Goners of mankind into one body, under the bond, of the cove- nant ; and to make them happy, in the enjoyment of the privileges thereof, in grace and glory : the which body, the church, is the kingdom of the covenant ; a kingdom that was to be won, and raifed out of the rebel world of mankind, lying in wickednefa; and whereof Chrilt was, by his Father, constitute the alone King and Head.

In fublerviency to this kingdom, the kingdom of pro­vidence throughout the world was alfo committed to him, being made 4 the bead over all things to the church, which is his body,' Epb. i. 22; 23. he was appointed to rule, not duly over his willing fubjeas, but in the midft of his enemies, Pfalm. cit. 2. The management of the wheel of providence, throughout the whole world, was put into the hand of Zion's King. Into the fame hand that the Father path committed the government of the church, he bath alto committed the goveromentof the world ; for • there is po exception. 7be Father barb foramina all

st 14 The idnrinifiration of the Coy.'of Cmste. Head 4. judgment unto the Son, John v. 22. dill „flower in hramen and in earth, Matth. xxviii. to. So be is Lird of lorria 'and King of kings, Rev. xvii. 14. and by bim kings reign —princes rule, and nobles, mien all the judges of the earth, Pros. viii. 15,76. This headfhio over the world was ne­ceffary to his adminiftration of the covenant, as Head 4 the church ; neceffary for compalfing the ends therebf­licing vefted therewith, he fets up and palls down, in the wcield, as he fees meet for the great purpofes of the cove­nant ; and of what nfe this is, in the adminiftration there­of, may be learned-from Ifa. Xliii. i.. ' For your fake-6 (namely, for the fake of the church) thave fent to Ba­-1 bylon, and have brought down all their nobles, and the 6thaldeans. Verfe 55. I am your King.' Ihus "the King and Head of the church manegeth all things by his. providence, as %ell without as within the church ; though in a vely different manner, becaufe in a very different re. lotion, as to his own people, and to ("rangers. Thewhich was typified in David, who for the benefit of his own king, dom, the kingdom of Ifrael, was made the head of the Heathen, Pfalm xviii. 43. For David fmnte the Phili­fl incs, and fubdued them, 2 Sam. viii. t. and the Moahires,. verfe 2. and the Syrians, verfe 6. ' and all they of &loin • became David's fervants, writ 74. A.,d David reign-et 4 over all Ifrael, and David executed judgment, and inkjet 4 unto all his people,' verfe tg.

Now, the chief atis of Chrifi's adminiftratiem of the covenant, as he is King thereof, arc thefe.

1. His appointing ordinances of I.is kingdorn,both for-bringing of flusters perfonally into the covenant, and for confirming and ftrengthening the c,,venanted: as•allo of­ficers of his kingdom, to adminifler thefe ordinances in his-name and authority. Both the one and the other were different, under the Old Tells ment, and under the New;, which hath made two difilreut forms of external adtnini- te *On of the covenant ; the old, which is palled away,.


new, that will continue to the end of the world ., were from the fame authority, and for et:mpg. 'time great &lips of the covenant, agreeable to rues for which they were appointed ; and are alb the Scriptures of the Old and New Taw.

Chrij? the King of the Covenant. , 2.11

etent, the book of the manner of the kingdom. It was the fame Lord Jefus, the angel of the covenant, which. fpake to Mofe.r in the mount Sinai, PiEta vii. 3S.- who infti.. toted the new teltament church and. ordinances, and gave, fame apelike, and forme prophets, andforne evangelills, andfame Afters and teachers; for the perfeaing of the faints, for the evork of the mini/fry, Eph, iv. 1 r, i 2. The Saviour, King,, and Lawgiver of the church are one ; ifa. xxxiii. 2 2. Ths, /lord is our Lawgiver, the Lord is our King, he will favei 411.

2. Effiitting his royal proclamation into the world; bx. the hind of his meffertgers in the gofpel ; bearing, that, wbofoever_will come unto him, and unite with him as the, head of the covenant, by faith,•fhall be readily received in-. to its and have a right to all the privileges thereof, in hint:;

Zriark xvi. 15. ' Go ye into all the world, and preach the,

gofpel to every creature. Verfe 16. He that believeth,

and is baptized, fhall be laved.' Therein the covenant, is publifhed, and offered in his name to every fanner, of man. kind unto whofe ears this voice reachath : and they are esalkd, commanied, and charged tc come into it, and fob. mit to his royal fceptre. His call and offer is their war­rant to come ; his command obligeth them, that they can-sot refufe but in rebellion and dilobedience againfl his roy. al authority. The promifes are fet before them indefi. nicely, that whofoever will, may, by believing, apply then to thetufelvea. The king's proclamation meddles not with, the fecrets of the eternal eleaion, to-reveal them. But the promifes of the covenant, infallibly to be accotnplifhed in font; are, in Chrilt's tefkarnent, as indorfed to (inners of mankind indefinitely, to be fulfilled unto all and every one who (hall by faith embrace them : and the proclamation, , makes lawful intimation of the teflament This intimation, is the appointed means of begetting faith, and of bringing finners into the covenant thereby : for faith cometh by s- heating,' Rom. x. 17. And it is made effeanal to fame, by the Spirit, through the grace of the covenant fe­cured by promife for them.

And hence it is, that the promife being thus adminifter. ed to all promifcuoufly, there is art ule of cotnlit *hrafes in the adminifLratio.n,thercof though in

216 The Adminifiration of the Coy. of Grace. Head 4,

giant itfelf there are no conditions, properly to called, but what were fulfilled by refits Chtilt in his own perfon. The word of the covenant coming with a like warrant to the c­left and the non.eleCt ; to them who certainly wilFbelieve, and to them who will continue in their unbelief; the ad. Miniftering of it equally to both in the gofpel proclamation, mutt needs be by propofiag the promifes indefinitely as to perfons ; the which muff at length be refolved into condi­tional phrafes. So it is proclaimed in the ears of all, ' I 4 will betrothe thee unto me, and I will be to them a God.' And one believes and applies the fame ; and he is thereup­on united to Chrift and inflated in the covenant to all fay­ing purpofes ; another who bath as good a revealed war­rant to believe as the former, yet believes not; and fo comes short of the promife. Now, to fpeak alike to thole who will thus differently entertain the words of the covenant, it follows of courfe to refolve them into fuch expreffions as thee, Believe on the Lord jefus Chq, and thou flak be Paved; and he that believeth fiall be feed, be that klieveth not (hall be damned. Meanwhile the covenant itfelf is a different thing from the form of the external adminiftration of it.

3. Effeetually fuhduing the eleR to himfelf, through the power of his Spirit fo managing the word, that it operates on them like a fword, piercing their fouls, conquering their natural averfion and obtlinacy, and making them'willing to yield, and embrace the covenant, Rev. i. 16. out of Isis mouth went a /harp two-edged fw,,rd. What that fword is,


d by what a firong Arm it is wielded, in this cafe, may learned from the apoftle, calling it the fword of the Spi­74 which is the word of God, Eph. vi. 1 7. and what the ,ffea of it is, being managed by that arm of the Lord re­taltd, is declared by the Pfalmift, Nam cx. 3. Thy i people (hall be willing in the day of thy power ;' and by 'Ile prophet; Ifa. xliv. 3. I will pour my Spirit upon thy

re, d . 4. And they (hail fpring up.—ver. 5. One

-im the Lord's.' Chrift communicates to t' one of them, at the time appointed in the

the Spirit and grace of the covenant, there‑

them by promife : and thereby they are

and determined to believe. And

aril? the King of the Covennnt. 2 t-y

whereas he finds them prifonere, though prifoners of hope, be opens the houfe of their bondage, breaking the yoke of

fin, death, and the devil from off their necks, by his Spirit applying tothem his fatisfa&ion. The which has that migh­ty effe6t, inafmuch as then the law bath full fatisfaCtion as to them.; and the law being fatisfied, the ftrength of fin is broken ; and 'the ft.rength of fin being broren, the fling of death is take'n away ; and the fling of death being tak­en 2way, the devil lufeth his power over them; and Satan's _power over them being ra, the prefent evil world, which is his kingdom, can hold them no longer. Thus are they feparated from the world lying in wickednefs, and confli­tute members of the kingdoM of Chrift; delivered from the power of darknefs, and franflated into the kingdom of God's dear Son, Col. i. t3. And from thenceforth, though they be in the world, yet they are no more of it; but firangers and pilgrims in. it, true and lively members of the invifible kingdom of Chrift ; a fociety to which the world is an implacable enemy ; John xx. 19. 2"e are not of the world, but I have ehofen you out of the world, therefore the world hate you: And herein Chrift doth, in a fpecial

mariner, thew himfelf a King mighty in battle, by the power of his 'grace overcoming the molt perverfe and re­bellious to a.cordial fubmiffion, and rgcuing them from the bondage and dominion of their enemies.

4. Gathering them and others with them togethe; in­to a vilible church Rate, Gen. xlix. to. Unto him 111211 .4 the gathering of the people be.' Thus is ereeted the ;vifible church or kingdom of Chrift in the world ; a fociety feparate from the vifible kingdom of the devil,. and profeffing faith in, and obedience to Christ, outward­ly bearing his badge, and the figns of hikcovenant. • A­triong them is the ordinary feat of the adminillration of the .•ovenant, the orditary means of falvationuand offers of grice. In their land the voice of the turtle is heard, and the forging of birds in the preaching of the glorious go­fpel ; while there is a lafting winter over all the world be.• fides. They have the Bible, and Sabbaths, the miniilry of the word, and .the holy facraments. Among them is to be found the communion of faints, and a church meat, infiitutecrfor controlling the unruly, fuppr

T •

21* The Admit,Oration of the Coo. of Grier. Head 4. fin and wickednefs, and encouraging an orderly walk. And they have the privilege of Heaven's proteelion ; itr­fomuch that the church (hall be defended, and her ene­mies fo reltrained and conquered by her King, that fke !hall continue while the world ltande, maugre all oppolitini that hell can make again her : Matth. xxviii. L6, 4 I am with you alway even unto the end of the world.'

5. Lailly, Ruling and governing his tine and -kindly ftibjeets agreeably unto the covenant, by which his royal prerogative is liked, and their privileges are fectired ; Ifs. ix. 6. The government 1411 he upon biz ühoulder. Of this his government there are feveral aas, the chief of which are thefe following :

He gives them the taws of the covenant ; not only intimating the fame unto then) externally by his Word; but teaching them internally by his Spirit, writing then' upon the tables of their hearts, and leaving an indelible copy of them affixed there : Heb. viii. To. I Will put my laws into their mind, and write them Pb their her.-t7. Thefe laws of the covenant are no other but the laws of the ten commandments, originally given to Adam, in hi creation, and at his tranfportation into paradife, and fet­dement there, veiled with the forin of the covenant of works ; and now, Unto believers in Chritt, ftanding with­out that form, in the covenant of grace, as the eternal 'rule of righteoufnefs, whereunto they are to be cdn'fovined by the grace of the covenant, the effeatrating of which is committed-by the Father to jefus Chrift as adthiniftrata thereof. And accordingly, he carries it on, by 'his svelte and Spirit, in a fultablenefs ta t heir nature as rational agents, and to their (late ; baking thefe laws known th than,

the rule of life, unto which they {land bound by the

eign anthinity and tiatchlefs of God the?r

.tor and Redeemer; and withal inclining their hearts

he obedience of the fame.

le gives them the rewards of the covenant in the
f their obedience : Pfal. xix. it. In keeping if
is a great reward. He puts his peopie indeed
d labour ; but not to labour in the fire, and for
fervants of fin do ; they are to work and la.
Is treading out the corn, whiChtvas not to

Chrifi the rag of the Covenant. , ttp

be muzzled, but to have accefs at once to work and to eat.;

The fervice now done to Zion's King, bath a reward in this life, as well as a reward in the life to come. B.y the order of the covenant, there is a privilege eftablifhed to fol. low duty, as the reward thereof ; the which order is ob­fermi by the King in his adariniftration. Accordingly, he propofeth the privilege of comfort, to excite to the dtpr ty of mourning, Math. v. 4. Blefed are they that mourn t fir they *114 comforted the fpecial tokens of Heaven's favour, to excite unto a holy tender walk, John xiv. Are that bath my commandments, and keepeth them—yq:all be loved of my Father, and I will love him,. and will manifefi • Lyfel fto him. In like manner, to excite to the fame holy obedience, he propofeth the full reward in the life to come,• x Car. ix. 24. So run, that ye may obtain, Rev. iii. 21. To him that overcameth will I grant to fit with me in my Ihrone. And fo certainly doth he accompliila the pro-mire of the reward of both kinds, that his people may be affurcd their labour, is not in vain in the Lord, t Cur. xv. 58. for faitirfedtiefe i4 the girdle of hit loins ; and in difpep• ,lug of the privileges to his people upon the back of their lioty, he doth but obferve the stated order of the covenant.• Nat that the order of the covenant is, in every partionlari• Ara duty, then privilege : nay, it is, fiat, privilege:, next, ,cluty; then privilege again : and fo forward, till privilege and duty come both to perfection in heaven, not to be di-• ffinguifhed more. Wo to us if it were otherwife truly Ult. were otherwife, we could neither be brought into the yoyen ant,. nor kept within it in life for how Nall one at • 'Sri believe, till once he is privileged with the quickening _ Spirit ? and bow (hall a fallen faint renew his faith and re­pentance, till once he is privileged with new influences of grace ? John xv. 5. Without ore ye eau do nothing. But' here lies the matter, the leading privilege bringing in duty, there follows further privilege on the back of duty, ac­cording to the order of the covenant : and thefe further privileges are the rewards we fpeak of. And the feria-lure calls them reward,• even in relpea of the faints ; be­caufe they are given to a, working faint, on the back of •his work. Howbeit, they are as far from the nature of Inward, aridly and properly fo called,. the'which on t‘

T. y.

226 The Alminifiration of the Cm. of Grace. Head 4. count of one's work is of debt to him, as the leading pri­vileges areOhat proJuce the working : but both the one and the other are equally the reward of Chrift's work iri the moll flriet and proper notion of reward.

3d13, He miniders unto them the difcipline- of the co. Tenant, in cafe of their difobedience. The difcipline of the covenant is fatherly chaflifernent, which their eflate of imperfection in this life makei neceffary to their welfare: and therefore it is fecured fa them in the covenant, Pfal. lxxxix. 3o. If his children forfike my law;—verfe 32. `Then will I vifit their tranfgrgon vfith the rod,—verfe 33. ArtveribeNi—verfe 34. llly cayman, will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone cut of my lips. It belongs to the promiffory part of the covenant, and particularly to the 'promife of fanCtification forafmuch as it is not vindic'- Live, but medicinal ; being an appointed means of advanc­ing holinefs in thpn. He clsqliens for our profit, that we sligt be partakers of his h2.,inifs, Heb. xii. I o. And thus it ferves to purge i.iiquity, and to take away fin, Ifa. 9. r4arnely, in that as a fire melting down thz, paint and varnish of the defiling objeFis in .the -world, in our fight, and as a loaii)g-glafs (hewing us our pollution, it occa­.fions and excites us unto with-Mg in the only laver of the ,11.)od of Chriff, by faith. Now the adminidrating of the clifcipline of the covenant is committed unto Zion's King, j )1m v. 22. The Father bath committed all judgment unto the Son ;' Rev. iii. rt;. ' As many as I love, I re­buke and chatten.' And as to the nature of it, it corn-prebends all manner of ftrokes upon their worldly fob-fiance, name, employments, and relations; all manner of bodily afiliClions, difeafes and pains incident to finful, flefh ; even natural death itftlf, t Cur. xi. 3o, 32. and generally, all outward ftroltes which any of the children

I-len are liable to, Eccl. ix. 2. 4 All things come alike

-17 Moreover, it comprehends fpiritual strokes,

-"efertion, God's hiding his face from them, with‑

the light of his counterlance, the lotisg fome

f their graces and comforts, woundings of fpirit,

f nfcience, whereby they may be brought to

of defpair: fu that, howbeit the catting

is not within the coevals• of the difciplint

4604; the King of the Covenans. 22

erthe covenant, -yet the cafing a kind of hell into them, making there to roar by realm of elifqvietneft of heart, Pfal. xxxviii. 8. is within the compafs of it. And, what ip worfe than any of all thefe, it comprehends their being barraged with horrid temptations, and fet up as marks for Satan's fiery dartit, Eph• vi. t-6. the hardening of their bearts,..Ifa 17. and their being fuffered to fall into one fin, and that a grofs fin too, for the puniflunent of another, as in the cafe of David and Peter. All thefe things are within the compafs of the difcipline of the co-- yenant;- and believers are particularly and direaly threat­ened with them, in the safe of their difobedience, to move them to be-ware of it :. yea, and they are often infliaed by Zion's King on his beloved fubjeas, that, by thefe marks-- cif his difpleafure again(} their fin, he may correa them,. esake go bitter to them, and fir them up to repentance. end watchfulnels. And the worft of them all, even the. very•hardening of their hearts, and the panifbing of one un with another, are, by the fovereign grace of the cove-pant; made effeaual for thefe holy ends :. the which grace - opening the heart in renewed repentance, godly farrow far fin breaks forth the more forcibly, as waters do which, 'lave been long dammed up. Thus thefe bitter waters,,, - pinning. in the channel of the covenant, become healing waters; thefe fharp (words are, by the covenant, beaten into plough (hares ; and thefe piercing (pears, into prun. lag hooks. Of this difcipline of the covenant, all the tubjeas of aria in this world do partake ; and they mutt he under it, till. they arrive, at perfection in the other-world, Heb. xii. 8.

. He gives them the 'pardon?: of the covenant; the

pardoning- of the crimes committed againft the laws of trod, being one of the royal prerogatives of Zion's King, - whom God bath exalted to be a Prince and a Saviour,. far to give repentance to Ifrael and forgivenefs of fios,'. ikas v. 31. He gives them the firft pardon,. removing the guilt of revenging wrath, in their jollification ; and he-gives them alfo the fubfequeat pardons,removing the guilt pf fatherly anger, upon their renewing the•aEtings of faith,. and repentance, as was obferved before. The Father 1E,

contnittea all judgment unto the Soil,!, he hy,..

T. 3‘,

122 The Adminillratio. is of the Coy. of Grace. Head 4.

difpenfing of Heaven% favours, according to the method and order of the covenant ; and they are not only confer. red for his lake, but by his hand.

5th/y, He affords them the defence of the covenant, while in this life they are amongit their enemies, Pfalni hx,xix: 18. For the Lord is our defence : and the holy tine of lfrael is our King. Satan is their enemy, a malicious, fubtile, and powerful enemy : but Chrift is their friend, and takes them under his protetlion. He loves them dearly, and as the porchafe of his own blood, the Mem­bers of his own myfiical body, and bearing his Father's image : he is infinitely wife, and can outfhoot the devil in his own bow: and he is the fironger man, who can .hind the firong man. The world joins iffue with Satan in oppofing them; but !ball notfrevail to ruin them, neither by force nor fraud : for greater is he than the god of this world and' all his dominion, t John. iv. 4. re are of God, and have overcome them : hecatvre greater is he that is in you, than he that is in the world. Their wont enemies are within them, namely,• the remains of corruption, which, in the depth of foJereign wifdom, are not expelled during this life ; but left for their exarcife and trial, and for the difcovery of the power of the grace of their King. And he manifefls his pi:wet•, in keeping alive in them the (punk of holy fire, in the midd of an ocean of corruption ; and caufim,r. it to make head againli the fame, until it quite dry tip : Ram. vii. 0 wretched man that I am, whojhall deliver me from the body of this death I verfe 25. 1 than4 God, through gtfus Chrill our Lord. He has all their ene­mies in chains, that they can a& no further agairift hint than he fees meet to permit : and at his pledfure he • re-/trains them, bounding them by his power, as to the kind; degree, and continuance of their attacks, Pfahn IxxvL to. The remainder of wrath jbah thou refirain.

Lally, He authoritatively completes the happinefe of the covenant in- them. He purchafed it for them as a Prieft; he reveals'it to them as a Prophet; but as a King. he cloth, in the way of authority, put•them in full poll:cc, lion thereof, Matth. xxv. 34. Then flail the King fay unto them on his right hand, Come, ye bfed of my Father, inherit the kingdom preparedfor you from thefoundatiou of the world.

Chrg the Interetfor of the Covenant.

And by the fame authority he will pafs fentence againft hi} and their enemies, having fully conquered them, ver. 45: And fo he will complete for ever the peace of his covenant= fubjeets.

Thus far of Chrift's adtniniftration of the covenant, as he is King thereof.

V. Chrill the Interefor of the Covenant.

As for performing the condition of the covenant, Jo. fus Chrift became the Prieft, namely, the facrificing Prieft of it, as path been faid in the due place : fo, for the 'ad, minifiration of the covenant, he becaMe the Interceffor, namely, the interceding Priett of it. Chrift's interceflien did not take its place in the making of the covenant. The love and grace of God made the motion for a new covenant freely : and the breach betwixt God and finneri was of another nature, than to be made up by a ample

in­terceflion; the which might have moved mercy, but could not have fatisfied jultice ; that requiring a facrifice for fin; could not be latisfied by pleading, but by paying a ranfom: Heb. ix. 22. Without fliedding of blood is no retail/ion: Neither cloth Chrih's facrificing take its place in the ad... miniittation of the covenant : there is no need of any new facrificing there ; For by one offering he bath perfeEted fcr ever them that are fanEtified,' chap. x..14. But hie facrificing natively took its place in the snaking of the covenant, and fulfilling the condition thereof ; and his terceffion, in the admill ration of the covenant, and fulfilling-_the promifes of it. Accordingly, for the adminiftration of the covenant, he is the interct.fror thereof : Rom. vial 34• It is Cht ft that died, y: a, rather, that is rifen again', .oho is even at the right-hand of God, who go maiethinier: ton for us.

And indeed there was need of an interceffor for that if; feel ; fince an infinitely holy God, and finful creatures, could neither come together into a hate of peace, nor con• tinue- in it, with the fafety of.,God's honour, without an interceffor. Wherefore, Jefus Cl.,ifl being appointed thereto, is, in that charat'ler, g entered into heaven hi '

6 now to appear in the prefence of God for us,'

24. to manage the Winds of the covenant, for our

*24 Tbe ddwiniAwion Aithe aro. of Grace. Read' 41, willing the merit of his facrifiee to be applied to all thole is whole room and ftead be died, and that for all the in, teats sod purpofes of the covenant is their favours, accord.- ing to the method laid down and Hated therein, Awl this his intereel4on is alwaya &algal, as he hiinfelf

tefli­Seth, raying unto his Father, John g I knew that 0- thou beareft me always.' Whence it appears, that the obje& of it is sot of equal latitude with the obje& of the­adminiftration of the covenant,.and of his adipg ip the other relations belonging to that adosiniftration ; but that it is reitrided unto thofe wham he, as fecund ?clam, re, prefented in the eternal tranfadion. And this is very, a­greeable to the nature of the divine CP ptrivance for the falvation of limier.; in which the eternal purpofe both made a difference of perfons, according to Covereign will ond pleafure : this being, as it were, one claufe in the con, ititution of the adminittration, peculiarly in favour of the objeds of eledirig love. So the Interceffor himfelf teecheth. us, John xvii. 9. I pray not for the world, but for there-0 which thou haft given me. Verfe xo, For them which;-:

(hall believe on me. Verfe ag.. Father, I will that they

alfo whom thou haft given me,- be with, me where t


Now, Chrigadmingierstbc covenant as latereeffor tberm of, there following ways chiefly.

EfleOtnally procuring, by his interei in heaven, the

at:hid inbringing of his eled, at the time appointed, into

ivit {tate of union, communion, peace, and favour : John xvii. ao. Neither pray I for there a,- for them alfo which (hall believe on me through ,rd ; Verfe at. That they all may be one, as tater, art in me, and I in thee : that they ally one in us.' They are by nature in a Rate of en. God, even as others : but through Chrift's in. the peace is made between Heaven and them. rat oiled by the blood of:-his faerifice ;

the covenant on that fepre ; aotis,
obtains it into tbern‑

"ion i ;jut pets all the wheels ip pkotige,

0 Get tine of loves, for- bringing one

g44 9f. gr,lce. rrnvidems;.

Chry? the IntercslAr of the Covenant. 22Y

manageth favourably-towards' the converfion of the man ; the word powerfully affeEts him, while on others it falls like rain on a rock, running off as fall as it comes on ; the bufinefs of eternal falvation is clofely laid to heart with him; the law doth its office upon him, and fo doth the gofpel alfo in its turn : and -thefe things ceafe not, until he is brought into 'a new 'late, and is become a new creature: Whence did all this take its rife ? Why, the man had an unknown friend in the court of heaven, who fpoke for him to the King: and all this is the fruit of that interceffioti made for him.

2. Appearing for them, and in their name taking pof­feffion of heaven, and all the other benefits of the covenant, which they have a right to, in virtue of their new covenant.: Elate: Eph. ii. 6. And bath railed us up together, and 4 made us fit together in heavenly places in Chrift Jefus:' 1-leb.,vi. to. Whither the forerunner is for us entered' That moment wherein 'a finner enters into the covenant; by believing, he bath a right to all ; for, if children, then hers, Rom. viii. 57. Howb'eit, in the cafe of rnoff of the childien of God, the poffeflion feems to he'delayed long after that time. But it is to be confidered, that poffeffion may not only be taken bra man in his own perfon, but alto in the perlon of another : thus one may by his attor­ney take poffeflion of an eftate which be never taw ; and a miner, by his reprefentative, may be poffeffed of what is not'as yet meet to give him into his own hand. So, how. beit the believer's poffeffion of all in his own perfon is in­deed delayed ; yet, in this refpeti, it is not delayed ore moment after his believing in Jefus Chrift : for his Inter­ceffor acts for him in the matter. What fhould hinder this manner of in freffion one moment after believing ? For the covenant of promiies is an undoubted right ; the firmer, though on earth, doth by faith plead it before God in hea­ven ; and Chritt is there, as his reprefentative and inter­ceffor, to take poffeffion in his name. Wherefore, every • believer fhalljuftly reckon himfelf, though 'having nothing.

yet poffrffing all things,' 2 Cor. vi. to. ' and complete 4 in him,' Col. ii. so.

34 Maintaining the peace between God and them vri - they are here in this world. Having purchafed the'

**If The .ellintiniiiretties If the Con ofOrace. Heat/ 4. with Heaven by the facrifice of hiinfelf, and by his inters eefloa brought them into a Bate of peace, he cloth not leave it to therafelvea to maintain it. • If it were fo,, it would ben be at an end. There are fo many failures on their part, whik they art compaffed with the body of fie, that their

on confeiences have wherewith to accufe them a, very dart and the d evil is an inceffAnt accufer of the bre. Oren: but Chrift intereeeds for them, to the preventing ale. ways a total rupture betwixt Heaven and them ; howevee they away for their rim under God's fatherly difpleafurr upon the ground of his fatisfa6tion for them, he anfwereth all eeeufatione agaialt them, and makes up all emerging. differs:aces between them and their covenanted God: 1'014- E. 1. ' if any man fin, we have an advocate with the Fa,

titer, Jells, Chrift the righteous : Verfe a. And he is.

the propitiation for our fins.' Hereupon the apatite triumph. over all their accufers, Rom. viii. Whir

fltaU lay any thing to the charge pf God's elegy} ? It is.

God that judifieth Verfe 33. Who is he that condemn,. 4 eth ? it is chri(l that died,,,who alfp maketh intereef­a lion for us,' Wherefore, their date of peace with god is inviolably ataiatained ; though for their correetion, they may indeed lute the fight and fenfe of it for a time,. Hav­ing once become their friend in Ovid, he may indeed fe. verely ehadife them for their faults, but he never becomes-their enemy again, even in the way of legal enmity, far left in the way of 1:01 enmity, Rots. viii. t. Ifa. liv. 9.

4. Procuring them accefe to God, and acceptance with.

notwithitanding of their imperfedions, while in tlaii life. Saints nn earth never want bufinefe in the court of heaven. Yat being Pitiful, they are in themfelves unfit- tp some into the pretence of the King. But the Interceffqr of the covenant iutrodugeth them, procuring them weer.- by his interea in the court Fqr thrpngh him we have‑

accefe by- one Spirit unto the Father,.' Eph. ii. 18. Aad by his means they are allowed accefs with boldnefa, chap. iii. la, He makes their perfone accepted,. netwith.

tiding of the finfulnefs cleaving to them : they are se.

pted in the beloved, chap. i. 6.' And in hitn they have.

.r that fentaifica their gifts, Heb. xiii. to. So that

tual.fiKawett kivibe4 they tvapL 119L their blp

aril, the hurrefor of die Covenant. 147,

tines. yet ire acceptable to God by Jefus t Peter

ii. 5. Their prayers made in faith, though fmelling. rank of the remains of the corruption .of nature, yet being per. fumed by the Interceffor with the incenfe of his merit, are incepted In ivedveti, and have gracious returns made them, Rev. viii. 3. Their doing lervices, and their ‘fuffering fervices, which however coftly, coal not be accepted for their own worth, beCaufe imperfea, are through his inter. reffion accepted, as -being .4 wathed, and made white in the ‘.4 blood of The Lamb.' chap. vii. 54.

5. Ley, Obtaining their admittance into heaven, in the-did! rime, and continuing their &ate of parka bappf. bleis there for ever end ever John xvii. 44. 4 Father, I 4 Will that they alto whom thou haft given tare, be with 4 Me where I am.' Our Lord Jelin) Chrift was by his Far they, constituted a prie.ftfor aver, Pfalm cx. 4. Neverthim tete, after his having once offered up firnfelf a faeeifice on the crafty he offered no more Camino& Therefore he 'Mutt be, not a factiftcing priest for ever, but an intercede tag OA as the npotlle explains it, He& vii. 25. He 4 ever liveth to make interceffion for them. Now the fpir 4 rite of :tuft men being made perfea immediately after 4 death,' there is no more imperfeaiou about their foals ti orally corifidered. Heb. xii. 03e and after the Arefurree. tion, there willbe no more imperfeaion about their bodii neither, t Cor. ky. 54. The offea then of Chrift's inter. cetion forever, Mult be the everlafting coatinuation their.bappy Rate: their Interoeffar cternotly willing the continuance of the. fame, on the ground of the eternal ro. idemption obtnited for them, by 'the facrifice of himfelL The infinite merit of his facrificte will be eternally pre. Vented before God in the'holy place, while he 1.101 .appeer there in our nature continually : and this will be the ever.

fecurity for the continuation of the faiots happiaci& The Which happinefs illaingfrorn the merit of his facrifice its their Prieft, will be communicated unto them by him m their Prophet and their King t for theft his offices will never be laid slide. As he is a priett for ever, fa of his 4 kingdom there (lull' be no end,' Luke i. 33. and the Larnhihall be the light of the heavenlycity, Rev. xx;

tbn faintscomrbunion with God these being. Bill

22E Trial o f a laving frerfinfal

through the Mediator, in a manner agreeable to their (late of perfeclion chap. vii. 17.

And tilde are the chief aas of his adminiftration of the covenant, as Interceffor thereof.

, Thus far of the fourth head, namely, the adminiftratioa of the covenant.


The Trial of a laving perfonal Inking in the Covenant
of Grace.


E have now opened the doctrine of the covenant of grace, io treating of the parties in it, the making

of it, the parts of it, and the adminiftration thereof: it remains to make fome praetical improvement of the whole, in this and the following head.

If one feriopfly coglider the covenant of grace, as that on which the falvation of our fouls clepends, he can hardly toilsto put the quellion to himfeif, < What intereft have

lin that covenant ?' There is no queftion but you have common intereft in it, by which you are fufficiently war. 'silted to come into it : but that you may have, and yet

; s for even children of the kingdom (hall be call out into utter darknefs,' Matth. viii. 12. But the que• *ism, is, Whether ye have a faving intereft in it, being *acidly come into it, or not ? the covenant is indeed b,.,loght unto you, in the ordinances of the gofpel; but

Tots brought into the covenant, united with the. head

xecof, Chrift Jefus ? It bath been adminitlered to you

txave you by faith taken hold of it ? You have received

4,2 rament of baptifm, the real of the covenant, in the 4 of your parents; but have you perfonally embraced

,,eenant in fincerity ? The two covenants, of

zrace, divide the whole world between them

..isonrier one of the two ; and no man can be

,e and the fame time, in refpeft of his Rate

vi. 14. Under the firft covenant

arty, in the fill Adam, head of that riving fin, death, and the curfe from Ail covenant Rands a' patty in the fe•

itilat fulfilled covenant, deriving life

Meingin Me Covenant of Grace. 2 21

Iona falvation from him. Thefe parties will be judged, each according to the covenant they are under : fo the former will be coodenmed, in virtue of the curie of the, covenant in which they are ; and the latter will be eternal= ly laved, in virtue of the promife of life in the covenant wherein they are. In the mean while, there is accefs for thofe of the firft covenant to leave this party and covenant, end to join the party in the fecond covenant: but death will block up that accefs. Wherefore it is the intereft of the one as well as of the other, to know which party and covenant they belong to And for trial hereof, I offer thefollowing marks, figns, or charaCters of thofe who all favingly and perfonally within the covenant of grace.

They are loch as have fled for refuge from the co'. Tenant of works; that have come into the covenant Of the fecond Adam, as refugees from the covenant of the firft Adam. For that is the character of the heirs of promifo,

vi. 17, t8. Though time was when they lived at cafe within the dominion of the covenant of the law ; yet God hath let fire to their -netts there, that they have fount themfelves unable to dwell any longer within the boundw­ties of that covenant. Mount Sinai hath been altogether on a (woke round about them, and the trumpet of the curie of the law hath waxed louder and louder, till it made them to hear it on the tide of their riglatcouinefs and heft works, where they were deafen ; and it bath caufed them exceedingly to fear_ and quake, as a curie denounced a. .gaintt them in particular: Rum. vii. 9. When Me command-went came, fin revived, and I died. It hath chafed them from all the farting holes about that mountain, and left no place within the bounds of that covenant Isle to them; not only has it chafed them out of their profane cotirles, ;but alto out of all confidence in their good works and du-'ties of whatfoeven kind; to flee for their life into the cove­. pant of free grace, as the sayer into the city of refuge : 'what 'thingtr were gain to .them, counting Mefe loft for Chrift, -.Philip. iii. 7.

They are inch as cordially approve of and acquiefce an the plan of the covenant, as foiled to the honour of and to their cafe in particular ; looking upon it as \- dered in all things, 2 Saw. xxiii. 5. Whofoever '

230 Trial of a failing perfonal Head 5.

faders the corruption brought into man's nature by the fall, will plainly perceive, that the method of falvation laid down in the covenant of grace, is the very reverie of the inclina­tion of corrupt human nature ; fo that nothing lets thap the powerful efficacy of divine grace can bring a foul un­to-a cordial approbation of it, 'and acquiefcence in it: wherefore, our Lord 'pronounced them billed qvh?foever (hall not be fended in him, Matth. xi. 6. Natural men may indeed (hope the covenant, in their own apprehentions, in­to fuck a form, as they may have a very good-]king of. it. They may apprehend it as a covenant defined to make Alen eafy and happy; while in the meantime i•allows them, at leaft in fome inftances to be, unholy ; as a covenant wherein, through Chrift's means, they may obtain- accept­ance with. God by their good works; notWithftanding of their ill works. But in all this they are in hive with a creature of their own fancy, not with God's covenant of grace. Let the covenant be let before them in the light of the fioly fcripture, and viewed by them in that light ; they will be lure to diflike it, and pick holes in it. Let the defign of the covenant be fairly difcovered, as being to exalt God's free grace on the ruins of all excellency left with man: to make Chrift all, and man nothing in-• his own falvation ; the proud heart cannot away with that, cannot fubmit to the righteoufnefs of God, Rom. x. 3. The ef­• ficacy of it, in working out fin, feparating between the foul and its deareft luits, once fairly appearing; natural men flee from it, as if one cried unto them, There is death in the pot. Let them ferioufly enter into the thought, how it is fuited to the honour of God, and the divine per. feaions : and how it is fuited to their real fafety before him.; and they cannot fee how it is fo. To the Jews' wif­dom it is a (tumbling block, a device inconliftent with-the divine perfeaions ; the Grecian learning pronounceth it foolithnefs, a method of falvation unfafe to be united to; only the eye of faith difcovers it to be the power of God, and the wifdom of God ; fafe for guilty creatures, and ho­.

pourable for a holy God, a Cot. 23, 24.

I. Upon the difcovery of the covenant to them, u om eternity between God and the fecxond Adam, red tp them hi the gofpel; they will faddy. them.

Inbehtg in the Covenant of Cram.

fives, in their covenanting,' with heaven's draught of it, -fa far as they underliand ; and they will not go -about to add unto it nor to diminith from it ; but will find to the terms of God and Christ's making, Accts ix.-6. Lords what wilt thou hove me to do? They will put a blank in eiie Lord's hand for their part ; as content- of all within the compafs of the covenant, without putting in their ex­ception, or clearing amendments and alterations-to be made in their favour. They are content with the laws of the covenant, as well as of the privileges of it ; of the difcip. line of the covenant, as well as of the rewards of it ; of the condition of the covenant as fulfilled by Chia alone; as well as the prornifes of it to be fulfilled to them ; and of the promife of fandification, as well as of the promife of juftific ation and glorification. Hence, the covenant, as re­vealed in the gospel, is by the Holy Ghoit called a hearing; Ifa. liii.. 1. marg that is, a thing to be heard and received by faith, as •a voice -is.received and-heard- by the ear, ac­cording to that, chap. iv. 3. Hear, and your foul (hall 4 live.' It is the natural difpofition of-mankind, to fpeakt rather than to hear : for we are more ready to declare our own will by fpeaking, than to receive the will of another by hearing. Wherefore, the gofpel being the declaration of the will of God for our falvation, only to be heard and received by faith, and therefore called the hearing of faith, Gal. iii. z. there is need of the power of to fubdue, the heart to the hearing there )f, and to fop the mouth from making propofals of our own in that matter.

IV. The love of God in Chrill is habitually predomi­nant in them : Prov. viii. 17.1. love them that love me. Great was the lave to them appearing in the covenant. The parties contraelors about them aged therein from a principle of free, and yet' greateft love: From thence fprung the firil motion for a covenant of life and falvation .unto them : thence it was the Father was content to give his own Son for them; the Son was well pleafed to become wan; and,fuffer death for them ; the Holy Spirit to take them for his habitation, to quicken, fanclify, and perfe6t them. The love of God produced the propofal of the great and precious promifes in their favour, upon te. coutaeat with his jullice; Chrift as fecund Adam.


212 Trial of a frying frerfisal Head S.

'love to them, accepted of thefc terms. And when the e­ternal tranfadion was. in the gofpel, by the demonftration of the Spirit, opened and bcooght home to their fouls; this love (hone forth to them, le as they believed it. And that believed love of God in Chill kindled is their fouls a Im­pedance love to him again : a job. iv. 19. We love law lecitaft-he jErfl laved as. And therefore, although that their love is not always alike vigorous but bath its waxiags sni wanting, according to the inereafe and &creak of their faith ; yet, &we their faith never altogether fails, Luke mii. 32. it never fails altogether slither, from the moment that it is kindled in their hearts. And it is in adive principle in them, conlirainiog them to obedience, z Car. v. 14. giving the chief room in their heart and af­fetIion to God in Chriff, that their foul faith, • Whote A have I in heaven but thee ? and there is m a: upon earth " that I defire befides thee,' Pfal. lzsiii. 25. It makes it to be their greaten are to pleafe him and to be accepted of him, z Cor. v. 9. and their greaten fear, to Air him op or offend liim, Cant. iii. 5. It snakes duty agreeable to them, m a matter, of choice : i John v. 3. • This is the ' love of God, that we keep his commandments : and his

commandments are not grievous.' And it readers the remains of fin, the body of this death, a heavy burden they Lung to be delivered from, Rom. vii. e4.

V. jam Chriff, the head of the covenant, is their head
with their own cogent. With heart and goodwill they
have taken him for their head, for all the purpons of the
covenant ; and they Band to it, not to alter, if the choice
were to make a thoufand times. Thofe unto whom the
Father from eternity. chore Chrift for a bead, do, in the
day of their converfmn, by faith approve the choice, mak‑
it over again perfonally for themfelves : whence they
faid to appoint ikvsfelve4 one lead, Hof. 1. a t. And as
en as they reiterate their ads of faith, which they mutt
.e by, they do upon the matter reiterate their choice.
latent-1We of what they fuffered by the mifcarriage of
Elbt it Bra bead, Chrin is precious to them as a fe‑
taut. They came into the covenant, and abide al,;


r his wings allenarly ; impeding no benefit of

but, through him. And they have taken.kintt

Inking the Covenant of acme. 33.,*

as their head for government, as well as their head for nou­rifhment and fupport. They have delivered up themfelves unto him, to be ruled by him, as well as to be faved by him: to be governed by his laws, and not by their own lulls, as well as to be faved by his grace, and not by their • own works.

VI.The condition of the covenant fulfilIedby JefusChrift, is the alone ground of their confidence before the Lord, as to acceptance with him, or any benefit of the covenant they look to partake of. A crucified Saviour is the foun­dation laid in Zion, for finners to build on ; and believing on him is the foul's building upon it, I Pet. iii. 6. If men' build on another foundation, they build on the fand, and their confidence (hall be rooted,out: If, being driven off from all other foundations, they build not on this neither, they mutt needs perifh as the chaff which the wind driv‑

eth away.' To believe, or build on Chrift's righteouf­nefs by him.fulfilled, can import no lefs than one's trolling on it for his falvation. Whether this truft be ftrong or weak, it mutt be : elfe faith is not, building on Chrift is not : but the foul is kept in a Rate of wavering, in oppo­Iltion to the flaying of it by faith on Chrift, James i. 6. Now, he that is within the covenant, takes Chrift's righ­teoufnefs as his alone ground of confidence before t he Lord: for the covenant thews not, nor allows any other: nothing

fave Jefus Chrift and him crucified,' t Cur. ii. 2. He hath fame meafure of confidence for life and falvation upon that ground ; whereby, he is ditlinguifhed from the defpe­rate, faithlefs, and unbelieving : and what confidence he hath for life and falvation, he bath upon that ground a­lone; whereby he is,clittingulthed from the prefulnptuous, formalifts and hypocrites. And both thefe things are joined in the believer's diameter, Philip. iii. 3.' And re-joke in Chrift Jefus, and have no confidence in the flefh.'

VII. The promifes of the covenant are a fatisfying por­tion to their hearts. They are indeed fenfible they have' many wauts ; but then they fee as much in the covenant as would fupply them all, that they need not go to an­other door for fupply: they are perfuaded there is as much water in that well as would quench all their thirft, if th( could but get the art of drawing it. Thus the cove


-214 P.:T ea frying terfotud Head 5,

is all :'Zr fa!vation, and all their drfire, 2 Sam. /mai. 5.
This difcovery of the covenant is not owing to nature, but.
to that grace which thaws fo. much worth in the one pearl,
as makes a man content to fell all he hub to gain it, Matt._
xiii. 46. But no man will come into the covenant, unfit
once he get it for who will join himfelf to one in a mar‑
riage-covenant, or contra& of fervice, with whom he can..

A fre herw to live ? Faith difcerns in the covenant not on. Ty a refuge, but a portion, Pfal. cxlii.. 5. elle the man would !lever come into it. And none who have once got this. eScovery, will remain out of the covenant; Pfal. ix. to. 71.ey that know thy name will put their ire in thee. See John iv. TO. If the worth of the creature hid in the field. of the gofpel be perceived, all will go for the attaining thereof; Matth. xiii. 44, 45. all will be counted lofs and "dung for the excellency of it. Philip. iii. 8. Certainly the Mien of the world do- not fee this in the Covenant : it is, but an empty hungry thing in their blinded eyes. -The covenant is, in the gofpel,-held out to them in the breadth,. and length thereof: but it does not:take with them; it,

far from.being alltbeir defire; after all„as if they had fem. nothing that could fatisfy,,they, Wife willfiew us..
qny goad! Pfal. iv. 6. The until is, the heart of man can, uevrr fee. enough in the covenant far to reft fatiSfied

till grace give it a new fet, and contraa its endlefs fires : for that which the, unrenewed heart- is moft fet

on, there is no provifion in. the. covenant for, but_againft it..

V I I The Spirit, of the covenaotis in them: and that, Lt another fpirit than what the men-of the world ars aaed. by, Num. xiv. 24,. Ezek. xxxVi. 27. will put my. Spirit,

you. The Spirit of Chrift is'the Spirit of the co­venant, purchafed by the blood Of the covenant, lodged in. the fillnefs thereof in. Chrift, the head of the covenants and communicated in fume, meafure to all the covenant. people. And that Spirit may be known Ity. theft three ch taa crs, thereof.

t....The,Spirit,of the le covenant is.a fpirit of. holinefs., The. great defign of the covenant, nest to the glory of God,. was OA tatiCtification of Comers,. Luke.i. 74, 75. AU the, lyres of the. q.ovenant, from the firft of them unto the laft,. meet in that as their Centre. There is a-difplay- Of elm& infLin:,-.0.3 the cpadition of the covenant 4,:of rich gjace_aask

Inking in the Covenant of Grace. 235,

,Inercy, in the promifes of it of greateft faithfulnefs and power, in the adminiftration of it: but holinefs goes thro' the whole, and every the leaft part of it. Wherefore, it is called the holy covenant, Dan. xi. 30. Who then care teafonably imagine,, that the unholy are within this cove. nant ?. that the fervants of fin, whether profane, or forma nits, arangers to the power of godlinefs, whom no band, of Winds will hold, can be within the bond of the holy. covenant ?: No,.fure they are not ; they have not the Spi.. it of the covenant. The Spirit of the covenant makes the covenanted initially holy ; and to prefs towards the mark,. to wreak, long, groan,. and pant for the perfeaion of ho.. Lnefs, Philip.. iii. 14.. It makes a vein of holinefs rue through their whole man,.tbeir whble life„their-thoughts, their-words, their aetions, their dealings with God, and their dealings with men.. The covenant was. ere6ted ow: purpofe to deftroy the work. of the devil:- it was a eonfe. 'eleracy entered_ into by Are Father and the Son, for root.- ing fin out of the hearts and lives of the children of Adarar for refloring the divine image in them; and for bringing, them again to a perfeaconformity.to the moral law of the ten commandments, from which they fell.in Adam. For this end was the condition of it performed, the pmmffes of it made,, and the adminiftration thereof committed to the holy Jefus a. John iii. 8. For this purpofe the Son of , *God was manifefted, that be might deftroy the works of *the devil.'' Wherefore,.whofoever partake of the Spirit of the covenant,.partake of the Spirit of holinefs: Gal. ve

8. If ye be led by. the Spirit,:ye are not under the law; *verfe i 6. Walk in the Spirit,and ye Phalli ot fulfil the *lull of the &Ch.'

a. The Spirit of'the covenant-is an ingenuous, free Iii. rat, Pfalm ii. 121 It is- the fpirit of fens, not of (laves; of freemen,not of bond men, Rom. viii. 15-. There is- forme obedience to the holy taw given by unbelievers, the mem of the firft covenant, as well asby believers, the men of the fecond covenant :. and the eyes of the world can per oeive no difference between the obedience of fome of the former fort, and of thofe of the latter fort; howbeit, there, is a vaft difference, which is feen by the all-feeing,

ire, thefe.within the covenant praying perfons

236 Trial of a _laving perfonal- - Head 5.

many who have no Paving part nor lot in it, Ifa. lviii. 2. Are they men of temperance and fobriety, jullice and ho. nefty, candor and faithfulnefs, men of blameless lives ? So are feveral others befides them, for all that any man can fee, Philip. iii. 6. Thus ‘ar they agree. But there is a !mit difference of the fpirit they are atied by, which makes a mighty odds in the manner and kind of their obedience. Unbelievers are a6led by a fpirit of bondage, fuitable to their Rate of bondage under the covenant of works, Gal. iv. 24, 25. A fla..:fh fear and a fertile hope are the weights hung upon them by that covenant, caufing them to go-: fin is avoided, duty performed, not out of love to God and holinefs, but out of love to themfelves. Believ. era are aEted by the Spirit of adoption, fuitable to their Rate of adoptipc, under the covenant of grace, ver. 26. God is their Father ; and they ferve him as bons, not as Raves, MaL iii. 17. Chrift is their elder brother, who lov­ed them, and gave himfelf for them ; and love conftrains ;hem, 2 Cor. v. 14. The holy Spirit dwells in them; bath quickensd 'them, renewed them, making them par, takers of the divine nature, 2 Pet. i. 4. So un is avoid­ed as contrary to their new nature: duty purfued as agree­able to it. Their faith of the love of God in Christ, hath begotten in them love to God again,-for a new principle of obedience, 1 Tim. i. 5. By faith they truft on Chrift, and on him alone, for life and falvation : and this at once undermines in them the flavifh fear of hell, and the fervile bppe of heaven; fo that thefe are fo far from being their only motives to obedience, that they cannot be their pre­dominant motives: nay, they cannot be at all in them, but as enemies to their faith and love, 2 Tim. i. 7. a John iv.


Yet withal, it is to be remembered, that it is not flay. faints to fear God's fatherly anger, and thereby to red up to duty, Pfalm cxix. 120. Heb. xi. 7. nor to he way of duty, in hope of the enjoyment of God, It way, and the tokens of his favour, John xiv. 21. and end r `,.Et happinefs in heaven ; all through Jelin;

i., ,t1 '. xv. 58. Our need of thefe things for

e do indeed argue our childifh Rate,

t need of thefe fears and hopes in hea‑

_II .4ns a flavith Rate. Neither is it at all

Inking in the Covenant of Grate. 237

Basil to have the heart filled with a reverential fear and dread of God, upon the confideratiou of his tremendous jollier, and wrath in bell, againff the miferable objefta thereof ; and to be ftirred up to duty thereby, Matth. N. 28. Heb. xii. 28, 29. To look thereunto, and move away towards God in the way of duty, with fear and trembling, is very agreeable to the flate of thofe who have by faith received a kingdom that cannot be moved ; but are not yet afcended into heaven; who are indeed drawn up out of the fearful depth ; but are not as yet hauled op to the top of the rock, though the throng chain of the covenant is fo about them, that they Mall never fall down again. For in heaven the aweand reverenceof God, on that (core, will be perfe&, Ira. vi. 19 2, 3. But it is flavilh for faints,' to fear their being-call into bell for fin ; and fervile, to hope their obtaining heaven for their good works. And yet that .flavilh fear and fervile hope, may creep in• upon the children of the fecond covenant, and move them to duty : becaufe their faith is weak, much of the old, Adam remains in them, and its is not ear* for them,_ though dead to the law in point of privilege, to be dead to it in point of praelice. But there impure mixtures of felfilhnefs in their duties will be humbling unto them r. and they will lothe themfehres, for that they aft not, is their obedience, with more of the free fpirit and fon-like difpofkion. And their will in that cafe is accepted through Chrifl.

. 3. The Spirit of the covenant is a fpirit of fympatby re­gulated by the covenant. There is a commonnefs of in­tereft, and thence a mutual fympathy, among confederates. And this fympathy among the confederates of heaven, regards both the bead and the people of the covenant.

(11.) They have a native and kindly fympathy with the God and head of the covenant. It is true, his effen­tial glory can never be liable to diminution ; nor can his eternal reft in himfelf be in the WI difturbed, by what. (never men or angels may do or foffer : and the mart Chrift is now beyond the reach of (offering. Ntverthe. left, his declarative glory in the world hath its times of alining clear, and of being under a cloud. Now, a t - math, a fympathy with them is all their concern

*36 Mal of a faving Perfottal • Head g.

diltreffei and their enlagements, their jays and their griefs, Ifa. lxiii. 9. Luke xv. 5., which is a very tender fyinpathyi infornuch that the touching of them is the touching of the apple of his eye, Zech. ii. 8. fo they alfo have a very ten­der fropathy with him in the concerns of his glory. They are' glad and rejoice in the profperity of his kingdom# A6ts xi. 23, 24. They pray for it continually, Pfal. lxxii. 15. and contribute their endeavours in their Rations; to advance it, Philip. i. 2 I. For to ate to live is' Chryl: They have a feeling of the indignities done to his majefty, as done to themfelves, Pfaltaa lxix. 9. The reproaches of them that reproached thee, are fallen upon .ine. And they are mourners for the fins of others, as well as for their own ; on the account of the difhonour they dd to God, becaufe they keep not his law, Pfal. cxix. 136. The children of the covenant will neither be oppofers of the kingdom of Christ, for will they be neuters ; but will put their (boulders to the work of their Lord, to help it forward, according to their vocation: and without such a public fpirit, in greatet or leffer meafure, no man flialt be able to prove his laving intereil in the covenant ; for fo hath our Lord hirnfelf termined the matter, Matth. xii. He. that is not * with me, is again* me : and he that gathered} not with ' me, fcaltereth abroad.'

(2.) They have4 native and kindly fymparhy with the people of the covenant: for they are member& one of anos ther, Eph. iv. 25. The grace of the covenant difpolatt men to be loving and beneficial to mankind, but in a pecu­liar manner to holy men ; to do good unto all men, efpe. ' cially unto them who are of the houfehoki of faith,' Gal. vi. t o. The common bond of the covenant engageth them in a peculiar love to one another ; even as in that bond they are the common objeft of the world's hatred. They bear the fame image with Chrift their common head ; and that image will recommend all who bear it, unto one that is within the covenant himfelf, t} far as he can, difeern it. Wherefore their love is a' 4 love to all the faints,' Eph. i. 15. And hence arifeth the fympathy which every true Chriftian hath with the church of Chrift throughout the world, and with the feveral members thereof known to them 1 their joint interett in the covenant challeogeth it t

Inking in the •Covenant of Grate. 239

for by-the_covenint there is a near relation among them ; and from their union under the fame head refuks their communion, t Cor. xii. 12-26. Therefre a fpirit of fel& ifhtiefs, whereby men's concerns are all fwallowed up in their own things, leaving them no fyrispathy with -the church and people of God, is a shrewd fign of a graeelefs Rate. How much more, a fpirit of reigning enmity


gainft religion, and the profeffors thereof ; where religion, and what concerns it, makes .men the fpecial objeas of their enmity, fpite and refentment ? An habitual courfe of this is none of the fpots of Gods people ; but it de­clares men to he of the world, John xv..I9. I have ehofas you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.- The Spirit of the covenant will carry men quite another way ; fince taking hold of the covenant, they have embarked is the fame bottom with thofe whofe head Chrift is, and who have &dared war againit the devil's kingdom. To them they will fay, We will go with you ; fir we have beard

hat God is with you, Zech. viii. 23.

IX. In the latt place, The laws of the covenant are in their hearts, namely, the laws of the ten commandments, .the eternal rule of righteoufnefs, Heb. viii. to. That law, in all parts, is a copy of the divine nature, which in regeneration is tranfcribed into the heart of every one brought into the covenant : and the whole of it is written there, though every part is not written alike clear, nor any part perfea. As is the image of God reftored in us, fo is the law written in our hearts: in fanaification there is a new man errata ; which fpeaks a perfeftion of parts, though there is not a perfe&ion of degrees in thefe parts, 'Eph. iv. 24. 2 Cor. v. 17. t Cor. tciii. 12. This may be taken up in thefe four things.

r. They approve of the whole law, fo far as it is known to them : Pfalni exit. 528. I elleent all thy precepts con­-terning all thing: to be righ.. They Jove God : and every part of the law is a line of- his image : wherefore loving the law, as expreffing the image of his holinefs, they anull needs love the whole law ; fince there is nothing in it but what is a tranfcript of that holinefs. And as the _bead of the covenant is in their eyes altogether lovely, Cant. v. 16. the laws of the covenant being .like hims

Trial of a Paving perfinal Head S.

mutt be fo too. Why do not unbelievers love the holy law, but becaufe they do not love a holy Gods Rom. viii. 7. But believers loving a holy God in Chrift, mutt love the law alfo, ficce in it the image of his holinefe is expret. led. The holy law condemns many things in them ; yea, every thing of theirs, fo far as it is morally imperfeet ; and In they do themfelvea, conflating unto the law that it is good, chap. vii. t 6. It condemns every fin, even one's molt beloved fin, the evil he is molt tafily led afide into: and for that very -caufe the unrenewed heart-hates the law. But the grace of the covenant makes a man to leave his complaint on himfelf ; to approve the lawo and condemn his own loft contrary thereto : Rom. vii. t z. The law it holy ; and the commandment holy, andjuft, and good, verfe 14. But I am carnal.

z. They have an inclination of heart towards the whole law, fo far as they know it : Pfalm cxix. 5. 10 that my 4 ways were dire&ed to keep thy itatutes I' There is is them a fixed principle, which lies the fame way with the holy law ; bending away from what the law forbids, and towards what the law direds unto. ,True, there is a con­trary principle, in them too, which fights againft it: but fo do they againft that contrary principle, breathing, longing, and lulling for the complete vii Tory over it, and for full con. formity to the holy law, Gal. v.17. There is a new fet of heart given in the new birth ; exerting itfelf, not in lazy willies for the conformity to the law, but in a refolute ftruggle for it, enduring to the end. Hence, . •

3. They will habitually endeavour to conform in their praEtice to the whole law, fo far as they know, Plaint .cxix. 6. Then /Gall I not be ajhamed, when 1 have refpett unto all thy commandments. If the law is written in one's heart, he will write it out again in his converfation : and a fandified heart will certainly make• a holy-life Matth. vi. 22. If thine eye be jingle, thy whole body be full of jet. Where is the efficacy of the holy covenant, if men

Lin the covenant, and yet live like thofe that

it Nay, but to whoinfoever the grace of

.,:ftually appeared, it will have taught them

,0 4 deny ungodlinefs and worldly tufts,

froherly, righteoufly, and godly in this prefect


fribeing ha the ecroenan't of Grace. 24 i

g worlay' •Tit. 12. if the grace of the covenant

bring yon not to the duties of piety towards-God, yon have no facing part in it. If you are brought unto thefe, but withal left at liberty from the duties cf righteoufnefs toward your neighbour, that you do not -lothe,but dare to be unjuil in fmaller or greater matters ; you are yet$ • the gall of bitternefs, and in the bond of iniquity :' Luke xvi. 14. If ye have not been faithful-in _the Unrighteous 6 mammon; who will commit to your trod the true riches?' If you are brought forward unto both thtfe, and yet not fober, but 'left Caves to your fenfual appetite and fiefhly offeetious, you are no better : for 'they that are Vlarifl"s‑

have crucified the fled), with the affellions and lefts,' Gal. v. 24. But whofo have fled to the covenant of grace in Chrift for life and fahation, and withal are ho. Deftly endeavouring conformity to the ,whole law in their :practice, they, loolbeit in many things they 'ma-ifs-their mark, do Phew themfelves to be within the-bond of the ho­ly covenant, and ought to take the comfort thereof, as the divine allowance to them : 2 Cor. i, 12. Our rejoicing

is this, the tellimony of our confcience, that in fimplici­-4 tyiand godly finterity, not with fltfhly wifdcrm, but by d the grace of God, we have had our cenverfation in the ' world.'

4. Lafily, Their fouls lie open to what of the laws of the covenant they know not. They ate content to know them, defirous to be taught them, that they may conform unto them: Pfalm cxix. 26. Teach me thy flames. There are many fins of ours hid unto us ; becaufe there is much Of the laws of the covenant we do not difcern. And hy­pocrites do not defire to know the whole law : they are willingly ignorant of fome things thereof, becaufe they have no inclination to entertain them. But the fincere, being content to part with every falfe way, and take Upon them the whole 'yoke of Chrift, hating fin as contrary to God's nature and will, and loving duty as agreeable there­to, do of cootie lie open to further difcoveries of fin aid duty : they come to the light,' John iii. 21. They fay, 4 That which I fee not, teach thou me,' Job- xxxiv. ;2. 4- Search me, 0 God, and know; nay heart : try • - •know my. thouyhts. And fee if there be any •

242 Way of .iecteing Sinners in the caventut. Head 6. • way in me, and lead me in the way everlseiling4 cxxxix. 23,24. 3•

And thus much shall futBceta have fpaken on the Arth head, namely, The trial of a laving perfpnal inbeins is the Covenant of'grace.

HEAD VI. • •

The wily of Inflating Sinner,: pet:Am:11y antlfavinVy• in the-Covenant of Grace.


Y the marks and chara6ters given, it,aippears, that

they are but few who are perfoaally and ravingly in: ftated in the counant of grace, in c,omparifon of thofe who Ere ftrangets to it : bitt we are allowed to offer it to ftrangers ; to invite and call them who,,are without the covenant, to come into it, and fo to compel them to

come in,' Luke iv. 23. Here then are the glad tidioga of the gofpel : there is a covenant, which was entered_ inf to from eternity between God and Chrift the fecoad


dam ; a covenant of grace, made in favour of fa part of Adam's race, ruined by the breach of the ,envenant of works. In it there is full pravifion for your fah/alio° ; to relieve you from all the ruining_ effe4, of the broken firft covenant, and to render you completely happy, The condition of this covenant is indeed high : being fcrewed up to a pitch by, the demands of the Jaw and juftice4 'yet there is nothing on that part to difcourage you fram the covenant : for your inability being forefeen from eternity, it was laid upon one that is mighty, to perfutin ; and now it is already performed and fulfilled to, ygtkr hand by that mighty One, Chrifi jefus. Gnly,! the fpraatifea, sec-main to be fulfilled. So the burden, of the, c,onditIon is. o. ver without you : and ye are called<to,the, bpip&Ot of the promifes. And that ye may have the more clear acctkfil thereto, the adminiftration of the dovenant is:p.ut into the hand of the fame -Chrift jefus: and he is intro led with all the promifes, to fulfil them to Grillers. path be‑
gun to fulfil them to .all who have taken holdof-the

nant ; and is ready to fulfil theinstoall yet fhald gajce.
h Ad thereof. For that sod 'be h4h, gimlet his ,tetlameo of thefe promifes, and coaftituted fineers.of :mankind his.

Sinner& inflated in. the Covenant by Faith. 243

litateet ;''thai whofoever of them will, may come, claim, and take the water of life freely,' Rev. xxii. 17. The, Whole of the covenant is in him. In him is God, the par­ty•contratior on Heaven's fide, 2 Cor. v. 19. 'He him-fell is the party contraftor on man's fide ; and in him are 'all believers really, and all the eleel legally and reprefenta­tively.. In him is the condition of the covenant, and that Urt, fulfilled : he is the Lord our righteoufnefs,' Jer. xxiii. 6. Iri him are all the promifes, yea, and amen,' 2 Cot. i. 20. all meeting in him, as lines of a circle in their cen­tre ; and fure and ftedfaft, noways liable to -tnifgive, as did the promife of the covenant of works in the fink A­dam. And he as a king bath emitted his royal proclama­tions, bearing, that whofoever will come unto him, and u­nite with him as head of the covenant, {hall be takar into it, and have a right to all the privileges diereof in him, and 'through him.

Thus the covenant is brought to you, and fet before you in the gofpel ; fo that ye muff needs be either receiv­ers or refuters of it. Refute it not : that is dangerous be­yond expreffion. Take hold of it ; for it is your life. Sin­-ners, ye are under the covenant of works, where there ia _ no life, not falvation for you : but the door of the new-covenant is opened unto you ; come, enter into it without delay. rlee, and make your efcape out of the dominion of the law, the covenant of works ye were born under, and are living under : and what can noways be done, but by your accepting and embracing this covenant offered to you in the gofpel s to the inflating of you perfonally in it, to all the purpofes of life and falvation.

. Sinner& irgiated in the covenant by Faith or Believing.

To clear your way into the covenant, it is neceffary to thew, by what 'means it is that a firmer embraceth and is inftated in it effeentally unto falvation. And this, in one word; is by faith, or believing on Jefus Chrift : xvi• 3r. 4 Believe on the Lord Jefus Chrilt, and thou fhalt be laved.' The covenant of grace is held forth 19 the gofpel unto you ; God faith to every one of you. I will ma'

everlafting covenant with you, even the fure trier,

David :' and to elofe the bargain with you, a: ' Xz.

24.4 /Pay al b.iflaring Sinners ;It ibe COVelfattit. Head 6..

you perfonally in it, to all the intents and purpofea' of fa/r
tat ion, all that is revirred of you is to hear, that is, to
believe ; t Hear, and your foul fhall live,' Ifa.-Iv. 4. He
that believeth, is within tie covenant of grace perfonally
and favingry he that believeth not, is dill under the co‑
tenant of works, where the firlt Adam left him. Faith
is the hand whereby one taketh hold of the covenant,
-rns it for himfelf, and cl )1.eth the bargain for ,hiis own
'Ovation. It is the mouth whereby linnets content to..tlae
c 'tenant, that God becomes their God, and they his peo‑
ple. Althoogh, while ye are without the covenant, the
working of per fea obedience, nochr the pain of the curie.
is req tired of you; and more than that. (offering alfc, e‑
ven to tire foisfaaion of jult;ce ; and both their, in virtue
the broken fiat covenant : and when ye are core
hrought within the covenant, obedience to all the ten com-
ma:id:swats, and loft ring of the difcipline of the covenant
in cafe of your failures, are required of you in virtue of
the new covenant ye are entered into: yet, to enter you
into the covenant, and inflate you in it unto falvatiou, nor
thing is required of you, but that ye believe on Chrifi.
Ovry befieve, Mark. v. 36 is the couRant doEtrine of
net; dpel in this rirt. Da what you will, and believe
tt•it, you remain in a Rate of damnation whatever is done,
or ILat done by you, believe and you are in a Rate of falvar
von. If you fh.odd fay it with your lips a thoufand dams
over, that you accept of the covenant ; if you Ihould come
under the molt folemn and awful bond and engagement to
be the Lord's, exprefsly taking the fame upon you in pray‑
er, or ctherwife; if you fhould write your covenant, an4
fAbfcribe it with your hand, and fheuld take the facrament
f Chrift's billy and blood upon it, to confirm all; yet,
ou do not with the heart believe on Jefus Chrill, you
.race not the covenant, you mils the faving had of it,
remain without the faving bond of it. And if you
old this moment with the heart believeonChrift, hay.
ccefs to !peak, pray, write, or communicate : yet
t you believe, you are perfonally and faring.
in the covenant, never to fall out of it. thro'
cter,ity ; God is your God, and all the pro,
, covenant are yours though you had miffed

r: Hereby the grace of the covenant is preferve'd entire in the difpenfation of the covenant ; and by that means the promife is made fure to all the feed, Rom. iv. t6. Faith is contradiitinguifhed to works, as grace is to debt, chap.' iv. 4, 5. If apy work or doing of ours were that upon which we were inflated in the covenant, and got the right in the prornifes ; then the covenant, and benefit thereof, would be of4lebt to us, contrary to the declared end and defign of that method of falvation; which is to exalt the free grace of-God, and to cut off all boafling from us, Eph. ii. 8, 9. But the nature of faith's efficacy in the butieefs is adapted to that end and defign of the covenant ; inafmuch as it is , a grace, not giving; but purely receiving : taking all free­ly from Chritt • without money, and without price,' lay- in' firefa of the foul's acceptance with God wholly on what Chrithath done and fuffered ; an& entirely renounc­iit all doings nd fnffering of our own in that point. .A.hd thus the pet-mile is lure to us : for, whereas the plea ciany-work of ours would be a very uncertain one ; faith's• latea is ever lure and-ftedfalt, as grounded allenarly oh what Chili bath wrought.

N a: Hereby the finner's entering into the covenant is by tiaiting with Chrift, the repreferr wive, with whom it was 'bade as party.contraftor ; whirch is the fcripture.account of the Matter, John x. ' I am the dnrr : by me if

man enter in, he (ball be farvecle and fo the unity of the covenant, and the reprefentation in it, are prefet ved. If men entered into the covenant fame other way, as by their accepting (properly called) terms to them 1-.r( and
prontifing for thernfelves the performance o' them: in 0,-,t cafe, the reprefentation in the covenant is marrc'

dire Would be in effea as many c •enants of i

X 3

246 Way of inflating Sinners. in the Covenant. Head 6. there are perfons embracing it at different times: at loafta

covenant w.m1.1 be one, and ours another dittinti. therefrom ; the contrary of which is before evinced from the fcripture. Bur the covenant of'graee being made with•

as fecond Adam, in the name of ill Inch as fhould 1):. his ; it plainly Follows, that the only way of one's en­tering perfonally into it, mud be by becoming -his, fland­ing related to the head of the covenant, as our head : and it is by faith, and na work, nor confect of ours differing tram faith, that we are united to him, and become members ofhisholy, Eph. iii. 17. Hnw do we. all enter perfonally into the covenant of works, fo as to partake of the curie-in it ? Is it not through our becoming- by. natural genera. tion, branches of the firfl- Adam, the reprefentative in that covenant ? Hereby every one of us is perfonally cotereck and inflated is that covenant, loef we we are capable to ap­prove or difapprove of the fame, to.confent to it, or di1Ient from it. Even fo we enter perfonally into the covenant of grace, fo as to partake of the benefits in it, by our becom-. ing branches of the fecond Adam, the reprefentative there­in : and that is throuAfaith, in fubjeas capable of glue':

It is by being ingrafted into. Chrifl we. come­to partake of the covenant and benefits thereof. And I:ence-it is-that infants, not capable of a6lual

roe of knawing what the covenant is, yet having-the Spirit

of faith) are perfonally entered into it, and inflated in it ;;

forafmuch as that Spirit of faith is effedually in them, to

real uniting them with Chrift. Hereunto agrees God's.

giving Chrift for a covenant, that in him people may have

thecovenant, and all the benefits thereof. As God, in of the covenant,took Chrill f=ir all, for the condi­for the parties to receive the promifes, he being, 3dam:.fo (inners, in accepting and embracing, errant, are t) take him for all, the whole of the the parties and parts of it ton being in-him, for.. be is God as well as .man, fecond Adams

ears, that uniting with Chrilt, the heacL a sinner's formal entering into the cove­liting with him, being by faith on him,_ is by believing on Chrift, a firmer ern,

4, is inflated in tb.c covenant inapt

Sinners inflated in thr Covenant by Faith. 247

falvat init. Wherefore, reach Uri& by faith, and ye reticle the covenant : if ye naffs- him, ye mils' the covenant, in point of life and falvation. Bot here arifeth a weighty queition, to wit,

Qy EST. What is that believing, by which one unites with Yefus Chriji, and fo enters into the coveneine ofgrace? Ans. Tbe clearing of this point being fo neceffary to direift

fm­nera in their way into the covenant, for their eternal falva­t;on, we (ball, for what now remains, addrefs (lgebra tot the confide-ration thereof only.

And, to begin with the word, by which the Holy Ghoft expreffeth what we call believing, whether in the Old or New Tenement ; whofoever (hall duly confider the import of it, -in the fcripture use thereof, will find, that it is juft` trolling, trotting a word, perfon, or thing.. And hence-the fcripture phrafesof believing to, and believing in, that is, trotting to, arid trufting in ; the former phrefes,

ver -um:dual with us in converfation, yet, ordinary, both in the Old and New Tenement, according to the origi. nals. It is the trufting a word, as to report, Ha. Mi. t. In his. word,. Pfal. cvi. t T. It is the trusting a perfon

fo, in, the style of the Holy Ghoil, s the Ifraelites be. 1. lievecl in the Lord, and in Moles his, fervent,' Exod. xiv. 31. 6 He believed not in his fervants,' Job isa t.8, that -is, as we read it; He pet no truft in them And it is, the Dulling a thing too fo, in the fame itylei job xxxix. ie. Wilt thou believe in him ito wit, the uni­corn) that he will bring home thy feed ? i. e. Wilt thou--troll in him, that he will do it? Dent. xxviii. 66. Thou-. link not believe in thy life ; that is, as we read it, Thou 'halt have none affurance in thy life ; no•truft in it, becaufe no certainty about it. The phrafeology is the lame in

New Tenament,asbeing brought into it from the Old, only in a- different language. And, taking the meaning-of the Holy Ghost in this matter from the words which' he teacheth,as. we are direeled, t Cor. ii. 1=3. we concladei. That faitheor.believing, fo expreffed by-him-in the ferip. tore, is- in the geeeral,.-ren ST IN c, the•trnfting-of -a word,. and of a.perfoo mad thing, held firth in that word.

Now,•here is a -twofold word to be believed or milled: otall thole- who would ester ioto thteoveoant of

a{S Way irkflatiat SintIra in din Coweitaret. Head 6. a having manner. otiosely, the wind of the law, and the word of the, gotpel. The. believing of the former, is faith of the haw the believing .of the latter, a faith of the gofpel: of which in order.

. .

./Ifaith of the Law preparatory for tine Covenant.

The faith oldie law it not. indeed fairing faith: for the law is the word and adminifiration of .condemnation, and 'eat of fighteoufnefa; as (peaking nothing ofaSaviottr, an atonement, or an imputed righteouftirts, a Car. iii. q. Neverthelefs, it is a neoeffary antecedent thereof, atcording to the Rated artier of the -difpenfition of the covenant.' The faith of the law is tike the hsarisg of the itrohg wind, the feeling of tip earthquake, and feeingof fire ; in which,-though the Lord was not, yet they ferveti to prepare to hearkening to the Rill fznall voice in which he wag, -a. Kings xix. 1I, az, Actor.lingly, the faith bathe' lawis..the work of .the Spirit of God, as well as-the !feting fifth of the gaped, though:wrought in a different manner. The farmer he works OS a ,fpirit of bondage, convincing of fin and raifery, by the-law, Rom. viii..ts. with John xvi. 8. The lamer he works as a quickening' fpirit, tolightening the foul is the kaowledge df gofpel, a- Cor.

18. . : ,

Whohiever then would enter into the cotenant of grace moil, in the.firif place, have a. faith of the law for which­caufe, it is oeceffary, that.the law, as well as 'the gofpel, be preached onto finnere. And that faith of the law con.' 'fiat in ahtlief,uf thefe three things.

a. By it a man believes that he ie's finner. • The hbir law pronounced* him gerilty : and he believes, the'report. of the.law 004(4er/ring hiinsfelf in particular; his heavy *and' fon-- F+ 1 Iseprti:by t hit faith, echoing to the voice of' the'

guilty I Rum. iii. 19. The whith faith refit.

z effiattony of man, whether fpaken or written r

ne faith, ft/Waded upon the teftirtiony of God,

awe desmnftrated by Ithe •Ipirit hi bondage; to

of 0**,01:lani Gordvantlike vatetrof fiat Ged

ipentictlar.. And alms harbeiievesi (I.) That

-conyertfatioo it firriul„ difyiesfisigv and • hateful

-f ftn ke)y.: God, artnrdint to the thxine

Faith of she Law pripta-atoiy fix th"e Cotenant. .249

lawny, Rom.' iii. ra. Thiy ate all gone out of tire ways. .they are together become unprofitable, there is none that doth good, no not one.' He is convinced, that he is

_ gone out of the way of God, and walking in the way of clarudion ; that the number of his errors of omiffion and comeniffion he cannot underfland ; and that all his righte­oufneffes, as well as his unrighteoufnefte,, are as filthy rags before the Lord. ( 2.) That his heart is full of mitchief and iniquity, according to the divine teiimony, Jer. xvii. 9. The heart is deceitful above all things, and S.:iterate& c'ssicied. The law fhineth into the heart, difcovers divers htfls there, which he little noticed before ; and prefling the -unholy heart, irritates them ; and thus loch a myffery of iniquity within his breathopens to his view, as he could never before believe to have been there. Rom. vii. 9.

I was alive without the law once: but when the corn‑

mandment came, flu revived, and I died.' (3.) That Lis nature is quite corrupted, as one dead in tretpaffes and fins, according to the divine teftimony, Eph. ii. i. To the verdi& of the law, Who can bring a clean thing

out of an unclean ;."' Job xiv. 4. his foul, by this faith, echoes back, unclean, unclean ! I was fharen in iniquity,

and in lin did my mothtr conceive me.' He is conceived, his difeafe is hereditary and natural ; and that therefore his nature mutt be renewed: that otherwife, he not only dues no good, but can do no good. In all thefe ref-peels, he believes himfelf to be an object lothfome in the tight of God ; lothfume in his nature, heart, and life.

2, By it a man believes that he is a loft and undone Eimer, under the curie of the law ; liable to vengeance, ac­cording to the divine tellimony, Gal. iii. to. Curled is

every one that continueth not in all things written in the

book of the law to do them.' He can no more look up­on the curie as fume orange thing, belonging only to tome muntlers of wickednefs, and not to him : for the Spirit of the Lord, as a fpirit of bondage, applies it clottly to him; as if he (aid, Thou art the man. And, like one under fen­tence of death pronounced againft him, he groans out his belief of it, under the preffure thereof., Luke xv. 17. • I perilh.'

3. Laity, PI it a man believes his utter inabilities

250 Vag. sf Isfreing Sloven ee the-Cottealsit. Head 6. - rover Wraith. He latdieves that lie cannot, by airy doings or {offerings of hie, remove the curie lithe law' from -off him, according to the divine tettimotirof our being with. • out tirength in that poiet, Rom. v: 6. nor chaage. his owe leatureJeart, and life, fo as to render then:too:neat& to God., according 'to the 'infallible eettimonyi, Jet *R. •23t

Om the Ethiopian change his ikirt, or the leopard his I ipote then -may ,ye elle:der g000.thWt are aticultomed to

de He is, in his own eyes; as in the fight of
God, a- fpiritually dead- man ; legally dead, and morally clod, as the Apoille tellifies of hiatichio that cafe, Rent. WI 9.

This is-the-faith of are-law. AM the &ea. of it is a legal repeataneef whereby a firmer is hrelaeo and bruifed with fear add terror of the wrath of God"; grieves and forroweth'for fin, ern ruining and dearuilive -evil; and therefore really dares to he freed from it ; defpairs of tat­vation by hied-elf ; and terionfly looks out for relief *nether way, Aas ii. 27. sod xvi. 29, tv. Thus, the • law is

otw fchoolinallerto bring us unto Cheek ;' and the faith ,of the law malets way for. the faith of the goipth that either thirlegal faith, or kgat repesinurce, is the cat* dition of our wiled:we toChriff and the covenant of grace: our ancoefeto Cbrift and the covenant is proclaimed free; without airy sonclitioottorindifecetions requited i• us, to warrant ty, finners 'of mankind; td believe on kin' Chrift., lie was iltoarn befnre. Ent, i hey are neteffaiy move and excite us, i '.makeiric of our privilege of free accefe to Chlia ansttbe covenant ; ibiomuch that• none will come .to Chrill, nor embrace the covenant, without, them in greater or Lefler meafite. Even atif7a. phyfichn thOuld code proclaim, that be will freely cure all the fick of fuck a place that will employ Mall in which safe it is plain, snot will employ him, but filch as are fenfible of forte ma­lady-they labour Under yet that feat of a malady is not the cooditioa of their, wan:late to that phyfician ; nor ft it regulate for his Curios' them, but Ito:their etiphwing Mom . Now, in., calliog. you to. embrace• the coveeeht, ye tab tgiled indireftly, and by confetpsence, to this faith of the law, namely,' to believe that ye are finners in life, heart, and mime ; loll and Undone, wader; thr curie ' • and Utterlynn- able to recover yourfelves. 'Yet it is not faring faith, nor

: The Faith ,:tf G.gnel; inikating ;rt.Uee ,Coveitolint 25 t

cloth it ,in Elate gee, ip the-covenant,of, grace; that is pecu-
hat .to loather. kind of. believing:: of which in.tbe neat


The faith of the dohoel, ;eating in the Covenant.

- Saving faith, which unito to thrift;is the faith of the.. gofpel. For4he,gofpel only is .the miniftration .of tfoufnefs, a Cur. iii. p., it is it ,that the. tighteoul.
Refs of faith, is revealed unto ,faith, revealed to he be.. ljcved on, Rom., i. t7. trio the alene:worci which given finnera the 'notice of a Saviour, of the atoeieg blond, arid-the new covenant in that blood ; and therefore is the on.. ly,word by Which faring faith is begotten in the heart. of n,loft firmer. In the word of the gofpel, the.Lord.and Sa-'

iiour thrill, •with all his, benefito anti ,00veoant, anct
that to be believed on, as appears, from Roan. 4: 6i 7,,

9. .3o that the word of tite.gorpel kieg receired,by lieving, we have. thrift,. arid, iris, powseant:, with all the. benefits thereof ; faviug faith being indeed the echo of the quickened foul, to the word of grace that bringeth­falmation : a (tufting of the word of the gofpel, 'and the perfon, tu..wit the •Saviotot, and the thing. therein; held forth to us, to be believed on for rfalvatioa,. ) ark.i.

thagofpell.! Ira, liii.t i,''..Who.hatbbelie.sed our repiArt . :4 ,T4e hearing of faith.' This:is:that holieviag,ty; whin• we ,ate nukted to thrift, entered in. to the covenant of graee, *ltd, inilated.therein unto fate.. tion. The which:btliering may be explai nedio four par, Oculars: ( s.) 'the. faith of Clirift.'s u ri ( The, faitIkof:thttrgtofpel,offet.... (34) The,faith oi our right of chrtft, Atod.:(44 The- faith of patticulattnuft for Gain-. doter .; $_v.p*tttia trbe

QBAsTpatii be4teitinsivilty: 4, lells

inner, under the curie of the law, may unite Amish lefte,u CbriaLand fof,glater'llgOi irJhatied In the covenant: of

icttett 044mtaifiAraticiti. ? We, anfwer, thereto direet., ly in rherp ,particolars„ by, way of direiliion in. thin tutunentotts-point, NifereOga falvgicnt depends.

Faith of O'rip..*Ocie.'ci..

In the firft place, you are to believe, that there is a

35.2 Way einitating Sinners is ills Cookrutrii. Head 6. fuloefs of "falvation in Chrift for poor finners. This it tie-coaftant report of the .gofpeleaucerning hire, Eph.

8. g That I fhould preach among the Gentiles the unfearch-.

able riches of Chrift.' Heb. vii. 25. • He is able to fave I them to the uttermoft, that come unto God by him.' }lithe word of the gofpel, Chrift is held forth as an able Saviour; able to fave men from their fins, and from the wrath of God. His merit is a fufficient fiance againft the tempeft of fiery wrath, which incenfed juflice is ready to caufe to fly forth again(! tranfgreffors : Ifa. xxxii. '2. I A min_ (hall be a covert from the tempeft. His Spi­rit is fufficient to-fanaify the molt unholy : t Car. vi. i t. ' And fuck were fame of you: but ye are waffied, but ye

-are fanaified, but. ye are juftitied in the name of the Lord 4 jefue, and by the Spirit of our God.' The righteoufnefs he fulfilled, as the condition of the covenant, is lo valuable in itfelf, and in the eye. of his Father, that it is fufficient to procure juftification, fanaification, and all other laving benefits to finners, who in themfelves deferve death and damnation fo that they are happy who are in him ; they (hall never perilb, but have everlafling life, being eternally fecure under the covert of his righteoufnefs, as a fufficient defence. Believeft thou this

This is the general faith of the gofpel, which being with

particular application, doth not unite the finner td Cbri°,-nor eater him into the covenant ; and may be foqnd in reprobates and fallen angels, being only an afreot in general to the truth of the doarine LI the gofpel, Matth.

21, 22. and viii. 29. But, by the nature of the thing, it is neceffarily prerequifite to a faith of particular •appli. cation :. for I muff firft believe a Paying to be true in itfelf, before I can truth to it for my part ; I muff firft believe a tbing.to be good is itfelf, before that -I can believe that it is good for me.

But where the faith of the gape' is carried forward to uniting with Chrift, the effea of this general faith is very valuable as well as neceffary. And that isearn high-eftrent of Chrift and his covenant, an ardent defire of union and communion with him, a longing for his righteoufnefs, as a hungry man longs for meat, or a thirfty man for drink.

The Faith.of therrofpel.affer. 253 _

4111). e man fees indeed, that he has nq Ipeeial intereft in Chrift and his righteoufnefs; but he would fain ,h,aq it,: all is faplefa to him without it ; his foul within him cries, Give Ine ChrFti ve,eite I die : and he is content to, part with all for him, and to take him for all. This is-taught int in the parables of the' treafure hid in the field3, -and of' the pearl of great price, the finding Tot of which. moues - to fell all, and to buy them, Matth. xiri. 45•, 44. ‑

Howbeit, this etteern and defire of Chrift is different from that which follows upon the foul's union with-Chrift, when once faith-bath taken poffeflion 6f him andbia he" nefitir, and bath got a view of his intrinfic fuperetninent worth and value; the which is mentioned, peter ii 7. Pfal. lxxii. 25- The true fpring of all this deem and defire, is the principle of faf-preferiation, and the view of Chrift as fuited to that end. The merchant-man is leek­ing goodly pearls for his own enriching:: and feeing that the one pearl will anfwer that defign, he is reftlefs till he lave it. The poor limier is hotly purfued with the law's curie, which is Rill ringilg death and damnation in his ears. In the meantime, he gets a diftant view of the el.. -ty of refuge;, and, therefore he makes fo'rward to it with all (peed: but what makes him run, but life, life.,•preci.. ous life, that he may not perifh i Verily he cannot be ex peeled to a& upon a more generons principle, befo're he is united to Chrift s John xv. 5. Without roe ye can do • nothing.' But let him not fear; he is welcome •to Chrift, even coming ito him from no higher principle. The truth is, the Loyd Jefus, by his. Spirit, feta the prin. cipleof felf-prefervation ail ir, being a thing in itfelf good ; and ufeth it as a mean to haften (inners unto him. This is evideat from the complaint, John v. zo. And ye will 4 not come unto me, that ye might have life.' Can one imagine our Lord will rejeft a inner coming to him for life, when he complains that finneri will not come to him for that .end ?

IL 7e Faith of the G4e1 4cr.,

In the next place, you mutt believe that Jelin; Chrift, with his rightemenefs and all his falvation is by himfelf oft red to (inners, and to you in particular. This is the

154 Way of inflating Sinners in the Covenant. Head S. plain voice of the gofpel to all unto whom it comes, Ha­ir. i. ' Ho, every one that thirftetb, come ye, to the s. waters, and he that hath no money ; come ye, buy and I eat, yea, come, buy wine and Milk, without money, and t without price.' Rev: xxii. 17. Whofoever-will, let him s take of the water of life freely:' Prov. viii,. 4. s Unto you, 0 men, I call, and my voice is to the fops of men" But slits ! few belieVe it : yea, none will believe it to purpofe till the Spirit of the Lord Make it plain to them, and perfuade them by an inward illumination. Many fe cure fihners hear the gofpel, and are glad of the offer: but they difcern not Chrifl's voice in it. They hear it not, es the word of the Lord Chrift hitnrelf to them ; but 8v :the word of men : hence it hatb no due authority upon their confciences; fo they pars it Over lightly. Thus were his offers of hitulelf entertained, when made by his own mouth, but he not difcerned as the eternal Son of God, and Saviour of the world. So, in the congregation of Nazareth,' All bare him witnefs, and wondered at the :$ gracious words which proceeded out of his Mouth. But

they feid, is nut this Joreph's fon ?' Luke iv. 22. And

in a little they rofe up and thurft him out of the city,' verfe 29. Again, when the voice of Chrift is difcerned in the offer by the convinced firmer ; then the finner is ready to conclude, that it is to others, but not to him. 'Unbelief faith, but ' our bones are dried, and our- hope s is loft, we are cut off for our parts,' Ezck. xxxvii. r I. They cannot believe, that fo good news from heaven con­cerns them, or that fuch a good word is direeted into :them And thus men not believing God in the record given of his Son, that he is with all his Mvation offered to them, do mike hini a liar, r John v. 10.

But where raving faith is a-working, the Word of the
ofpel offer is, by the Holy Spirit, applied to the foul in
cular with power, as the word of the Lord himfelf,
not of men ; whereby the man-is affured., that it is the
of Chrift, and to him in particular : whereupon he

it to hirnfelf by believing: r Their. i. 5. ' For

Mlle not unto you in word. only, 'hut alfo in

in the Ghoft„ and in much iffurance.

The word of, God, which ye. heard of us,

The Faith of the Coffre4e(fir.- 255

lire received it not as the word of men, but (as it is in g truth) the word of God, which effeflually worlteth alto * in you that believe) This is altogether neceffary ; in. fomuch that without it there can be no receiving of Chrift, forafmuch as otherwife the foul can fee ao folid ground and foundation of faith for itfelf; for it is evident, there can be no receiving aright, where the firmer cloth nut be. lieve the offer to be to him in particular. And here be, gins the application of faith, an application tending to u-. aion with Chrift.

Wherefore, if you would unite with Chrift, and fo en­ter, into the covenant of grace, yourfelves before the Lord as condemned (Inners, under the curfe of the law ; and hear and believe the 'word of his gofpel as direaed to you condemned and curled limners in particular. So it will come unto you, as the riling fun to one -fitting in darknefs, and in the fhadow of death :. or as the offer of a pardon, to one under fentence of death. And let not your heart mifgive you by unbelief ; but firmly believe the offer to be made. by Chrift hirnfelf unto you, as it is 'in very deed, Ifa. Iv. 3. ''Hear, and your foul (hall lives 4 and I will make an everlafting covenant with you.'

But here it is neceffary to remove the following objec• tions.

OBJECT. i. But Chrift is now in heaven, and I her

voice from thence : how then 'can I believe that he hinfelf is offering himfelf to me ? ANtt. Though Chrift is in heaven, yet he is fpeaking from heaven to us ; how. tacit not by a voice founding thro' the clouds, yet by a yoke founding in the golpel: Hcb. xii. 25. See that 4 ye refute not him that fpeaketh—that fpeaketh from

heaven.' And not only is his voice in the word of the

gofpel, but he himfelf by his Spirit is in it, as the apoltle
teacheth, Rom. x. 6, 7, S. Thence it is, that it is a
quickening word to dead fouls, John vi. 36. ' The words

that I fpeak unto you, they are fpit it and they are life.'

It is the lively feed, whereof the new creature is formed, I Pet. i. 23. Jefus Chrift did once by a voice founding through the clouds, fpeak a word of convidion, Aas ix. 4,5. But even in that cafe the word of the offer oflibi fell. was remitted to the preaching of the gofpel

Y 2

it; 6 Way of ;eating Sinnerr in tin Covenant. Head 6. tenger thereto appointed, ver. 6. And the voice of Christ, founding in his wri-ten word, is more lure than a voice founding through the clouds, 2 Pet. i. 18, t9. This voice in the word is the Rated ground of faith, with which faith mud dole for fatvation, Rom i. r6. $ The

gofpel of Chria : it is the power of God unto falvation,

to every one that believrth ;, ver. 17. FOrthercitl is the

righteoufnefs of God revealed from faith to faith.' And there is no true faring faith, where it is not received as the ver} voice of the Lord himfeif, t Theft: ii. r3. There­fore you molt receive the word of the gofprl, as the word of Chrifi hirofelf, as in very deed it is.

OBIEC r. a. But Chrid in the word ache gofpel doth not Immo me : how then can I believe that he offereth biinfelf, his righteoufnefs and falvation, to me in- particu­lar

? A :is. Neither cloth he name you in the word or the Liw, whether in the commands thereof, or in the curie thereof. Bow do you come tot believe that you are v Lo­ner I Is it not, that, the commands of the law being di: reEled to all men, you conclude and believe, that, you he. lag of the number of mankind, they are therefore direeted to you in particular, as weil as to others ? And how come you to believe that you in particular are under the cm-fe f the broken law ? Is it not, that, Gnce the law de­nounceth its curie againfi every one that, bring under it, breaks it, Gal. iii. so. Rom. iii. 19. you do conclude and believe, that it curfeth you, forafinuc4 is you are one of

• thereOf ? Now you have a fofficient ground
' it the offer of the gofpel is to you in partici*.

eh as it is made to all, without exception, the gofpel comes, Rev. xxii. 17. )fa. lv. 1. .1 to be made to every creature under heaven, 5. and how &Ifni Weyer you arc, you are one real Chrift's voice is unto men, Ions of e wllwill,you are one of mankind Gam: r

is to you in. particular, Prov. viii.

11_ omitted to apply the general offer

I and every one is warranted to
tc xvi. 3s. $ Believe ou the Lord

Cf be fated.' ‑

J SC ar I 'want the qualificatiptts

7be Faith of the Cohetyler ;57

-deterrninatiVe of thofe to Whovn the gofpel-offer is particu­larly direeied. I dread that I have not as yet got a due fenfe of fin : and our Lord rays, exprefsly, They that be g•whole need not a phyfician, but they that are lick. I-am not come to call the righteous, but linters to repent­s ance,' Matth. xi. 12, 13. The gofpel•offer runs- in there terms, Ho, every one that thirtieth, come,' Ifs. Iv. A I . Come unto me, all ye that labour, and are heavy la­g den,' Mat. xi: 28. Whofoever will, let him take the water '- of life freely,' Rev. xxii. 57. But when I view my own condition, I very much fear I have not as yet reached that thirli after Chrift, and that willingnefs to take Min, which there texts fpeak of : and that I cannot be account­ed one truly labouring and heavy laden : how then can

believe that Chrift offers himfelf to me in -particular?' .ANS. It is moll certain truth, that, unlefs you have a due ,fenfe of fin, unlefs" you OA after Chrift and his rightee oufnefs, unlefs you be heavy laden with the felt burden of fin, and willing to take Chrift upon any terms, you wall never take him by .a true faith.. Neverthelefs, whatever ,qualifications you have, or have not, yet if you are a fin-- ,ter of Adam's race, Land I hope you doubt not that,) Chrift is offered to you, 'together with his righteeufnefs,. -arid all his falvation, 'Prow. viii.. 4. John iii. t6. -Mark. .xv:. 15. 1~or howbeit there are indeed aertain qualifita- tions necefrary to move you to take Chrift ; yetthere are . none at all to hamper the gofpel offer : but Chrift is- real- ly offered to you, .be in what cafe you will fo really 'that. If you do not believe it, and thereupon receiVe an offered: Saviour,-you will be damned for mot believing, Mark xv-I.•

It is undeniable, the lefs that (inners are fenlible of their fins, they are the farther from righteoufnefs :. they - do the more need Chriti, and are the moreto be called to. repentance. This is evident from the whole tenor of/the: holy feripture ; and from the very nature. of the thing.. And therefore it is (inners in the general, and not {enable. :linnets only, who are meant, Matth.-ix. 12, 13: Even as. it is tick people in general, comprehending even thof-v Of them who are fo delirious, as to think nothing

them,. that need a -phyfician ; and.not thtsfe tick only,

Y. 3, • •

253 Tray of inflating Sinners in the Covenant. Read a who are feufible of their hate and hazard. This is the plain literal reale of that paffige, from which there is no malty to depart ; and the departing front it is attended with a manifelt inconvenience.

Neither is the thirft mentioned Ira. Iv. r. to be rearit5t­ed to a gracious thirft, a thit ft after Chrift and his righ. teourners„ Fur fume at kali of the thirfting ones, to wht-nt the offer is there made, are fpendivz money for that which-is not bread, and their labour for that which fatkfieth not, ter. r, 2. But it is evident, that (inners duly fenfible„ who are "thirfling after Chri% and his righteournefs, are not fpeuding their .money and labour at that rate ; but, on the contrary, for that which alone is bread, and fatisff‑

eth, namely, it.fus Chrili, the true bread which came dowa from heaven.. Wherefore the think there meant, mutt needs comprehend, yea,. and principally aim at that thieft after happiners and fatisfatlioa, which being natural, is common to, all mankind. Men pained with this thirlt do naturally rpn, for quenching thereof,' to the empty creation, and their fulfMne lulls : and fo theyipind money for that .which. . i.r not bread, and their labour for that which fatiffieth not; finding nothing there that can fatisfy their appetite or thrift. Now, to men in this wretched cafe is the gofpd ft-Fr of the waters of lift made :•, Chrift is offered unto them, as bread, fatnefs, what is good, and will fatisfy that their *gut thirft, which othcrwife will never be quenched',.

as little is the totem; gape! offer, Matth.. ix. 28..

to a certain fet of men endued with fome laudable'

ions, going under the name of labouring and be.

) laden ;, the which do indeed denote the reftlefi.

A to the finful foul, of marl, fp:tiding its WOW:.

L'hich fittiffieth not, Lia..1v. 2.. 'Our. father Adam

hole farina ith a confcience full, ofguilt, and a
efiret. Thus we naturally hiving treaters heart, the foul, as natu. reit to them.. And' itdabours

try' law,, for a. reit to the confei‑

ation, for a reft to the heart.

is hill heavy laden with guilt,.

& thereof), or not.;, and. LI*:

The Faith of the Gehetsfer. 23*.

'ears is dill under a load of unfatisfied &fires. So neither:

one, nor the other, can find rift indeed. This is the 'vat urn! cafe of allaten. Amito. fouls thus labouring and laden, Jefus Chrift calls, that they may come to him, and ite will give them reit : 'namely, a reft for their confcience, iander the covert of his blood 4 and a reft to their hearts; in the enjoyment of God through him. To this interpre­"tation we are led by the ityle of the fcripture, the phrafeo. logy of the Holy Ghod, both in the Old and New Tef. tament, the which may be • viewed in the following texts compared, to wit, Eeclef. x. 13. Heb. IL 13. Ifa. Iv. 2. and i. 3, 4. 2 Tim. 6, 7.

Finally, as for the wilingnefs which you are afraid you are defe•ivein, furely, in all other cafes, he that faith, whofoever will, let him take Inch. a' thing, will, according to the common -fence and underifanding of fuch words a. mong mankind, be reckoned to offer that thing unto

and to exclude none from it however it may be an intl. elation, that it is not to be forced on any. Why then Mould this manner of fpeech, Rev. xxii. be thought
to limit the gofpel offer to a certain let of men.?

Wherefore we conclude, that Chrift lays no bar in the 'way of any of you t do not ye put bare in. your own way, and then complain you cannot get over them. For ac, cording •to the holy fcripture, it is infallible truth, that Chrift is offered to you, and every one of you, in partial: br ; believe it, elk ye make God a liar, s John v.

in. 'alike our Right to Chnji

_ Furthermore, yosmuit believe, that Jefus Chrift is the •Saviour of ths.world, and your Saviour in particular, by his 'Father's appointment' and his own offer and that. by the fame appointment, and offer, his righteoufnefs the condi­tion of the covenant, and eternal life, the prOmife of the co. venant, are yours; yours (1.- mean not, in poffeffion, but) -in right thereto ; fo fat asthatyou may lawfully and war-notably take poffeffion of the fame, and use them as. your town, to all intents and purpoks, of falvation, John iv.. 42. 'We know that this is Indeed the aril-lithe 8rooloyir sf the world, 2 Sam. xxii. 3. and Luke i. 47. my Saviour.

ilOt think this WO much. for you ;.° it is no more dm‑

2(60 Way of Wiwi's! Signe, s Comertant. Head 6.

is neceffary to hiving fsedr in Cbrift. If you believe only,. in the general,;thsA the Saviour ofthe world, but believe not that he is your Saviour in particular ; what do you believe more this devils do ? They believe hem to be jefuira Saviour; Mark i. If you would go beyond them,. you muff -believe be is your Saviour i'ond eonfequently, that hicrighteoutnsfe and Calvaries: are yours, in the fenfe before opened :- for 'where Chrift is given,. with him are freely given all things. And pray confider, how can ye take him 'or receive him a* your Saviour, if be is not yours indeed? A man may fraudulently tak*poffeffion of what he doth not believe to be his by right : but Doman can -fairly and honedly 'claim ond take poffeffion- of what he doth not believ•to be his own.. Certuinly,.God muff fire give •hrift to us, before we can receive him : for a man receiveth nothing, ermett it 6e given:him from bemoan>, John tree zy. Giving on :God's.part, and receiving on ours, here are correlates; and the former is *he foundation of the lat­ter. Now, God's gift is fufficieet to make a thing, ours. Therefore helieve innly, that Chaift is your Saviour in pan. ticular ; that his ligistuenfuefs yours, and eternal life yours.

Q.SESTI. Adieu vim' 1 a pear:km:ray, mature zaider The ruifr„ believe that Cirtylit ray ikroiamr,,that tligbte• euliieft, and eternal life, aremitrau' ,cAms.. You may firefly believe it, becaufe yon have the svoql and tedimony of the

• eteviital•God upon it in hie .holygofpeL What is the go.. fpel which the apoillessvere fent in the name of God to tali+ fy? The apoele Tolin declares it t John iv. r4, We te/iify, ihat,ihe Pother/mit ike.Sonielmthe aaminir eft& markt- Is itotliefet Chiitt4then,imuificm, whase.ver, lie is in the eveot, ttiviotit of the world end if he is fa,. end you are 'none of shot witodld Of orartkitad, be is not tlierefore-yoiar Savioori .Wh'y then will you not :believe:it? God' het the fun.in the (heavens, to be a lightneahe wOrkl.:'andrin Hot you there. loft ;lodge, that ,youilair;waightt to the light of, that fun, c well et JO* risfl.af inardaind . and occOndiugly ufe it free‑

wee',It risadibyit,aas your OWAI by -God's free .gif t

'hritt elk; isithe light f.the world, ;john

d frtoo.xia ;and faith ap‑

!alio& a the,:lsordiassy light', and taor

the faith of our Right to ChriA. adt

a'-vat ion,' Pfal. xxvi. i. Now, you are a member of thefe focieties, to nit, the world, and the Gentiles o therefore he is your light, that is, given for a 'light to you. Will-you take Chritt's own words upon it ? You have it, John vi. 32. & My Father givetkyouthe true breadfrom heaven.' If your neighbour give you bread, you will reckon-his gift thereof fufftcient to make it yours : and fo eat of it freely. as your own.. If your prince fholl give you a houfe or land, which he bath an unqtaeflionable right to difpofe of, you would reckon them truly yours by his gift ; and would freely go and dwell in that houfe, and poffefs that land, as your own. How is it then, that when- the Father giver you his Chrift, yet you-will not believe that he is yourai nor take poffttion of him as your own ? Why, thettuth oft the matter lies here you believe your neighbour, you.be­tote your prince ; but you believe not your God, in his holy gufpel, & but make him a liars not believing the se-4 cord that God gave of his Son,' s John v. to. But *he: thee yen Will believe it or not, it is a troth, that Chrifl is your Sa;tiour : and if you will not believe it now,to your falvation, you will undoubtedly fee your miflake hereafter; when perillaing, you will be convinced that you perifh, act becaufe you had not a Saviour, but beanie you negleaxd to make tile of hitt.

In like manner, the righteoufnefs of Chilli is yours, lamely, that which he fulfilled ratite condition of the co. 'coast. It is yours by heaven's gift, being given you with himfelf; and therefore it is called the gift of righteoufnefir, Ram. v. a 7. It is a tellamentary gift, made over to you in Cheat's tellament, Wherein fiances of mankind, without exception, are the legatees, as bath been already cleared. Eternal life. is another fuels gift or legacy : fo it is youth too. And you htve the record, tellituony or witnefs, of

"' God himfelf upon it, that it is given you, t John v. t t. 1 And this is the- record that God bath given to us eter. & nal life: and this life is in his Son.' Is not. God'i own record a, fufficient ground for believing? will you 'mut tore to tnifbelieve • it on any • pretence- whatfoever ? Here .you have that record, namely, that God bath -given to us

eternal life.' It rattly be you will imagine, that it it ealy to aaual believers in Chritt, at or mod. to, tbc

162 Way of inftating Sinners in the Covenant. Head &

and ufe that for a defence of your unbelief. Bet, I pray you, confider it is the ground and warrant for all to believe on Chritt, and to lay hold on eternal life in him ;. being the itnefs of God, which he bath tefti6ed of his Sun,' to be received by all to whom the gfvpel comes, verfe 9. but that God hath given eternal life to a certain fele& fet of men, can never in reafon be deemed to be a warrant for all men to believe. Moreover, the great fin of unbelief lies in not believing this record : but it doth not lie'in not believing that God bath given et ernallife to salmi betievera or to the de& ; for the molt delperate unbelievers, believe that, in fomuch that their belief of it adds to their torment: but it lies in their not believing, that to mankind•finners, and to themfelves in particular, Goa•hath given eternal life. This is what files in the face of the gofpel of God, which is the proclaimed deed of the gift and grant of Chrift and all his benefits, to tanners of mankind, declaring; the grant thereof to be made them, and calling them to take poffellion of the fame as their own, lfa. ix. 6. Us. to or a child is burn, (the word fignifies prefented born, as-to his relations having a particular interea in him ; as Ma. (-hies children were prefented to Jofeph, and laid on his knees, Gen. 1. 23. and Ruth's fon to Naomi, Ruth iv. 5 7.) unto us a fon is given. John iii. t6. God fo loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son that whofoever be­lieveth in him, fbould not peryb tut have everkging life. i Cot. i. 3o. Chrill Y ill's who of God is made unto ra4, (namely by legal deltination) vuifdone, risigeorfnefi, lanai;


ossion, and redemption. And thus you fee you have an infallible ground for this of faith, namely, the teftimony of God, that cannot

Wherefore as ever you would be united to ChM*, /Pi fu inflated in the covenant, believe firmly that Chris' 111,4.ors, righteoufnefs yours, and- eternal life in hint ir

e clofe application of faith than the for‑
s from it ; for this one, believeth the effiea.
intmcnt, and of the gofpel-offer. If
'a- Saviour to port, with his righteouf.
and Chrift offers himfelf to you ac‑
=effect of that appoiatment.and-.4-

The faith of our Right to Chrbti. 2'63

fee matt be, that they are indeed, yours, to benfed by you, as your own, flar your titivation. If you believe that apr pointment of the .Father, and the Son's offer, you mutt needs Wiese this: for if they be real, and 'not ludicrous deeds, they certainly convey to you a right- to Chrift, his trighttonfnefs and fairation,: fo that, in virtue of therm, , theft mutt be yours, to be warrantably claimed and ufed by you as your own, for the purpofes of falvatien. • ft is sot doubted; but mein deeds of gift, and their. offers, real and not ludicrous, do convey firch a right to the parties ire favour of whom they are Made. If a friend- of yourtt, baving-a fum of money lying in a neighbour's hand, ihotuld, cfpeeialfy by a deed of writing under his own hand, appoint and ordain that (tun a gift to you, to relieve you out of a certain ftrait ; you would mate no queftiorkbut you• might go and claim it, 'andtake it op : if,-havingithe (urn in his own hand,he fhould offer it royals men .giftiyouwauld make cro queftion but you tnight take it to you; and, iu. both ca-fee aft it as your own by your friend's appointment or offer. . And that! not the Father's ordinance and appointment, and Chilli's offer, be as efficacious? Why then will ye -not believe this its efficacy ? Why will ye not believe, that Chrift with his rightehufoefs and eternal life are yours ?

' Truly, the believing hereof is•the very next Rep to the foul's uniting with Chrift and therefore it is ropofed eo the fitineib, as the search means to bring- him elofe unto God in Chrift, Hof. illy. i. Renfro:taro the Lord thy God : he is thy God, thou haft a right to him, return, come e-•on to him, take poffeffion of him as thineown God. Ae­vottlingly, the linnet' coming to him by faith, comes on this very ground, Yet. iii. 23. Behold toe come unto thie for thou art the Lurd our God, verfe 23'. Tra6i in the Lard ' our Cod u the filivation of !frac?. As Hagar's eyes' were feafonably opened to fee the had a well by her, when the had given up her fon for dead ; fo when the limner lies in his death's wounds from the law, in the work of cronvidion, the fpirit of faith open his eyes, by means of a glorious 'gofpel, in a 'work of laving' illumination, fo that he fees he hath a Saviour, a righteodnefe, and falvaticn.

then he tit-featly -apprehends or grips the tame

264. tray of ;eating Sinner': in the Covenant. Head 6. Thus the prodigal fir& believed that he bad yet a father, and a father's hoafe, where there was enough and to Ipare, and -then arifeth and goeth to him, Luke xv. t 7, 18.

()wet. a: If it be true that Cbritt is my Saviour, that his righteoufnefs, and eternal life in him, are mine; then I may be eafy, certainly be fared without any more ado. Awe.' That is but a. cavil, heft baiting thofe who being indifferent about Chrift and falvation, think it not worth their pains ferioufly to confider fuch things. One truly weighed with the matter, and duly confulering; being once brought to believe this, would rather fay, " Then, fine Chrifk is really my Saviour, his vighteoufnefs "and -eternal life mine; 1 will take him to me, I will re.

ceive and reit on him as my Saviour, I will rely on his 41 righteoufnefs and look for eternal life in him ; why fhould

I be loft for ever, fince I have a full Saviour ?. Why fhouR 4‘ Igo naked, fince I have acomplete righteoufnefs made over 46 to me by Heaven's gift? Why fhould I die, when I have 44 eternal life in Chrift?" Put the cafe, you did fee a man at the, point of flatring for want of bread; and, out of kind. refs and pity to him, you fhould appoint and ordain meat for him, out of your own flore, for prefervation of his life: 'and withal, fhould carry it to him; and let it before him, faying, Ha, there is meat, I and my father have ordained for you, eat and welcome. If that man fhould fay, Oh 1 may not take it, for it is not mine own : would you not tell him, that your gift, appointment, and offer ofiit to him, makes it his, fo that, with a good confcience, he may free­ly eat it as his own bread? But fhould he then reply, and fay, Why then, if it is mine, without any more ado, I am fecund from flaming ; 1 need not at all be at pains to take and eat it would you not reckon him either mad., or but jelling with you, not fenfible of his hazard of liar,- log ? The application is obvious. - It is normeat's being one's own, fo that 1•.4 may ufe it-freely as fuch, that will keep him Irons he muff take and eat it, and fo ufe it as his own, if he would have that benefit by it. Even fo it is not Chilli's being yours, with his righte. oufnefs and falvation, that will lave you you mull take pareffion of him, and make ufe of him as your own, for fat-ration, if you would be actually • fared by him. There

The Faith of our Right to Ore, 26g

is a wide difference betwixt a thing's being ours in Pimple right thereto, and its being Ours in poffeflion. It is in the former way only that Chrift is yours before uniting with him : and if you do not improve that, by receiving hint, and taking poffeffion, you will perifh eternally for all it : Heb. iv. 1. Let us therefore fear lefl a promift being left us el entering into his :VI, any of you lhould fiem to come Jhort of it. Luke xvi. 12. If ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who Jhall give you that which is your own ?

OBJECT. 2. But Chrift, a Saviour, his rerfeel righte. oufuefs, and eternal life, are things fo exceeding great and precious, and I am fo very :info' and unworthy, that it is Mighty hard for me to believe they are mine. AN s. Yea, here indeed lies a great difficulty of believing; when once a flutter's eyes are opened, to fee the trankendent excellen­cy of Chrift, the exceeding finfulnefs of fin, and his own utter unworthinefs ; a difficulty not to be furmounted, but by the effe&ual operation of the Spirit of faith, caufing_ one to believe, according to the worhing of his mighty power, Eph. i. 19. But, for your help, confider they -are yours by mere free gift: which is fo far from requiring any worth. in the creature, that it excludes all refpeel thereto. Chrift himfelf is the Father's gift to you, John iv. to. and vi. 32. His righteoufnefs is a gift too, Rem. v. 17. And. to is e. ternal life in him, I John v. 1 I. Now, what is freer than a gift and then, howbeit they are indeed a gift far be. yorid whatever you could have expe6ted, yet they are not te6 great for an infinite God to give. In making of this gift, he aced not according to the dignity of the party in whole favour it was made ; but according to himfelf, his own greatnefs, and majefly. Meanwhile, though the gift is quite above your dignity, yet it is no more than what )our need required. If leis could have aufwered your ne­ceffity, there is no ground to think, a crucified Chill, the Son of God, would have been.prepared for you. If you do but fuppofe it, yQU mare that expreffion of matchlefs Jove, John ill. 16. God fo loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son. Wherefore, argue with yourfelt in this manner: The gift is indeed unfpeakable, but no Ids can

ferve my need ; if atria be not mine, I mull pcifh -


266 Way of inflating Sinners en the Covenant. Head 6.
fince therefore God bath laid it, that he hath given me ‘, Chrift ; and the gift is not above him to give, and no " leis can ferve my turn ; I mull and will believe that he s' is mine, with his righteoufnefs and falvation."

IV. The Faith efparticular Trig' for Salvation.

Finally, You mull wholly trait on him as your Saviour, and in his righteoufnefa as made over to yon; and that for his whole falration to you in particular, upon the ground of God's faithfulnefe in his word. And this is that laving faith, or believing on Chrift Jefus, by which a firmer is u• cited to him, and perfonally entered within the covenant of grace unto falvation xvi. 3t. Believe on the Lord .7ejiss Chrift, and thou fialt be laved. Pfalm ii. 12. Kiji the Son, left he be angry, and ye perifh—„; bled are all they that put their truft in him. And Palm xxxvii. 4.o. He IM five then', becaufe they try! in him. Rom. xv. 12. In him Ikon the Gentiles trey/. Compare 'fa. xi. xe. Rom. i. 17. Therein is the righteoufnefr e God revealed from faith stofaith; or, Therein is the righteoufneli of Gad by faith, revealed unto faith, to wit, to be believed or trufted on. See Philip. 9. Gal. ii. 16. We have believed in Jefus Chrift, that We might beirefiged. Atis xv. z i. We believe, that, through the grace ty. the Lord "'efts: Chrift we flail be faved. i TbeiL ii. 13. Ye received it not as the word 'of men; but ,(as it 4 is in truth) the word of God: a Cor. ii. 5. That your

faith fhould not {tend in the wifdom of men, but in the

power of God.' This, according to the fcripture, h a Ihiner's receiving and telling upon Chrift for falvation, at luring faith is defined in our Catechifin ; and this is indeed wirving, and nothing but believing, according to the Acriptural ufe of that word.

1, I fay, this is the fcriptural receiving and :Tiling oa oda. It is the receiving of him in the fenfe of the ho.. kitf flirt : John i. 12. As many as received him, to

be power to become the Ions of God, even

it believe on hia name:' where the receiving

,:phoned by believing on his name. God Saviour ,of the world, and your Sa fame publifhed in the gofpel ; and that he is your Saviour, by his Fa,

The Faith of particular Troll for Salvation.: 267 ther's appointment, and his owtroffer : hereupon you truft on him, and on him alone for falvation, and all that you need for ,your falvation: Is not this a receiving of him for your part in the charaaer of a Saviour, wherein his Fa­ther fent him forth to you ? Is it not a taking of him to r.surfelf, as offered to you ? Our Lord complains of the-Jews, John v. 43. that whereas he came in his Father's name, they received him not, to wit, in the charaaer wherein he was fent, namely, as the Meffias, the Saviour of the woad, fand their Saviour, trotting in him, that he would face them. This plainly appears to be the meaning, if one compares- ' herewith the words there immediately following : If an­oFer Jhall come in his own name, b'm ye will receive : q. Ye will believe him to be the •Mefilas, and your Saviour, and truff on him accordingly, that he will fave you ; the , which has been often verified in that unbelieving people. Moreover, this is reiling on Chrifi in the fcripture•fenfe of that manner of expreffion Ifs. xxvi. 3. Thou wilt keep‑

him in perfect peace, whole mind is flayed ocr thee, be‑

caufe he trulleth in thee.' And indeed one cannot de. vile what way a perfon can rett on a word,. or a foul or ipirit can red on a perfon, but by truiting them, or trailing in or on them. it is laid, 2 Chron. xxxii. 8. • The peO.

ple retied thentfelves upon the fregrds• of Hezekiah.'" What way can one imagine they did for but by trotting them ? Chap: ' Help us, G Lord our God ; for

we reft on-thee.' How could they doff:PO:out by LTA. jog on him for their help ?

a. This is believing, in the fcriptural'ufe of that word," which, in our entry on the queition under confideration, we eftabliihed from the fcripture itfelf. For it, is a truft. ing of, or trotting in a perfon, namely, Jefua Chrift, and God in him, the pertbnal objea of laving faith, Acts

31. a trolling in a thine-, namely, the rightroufnefs of Chrift, the ultimate real obbjea of faith, Rom. i. t7. and

trotting in a. word, namely,'the record and teftimony of God, the word. of the prornife of the gofpel, the proximate or nearelt real objea of faith, ibid. and all this for the great purpofe of falvation. And then it is nothing but loch believing for thus faith is not explained away into, but

Z 2

20 Way of inflating Sinners in the Covenant. Head 6. as a thing quite diainti from the nature of a work, as the fcripture contradiftinguifheth works to faith.

Wherefore we cooctude, that this trni is that believing on Chrift, by which the foul is united to him, and ravingly inflated in the covenant. And, for opening of it, we (bell take notice of tbefe five things plainly imported in ;t.

t. This truft imports ant only a willingners, but a fin. core and honeft &fire to be delivered from fin and wrath : a di lire to be fantlified, as well as to be jullified ; to be de­livered from the reigning power, pollution, plaetice, and inbeing of fin, as well as from the guilt of it ; according to thatmf the apoRle, Rom. vii. 24, 25. g Who (hall deli­ver me from the bodyof this death? I theAcGod,through g ;ferns Chrift our Lord.' For it is a trufting on Chr.ft, not for the half of his falvation, to wit, falvation from wrath only, which is all the truft of many, being by no means &firma to part with fin ; but for the whole of it, namely, falvation from wrath, ald falvation from fin too, which is the principal part thereof, Matth.-i. sr. Now, a man may indeed fear that from one, which he doth sot defire : but no body trufts in one for what he defires not. Faith is a believing with the bean,Rom. x. so. -The whole falvation of Chrift is the believer's choice : it is the end he defires to compels: and the truft of faith is exerted as the means to compefs that end. '

2. A renouncing of all confidence in all that is not Chrift or in Chrift, as to the matter of falvation particularly. In this truft is overturted felf•confidence, law confidence, creature•confidence ; and the foul builds on a quite new ground : Philip. iii. 3. 6 We rejoice in -Chrift Jefus, and

have no confidence in the Refit.' Jere xvi. 19. 4 The f Gentiles (ball come unto thee,—and null fay, Surely 6 our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things where.

in there is no profit.' For• it is a trulting wholly on

Chrift and his righteoufnefs, a train, or a believing nvitb all the heart, Prov. iii. S. AEIs viii. 37. At this rate the believer is carried off from the works of the law, to the blood of Jefus, for his juitification ; and carried our of hien, refl. too, unto the Spirit of hulinefa in Chrift, for his fine­tiAcation : being perfuaded, that no doing nor fuffering of his own) can procure him the pardon of, or atone for the

The Faith of articular Trufifir Salvation.• 269

Teat{ piece of guilt ; and that he is not able truly to mor­tify one luft, more as to purge away the guilt of one fin, IVIatth. v. 3. lfa. xlv. 24.

3. A hearty_ approbation of the plan or device of Talva.- tion.according to the covenant, manifeited in the gofpel, as fuited to the divine perfe6tions, and to the cafe of lin­sees, and, their own in particular Cot: i. 23. We preach ehrift crucified, unto the Jews a ftum'oling.block, ' and unto the Greeks foolifhnefs ; verfe 24. But unto. 4‘ them that are-called, both Jews and Greeks, Chrift the 4 power of God, and the wifdomof God.' Without this, no man knowing what God isr what fin isrand what is the worth of his own foul, will ever venture his ownfalvation upon it ; but one's trufting his falvation to Chrift and leis righteoulnefs, fpeakss him to be well pkafedIherewithr as what'oue may fafely troll toreven•n the fight .of a holy God. And this is that rejoicing; in Chrift Jefus, which makes an illuftrious piece of the believer'se charader,. Philip. iii. 3.

Withal it bears three things; ( r.) An eyeing of Chrift` in this matter, as atrucified Saviour, who bath fulfilled all aighteoufnefs, according to the Rated condition of the co. venant, Cor.ii. 2: It is not Chrift in the eternal glory be liad with his Father before the world was, that faith firet h its view on,• while the foul in this cafe ftands trem­bling before aloly God; but Chrift the Son-of God made: Dian,- come in the fielh, being born holy, leading a life - perfefily, righteous, and at left dying on • the crofs, to fa-­tisfy the demands which the law had orr poortinnenn knits unto him lifted up on the crofs, as thole who were: bitten by the ferpents•in the wildernefs• looked-unto the' brazen ferpent lifted up on the pole, ifs. xlv. 22: Numb.. xxi. 8. Johnire. 14, t5--. Therefore it is called faith in hie; blood, Rom. iii. 25: his righteoufnefs, whereof the fhed-- cling of. his blood was- the compleating part, being the­fpring of the believers hope. (2:) A real perfuafion of the faficiencr of Chrift'i righteoufnefs to fave finnersi and us; is particular, from fin. and wrath ; to anfwer for us before a holy juft Gad, in the eye of his holy law ; and to pro­cure for us eternal holinefs and hsppinefs. , There is. no fasiag,faith..without. this : Chi ift's ability to Que. ma be.:

Z 3.;

2 70 Way of infixing Sinner: in the Covenant. Head& believed, and that with application to your own cafe is particular, Matth. ix. 28. ' Believe ye that I am abk to • do this ?' And in order hereunto, faith eyes Chrift's righteoufnas, as the righteoufnefs of Grd, and therefore of infinite value and efficacy, Philip. iii. 9. 1 John i. 7. The reafon why the !gape!, and no other doetrine what. foever, is ' the power of God unto falvation' of finners, is hecaufe therein is revealed the righteoufnefs of Gad unto faith, Rom. i. t6, 17. and that is the only righteoufnefs, (cited at once to the divine perfeetions and our cafe. (34 An acquiefeing to that way of falvation, for ourfelves in particular. The btliever bath a cordial liking of it, for the way of his falvation as perfectly fafe, beitig , the power 4 of God, and the wifdom of God,' t Cor. i. 24. His foul pronounceth them fafe and happy, that are in it i he de-fires for his own part to he found. in it ; and is perfuaded he would be faved if he were in it. Thus_faith atEtod. in the woman dileafed with an ifl'ue of blood, M'atth. ix. 21. a She laid within lie' felf, if I may 'but touch his garments, 4 I !ball be whole.' And thus it aeteth in all believers, determining them to that way, and to that way alone, for their care-in particular.. And here unbelievers, are always unfilled.

'''. Letakin,-; one's felt n: to Chrift and his righteouf­nels ..I ne,f •r falvation from i:ri and wrath. This is done by this trufting. lior the fpqaer believing that Chrift is his Saviour, and that hia riglitooufnefs is made over to biro by free gift ; and withal, th-.t this his Saviour, with hit


ighteoulnefs„iA fufficient to I.,ve him from fin and wrath; cv h accordingly truft on Chi ft and his righteoufnefs for a nv-n falvation, and fo be ke himfrlf thereto;. even as beggar once haling, and wital believing himfelf to have cl:es and weal:h made over :o him by, a friend, leaves off beg, and for his tnaintenat,ce trulls to that wealth alien-el d thereupon betak;s. himfelf to it. ' It is true,. th being a corporal t ling, to which there is a bo.

n, the betaking one's ftlf thereto is not-the fame

,the trufting to it : howbeit the former is a na.

t of the latter 1 but Chrift and his righte.

I ed unto fait h,. being things purely fpiri.

I is no bo.:Ily motion requilite,.thst we

7-fie Faith of particular ?ruff for Salvation. 27! betske ourfelves to them ; the trufting and betaking

felf thereto, are one and the fame. So by this trust, foul takes poffeftion of Chrift. and his righteonfnefs; ufeth the fame as its own, to the purpofe of falvation.: it the finner betakes hinifelf as a condemned man unto as Chrift as the propitiatory mercy.feat through his (343, affording fafety to the guilty before 2 holy God 3 by it the finner betakes himfeif as a fick than unto the ne Jefiis as the phylician of fouls, having-the fulnefs of

Spirit of ianitification in him, to be communicate. ccordingly faith is called a coming to Chrift, John vi, ;. a fleeing for refuge, as one in hazard of his life by a tretter, Heb. vi. 18. and is. often expreffed, as Pfalm ri. 2. by a word which properly fignifies to retire as unto a iadow, Judg. ix. x5. or as the chickens do under the rings of the hen, Ruth ii. 12. "The Lord God of 'frac!, under whole wings thou art come to mit ;' properly to etire. Compare Math. xxiii. 3,7. 6' How often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings.'

5. Lelly, This truft of faith imports an affiance; con­fidence, or trufk on Chrift and his righteoufnefs, that he will lave us from fin. and wrath, according to his promiie fet before us in.the gofpel: Whofoever believeth in him;

(ball not periih, but have evetlafting life' Ifa. %iv. 9. We have waited. for him, and he will five us.' Heb. iii. 6. Whole houfe are we, if we hold fait the confi‑

Ila. I. io. 6 Let him truft in the name of the b6rd, and flay upon his God.' And that this truft of faith is thus particular, is evident. alfo from the nature of the thing. For whofoever trufts in a perfon for. any thing; bath a perfualion of the fame degree of &rends with the truft that that perfon will do that thing for him. And for a Pure token of this, where the party trufted fails, the party truiling is afhansed and confounded,; as being difap­pointed is that which he trufted he would .do for him. Wherefore, Nice the truft of faith is never difappointed, the feripture dal, therefore, affure us, that' he that be‑

lieveth nti him than not be-.confounded,' t Pet. ii. 6. nor 2tharnd, Rom.. x. t r. The which loth fufficiently i-,;. sullie; that he that belk vetb-on ;Weis Chia for 1.

273 W.: inflating Maters m Ace Covenant. Head tf

cloth true that he will Pave him ; otherwife there coal be no place for his being coafbundect or alliamedv- whatever fhonkl he the event of his truft.. Accordingly the true of faith dotb, in proportion to the firamefs• thereof,. eftablifli and fix the heart,. Phlm can. 7. 6 His heart is fixed,. trufting m the Lord: and hereof we have a plais in. lance in Paul's cafe, a Tiro. r. 12. 6 I am not afhamed;.

for I know whom I have believed,.' marg. or trufted. Agreeable hereunto,laith ia called in effeEt a- building oa Chrift, at upon a foundation that wilt bear our weight, Ifs.. xxviii. 1.6. with I Pet. ii. It is called a-leaning
upon him, Cant. viii. 5. a dayistg ow him,.Ifa. :mei. 3. 3 selling or relying on. him. a Chmn. xiv. 14- and. xvi. 13: as upon one that will bear us-up, a looking .coca him, Ifa.-

12. having our eyes upon him, z Chron..xx. rz.


one from whom we lock for help and falvation ; and 6.

believing on him, r- Pet, ii. 6.. as me by whom we !ball be Caved, Ails ay. r 1. •

The. firmer being ihaken oat of- all confidence-for life and falvation in other thing% flays himfelf by faith on jr- Ins Chriil and his righteoufnefs ; trneiog on him, that he &all have life and fahration through his rigiateoufnefs.. It is true indeed, this particular trait and. confidence-may be *faulted with many doubts and fears: but there are things-that faith bath to confti4ft with,. as its appofite ; and the artinger that faith is,. the leis they prevail; the weaher itt is, they prevail the more ; Matth. sir. 3 is 6 0 thou a 4 little faith, wherefore didft thou.doubt ?' It is indeed of very different degrees in -different perhps, and in one an/

fame perfon at different times : but if you remove all

all and confidence in Chrie for one's falratioa, horn.

ids, the very nature-arid effence of it is deftroyed. Fon‑

that rate, the firmer, whole- confidence in the Sal for

falvatioa is razed, having no confidence for it in atrial-c Utter, is left quite unfettled and. waveriag,like.a wave of

.•or a reed in the water : and where then. istaithsa

. leaning, flaying, relying; and welting the- fouLon -

nits i..6. Let him a& ii faith, _nothing waver--

he that wavered' is like a wave of the lea,

wind, and toiled, wile 7; For let now

it that/it (ball receive. any thing of the.

7"*e faitA oftartiarlar Trull for Salvation. 273

rd.' But the believing (inner, finding his confidence

e flefh razed, dotb, by believing, can the anchor of -oft and confidence on OMR Jefus and his righteouf­confidingand trufting that he will lave him. And howe­le may indeed waver in that matter; being tolled-with ats and fears about his falvation, weakening the a&ings at his confidence : and fometimes prevailing fo far, as :rule an intermitting of the exercife thereof: yet, even hat cafe, sander all that toffing, he doth not waver like •ave of the tea, that bath ,nothing to fix it ; but only : a (hip at anchor. His confidence is never quite root-out, as to the habit thereof ; but will again exert it­: and in that refpeti every believer, as a real ipartak­r of Chrift, holds the beginning of his confidence fled-aft unto the end,' Heb. iii. 14. And his miff and con­ence is what our reformers called affurance, and defcrib• faith by.

Otsytcr. a. Since it is not true of all who bear the gn. .el, that they (hall be Caved ; there cannot be, in the cafe F every one of them, a ground on which this particular nil may be warrantably founded. Aim All and every ne of them, notwithflanding that, have a folid ground fur

even for milting on Chrift and his righteoufnefs for heir own falvstion in particular. And that is the record Ind teftimony of God in his gofpel„ that, v whofoever lievethin him, (hall not perifh, but have everlalling-life,' John iii. 16. The true fade of which, as appears front what is laid, is, that whomever (tall have this truft and confidence in Chrift, (hall not be difappointed, but that( certainly be laved. Here then is the faithfulnefs of God in his word, for the foundation of this faith, of particular troll : and true faith is always built on that foundation. It is certain indeed, that, in the event, many to whom the gofpel comes will not be raved : but then it is as certain, that thole who will not be Caved, will not believe neither : that is, they will not come up to this particular truft, and confidence, we have defctibed from the word, Ifa. I.

Who bath believed our report ? and to whom is the arm
4 of the Lord revealed ?' Howbeit, at this rate, they hav

a firm ground of particular confidence. If they wi" believe for all it, their ruin is of then:Selves, they v

274 Way of inftoting Sinner, in the Covent:O. • Head 6.. rifh without excufe ; and their umbilief will be the-great trotted of their condemnation. Jefus Chrift, with his righteoufnefs and falvation, is fo far made theirs, by the Father's appointment, and his own offer, that they may lawfully and warrantably truft on hint as their Saviour, each one for his own falvation. If they will not believe it or not truft on him accordingly ; they do by their un­heliefnand diftrult,difhonnur the Father and the Son, and moff juflly perifh.

OBJECT. 2. Many truft in Chrift as their Saviour, with *particular confidence that lie will Pave theta; and yet are grofsly ignorant, profane, or formal hypocrites ; and therefore are not true believers, nor united to Chrift..A.xs, The apoffle,fpeaking of faith unfeigned, I Tim. i. S. (kith foppofe that there is a feigned faith. And indeed fuch troffers in Chrift hive it : but as for this troll which we have defcribed from the word, it is as certain they have it net, as it is certain that true faith perifres the heart, Affr

9. and truly faudifies,ehap. xxvi. t 8. As Inch trait-era fay, that they receive Chriff, and yeal on him alone for -falvation, embrace, accept and content- to him in the gof. pel offer : even fo they fay, that they truft on him. But this truft on him they really have not. For, firft, they truft ,not on him for his whole falvation ; nay, at for the chief part thereof, to wit, falvation from 1i y they are by no means reconciled. thereto : wherefore it may well be an objea of their fear and averfion, but it cannot be an objetft of their truft. Secondly, They truft not on him alone for the falvation they really defire r they do not troll. him with all their heart; but partly to him, and partly to their own doings and fufferings, betwixt which and the Saviour their heart is divided. This is elear,from Matth, v. 3.. Blijjed are the poor in jt,irit ; for theirs it the kingdom. of heaven. Lallly, Their treft is not grounded on the faithfulnef-s of God in the free promife of the gofpel ; but reared upon Tome one or other Candy foundation•: Ifa. liii. r. 14'ho bath believed oter report ? Matth. vii. z6. Every one that, hearth

re foyinge of mine, and cloth 'hem not, !hull be likened ten‑

, fool0 noun which built bit houfe upon the fond.

rid thus have we thown, what is that faith or believing hish a fines mite, with jefua Chrift, and. fo enters.

The Faith otparticular Trutt for' Salvation. 275 ravingly into the covenant of grace. Why God bath ap­pointed it to he the mews ofunion with Chrift, may be learned from Rota. iv. 6. Therefore it is of faith, that it -might be by grace.; of which before. litre fhall only obferve, that this trotting wholly on Chrift and his righte­oofnefs for his whole falvation, is an apt means or inftru­neat of .uttion, betwixt Chrift the party trolled, and the foul trolling on him : forafmuchas,the foul is therein fo carried forth nitto him, that from that moment is thereby as if it were wholy to land or fall with him ; as the fuper­ftrueture with the foundation : the leaner with the leaning-flock; the thing relying, telling, flaying upon another Thing, with the flay or bafe on which it is laid. Where­fore, the obje& of faith beingiofallible, they that thus trtyl in the Lord *di he as mount Zion, which cannot he removed, but abideth for ever, Pfal cxxv. 1. Thereby they are u­nited to Chria, and being united to him, are perfonally in-dated in the covenant to their eternal falvaticin.

The End of the View of the Covenant of Grace.

275 ‑








ZECH. Xil. 12.

And the landflail mourn, every family apart,

their wive: apart.


Of Perfonal and Family Fafting and Humiliation,
in the General.


Emmons falls, kept in fecret by a particular per­fon apart by himfelf, a ;d by a particular family a‑

part by themfelves, concerning which this Memorial is pre­fented both. to faints and finners, are not indeed the anted and ordinary duties of all times, to be performed daily, or -t fet times recurring; fuch as prayer, praife, and reading ,,f the word are : but they are extraordinary duties of fume itnes ; and to be performed occafionally, as depending en­tirely, in refpeEt, of the excercife of then, on the call of providence, which is Variable.

'ley are authorifed, and injoined us, in• the word of.

u3 thetefore, when we !hall have performed them,

ay, We are unprofitable fenants, we have done

was our duty to do ; and muff abhor the leak

f critiug thereby.

Of Fafting and Humiliation in general. 277

The particular feafons of them are determined by provi­dence. Wherefore, they who wopld be pradifers of them, mutt be religious obfervers of providence : otberwife Cod may be callingaloud for weeping and mourning, and girding with fackcloth, while they, not heeding it, are indulgiag themfelves in-joy and gladnyi, lfa. xxii. 12, 13. a danger­ous, adventure! ver. 14. Surely this iniquity flail not be pur.. ged from you, till ye die, faitb the Lord.

Hence the moil ferious and tender among knowing Cbriftians will readily. be found the molt frequent in thefe exercifee. It is on the pouring out of the Spirit, that the land is to mourn, every family apart, and their wiles apart, Zech. xii. t o, i 2. Paul was a fcene wherein corrupt nature (hew=` ed her curled vigour, he being, when he was bad, very bad: and grace, in its turn, its facred power, he being, when he was good, very good, and then fallings often, 2 Cor. xi. 27.

There duties confift ofan external andcircumftantial part, and internal and fubftantial part.

To the external'and circumftantial part of them belong time, place, and abflinence. _

I. - Firli of all, a Proper time mutt be fet apart for thefe duties. And this is to be regulated by Chrinian pru­dence, as belt fuits the circumstances Of the perfon or fa­mily.

We find the faints, in fcripture, ordinarily kept their rails by day. But we have an initance of a perfonal fall kept by night, 2 Sam. xii. I 6. ' David failed, and went in, and lay all night upon the earth. This I do the ra­ttier notice, to obviate- the excufe of thofe who quite ne­gleti this duty, under the pretence of their not being mar.-tees of their own time. If the heart can be brought t6 it, one will readily find fome time or other for it, either by day, or die by night. It is recorded to the honour of one of the weaker fex, namely Anaa, that the fetved God with failings and prayers night and day,' Luke ii. 36, 37. -

And to the quantity of time to he (pent in perfonal or family fatting and humiliaticn ; the duty, I judge, is to regulate it.; and not it to regulate the duty. The family

of Either with her maidens, obferved alit by all t'

A a

278 Of Friii2g and Humiliation in general. Chap. t.

in Suihao, latted three days, Efther iv. r6. We read of the failing day, Jer. xxxvi. ;6. Sometimes, it would feem, it was but a part of a day, that was fpent in fuch excrcife ; as in Cornelius his perfonal fan, which feemsto have been .over before the ninth hour, that is, before three 'o'clock is the aftern• on ; Aels x. 3o. Four days ago 1 arras falling until ,this hour, tot l at the ainth hour I prayed in my houfe, before which time of the fourth day, Peter, to whom Cornelius faith this, might be come ; there being but 345 miles from Joppa to Cefarea, whither he came on the fecund day af­ter he fet out from Joppa, verfee 23, 24. Compare verfes -8, 9, 47. Much about that time of the day, Daniel got the anfwer of his prayers, made in his perfonal fall, name­ly, about the time of the evening oblation, or the ninth hour, Dan. ix. 2 I. And the people being efembled withfailing, Nth. ix. t. they read in the book of the law, one fourth part of the day, and another fourth part they oonfefed and wor­/hipped, merle 3. So they „continued in the work ftx hours: from mine o'clock in the morning, as it would feem, tin three afternoon : that is, from the time of the morning fa­crifice, to the evening-facritice, with which the work feetns to have been doled, as it may be ptefumed, they fpent the morning in private preparation for the public duty.

Wherefore I judge, that none are to befolicitous, as to ;what quantity of time, more or lefs, they fpend in there exercifes, to that the work of the time be done. Nay, I <very much doubt, men lay a fnare for theinfehtes, in tying themfelves to a certain quantity of time in fuch cafes. It is fufficientto refolve, that according to our ability, we mill take as much time as the work than be found to re. quire.

II. A proper place is alfo. to, be chofen, where the per­fon or family may perform the duty without difturbarme from others. Time and place are natural circannflances of the aelion ; and all places are alike now, under the go­(pel ; none more holy than another. Men may pray every NA here, whether in the houfe or in the field, lifting up ho.

Tim. ii. 8. Only forafmuch as family-fatling is a

duty, it requires a private place; and perfonal faf‑

L.:ret duty, it requires a fccret place ; according to

,*. ..given us by our Saviour, Matth. vi.

Of Fafiing and guiniriatiowita general. 179

tat thou appear not unto men to fear but unto thy Fa. .r which is in fecret.'

IL,- Abltinence is included in the nature of the thing nence from meat and drink, and all bodily pleartires. tfuever, as well as ceafing from worldly Wind's; The are taxed for finding pleafure, and exalting their la. rs in the day of their fifil, Ira. lviii. 3, A time of re. sus fatting, is a time for one's aj fitting his foul, verfe S. lenying himfelf even thofe lawful comforts and delights, eh lie may freely ufe at other times:. Exod..xxxiii• 4.- he people—mourned ; and no man did put on him his *naments.' Dan. ix. 3. fet my face unto the Lord' rod, to leek by prayer, and fupplications, with falling,

fack,cloth, and afhes.' Car evii. s. g' Defraud ye not ne the other, except it be with- confent for a tithe, that e may give yourfelveg to fatting and prayer.'

The rule for abftinence from meat and think cannot be 1 fame auto an:. for fatting, not being a part of were I p, but a means to difpofe and fit ns for extraordinary Irthipping, is to be teed only,as helping thereto ; but it is-lain, that what meafure of it would be helpfulto forne that end,. would' be a great' hilderance to others:. , 'herefore weaklyperfons, whom total ahflinence would ;fit and indifpofe fon duty, are volt called to fall at that to : in their cafe, that laying takes place, Hof. vi. 6. defired mercy, and not faCrifice.' Yet ought they not that cafe, to. indulge themfelves the ufe of meat and ink, with the fame freedom as at other times ; but to e a partiatabitinence, altering the quantity or quality of Lem, or both, fo as they may thereby be afflifled, as the ripture expreffeth it, Lev. xxiii. 29. So Daniel in bis miming, Dan. x. 3. ate no pleafant bread, neither came fiefh nor wine into his mouth.'

Meanwhile, all thefe things are but the outward awn of lefe duties : the internal and fubftantial part of them, es in the following fpiritual exercifes.

r. Serious meditation, and confideration of our ways, lag. i. 5. Such times are to be let apart from converfing vith the world, that we may the more folemnly commune vith our own heart, as to the Date of matters beta

3od and us. In them we are diligently to rev.

A a

282 Of Rifting and Humiliation in general. Chap. r.

thoughts of God, which unbelief fuggeffs to a foul (tong with guilt, alienate the foul more and more from him; they render it like the worm, which when one offers to tread up- on it, prefently contraCts itfelf, and puts itfelf in the heft pollure of defence that it can : but the believing of the proclaimed pardon touches the heart of the rebel fo, that he calls down himfelf at the feet of his fovereign, willing‑

, ly yielding himfelf to his duty.

5. Solemn covenanting with God, entering into, or re. vexing covenar t with Lim in exprefs words. As a faff-day is a day to hole the hands of wickednefi, fo it is a day for coming explicitly into the- bond of the holy covenant, Jer. I. 4. • Going and weeping : they (ball go, and reek 4 the Lord their God ; ver. 5.—Saying, Come, and let us

j )in ourfelves to the Lord, in a perpetual covenant that

(hall not be forgottcn.' Accordingly, this was an emi­nent part of their fail day's wotk, Neh. ix. 3-8. It follows Df courfe, on due humiliation, confeffion and the exercife of repentance, whereby the league with fin is broken. And it lies in a folemn profeffing before the Lord, that we take hold of his covenant, believing on the name of his Son as the Skviour of the world, and our Saviour, and that in and through him he will be our God, and we (hall he -his people : and that we are from the heart content, and confent to take him for our portion, Lord, and Mailer, and refign ourfelves to him only, wholly and for ever: H-eb. viii. to. This is the covenant,—I will be to them

a God, and they (hall be to me a people.' Ifa. xlix. 8. I will give thee for a covenant. Chap. Zvi. 6. Every one that taketh hold of my covenant.' John i. tz. As ma‑

ny as received him,—that believe on his name.' Pfalm

xvi. 2. 0 my foul, thou haft laid -unto the Lord, Thou

art my Lord.' Ifa. xliv. 5. ' One (hall fay, I am the ' Lord's.

6. Laftly, Extraordinary prayer, in importunate adclref­fcs and petitions unto our covenanted God for that which is the particular occafion of our fall. The confeffion and the covenanting are, both of them, to be done prayer.wife as appears from Dan. ix.-4, r5. Neh. ix. 6,-38. But befides, there mull be prayers, fupplications, and petitions made for What the perfon or family bath particularly in

Of Falling and Humiliation ingmirid.

v, in their faft : Pfalm xxxv. z3. When they were ck, my clothing was fackcloth : I humbled my foul ,ith fafting, and my prayer returned unto mine own bo­om.' And, indeed, the great end and defign for which :h fats are to be kept, is, that- thereby the parties may the more ftirred up unto, and fitted for wreftling with od in prayer, anent the cafe which they have particular-at heart. So the Ninevitea having their threatened o. :rthrow at heart, it was ordered, that r man and beaft fhould be covered with fackcloth, and cry mightily unto God,' Jonah iii. 8. that is, that the men fhould cry in raver for pity and fparing : and to the end they might ,e moved to the greater fervency in thefe their praying :ries, it is provided, that they and their beafts too fhould

covered with fackcloth ! and that their •beafte, having fodder and water with-held from them on that occafion, fhould be made to cry for hunger and thirft, even to cry unto God, namely, interpretatively, as the young ravens cry unto him, Job xxxviii. 41. At which rate, the cries of the beans, being mixed with the cries of men, would make the folemnity of that extraordinary mourning very great : and the hearts of men being, every now mid then during that folemnity, pierced with the cries of the barmlefs brutes would be ftirred up to a more earneft, fervent, and impor­tunate pleading with God for mercy.

Thus far of perfonal and family fatting and humiliation, in the general.


Of Perfonal Fafting and Humiliation in particular.


ROM what is Paid it appears, that a perfonal fait is a religious exercife, wherein a particular perfon, hav‑

ing let apart fome time from his ordinary bufincfs in the world, fpends it in fome fecret place by himfelf, in ads of devotion, tending to his humiliation and reformation, and particularly in prayer, with` falling. Concerning the which we (hall confider, ( I.) The divine warrant for it ; (2.) The call to it ; and, (3.) Offer advice how to ma­nage it.


If the divine Warrant for primal Falling:

WOrafmueb as will-worihip is condemned by. the word, r alba that can never be obedience to God;-wherefore his revealed will is•not the reafon and rule ; it concerneth all who would perform this duty in .faith,,fe as to have it accepted of him, to know- who hath. required it at their toads. And to fet that matter in a light faffixient to fa. ufy and bind it. upon the confeience, as a duty owing un•• to God, let thefe few things following be duly weighed.

1. God requires it-in his word ; and that both dire&ly aed

tt it &real,/ required, Jansen iv. 9. Be ejliamland mourn aa ow* It is• plain enough from the context, thole

e are prowled as agreeing to particular perfona in tbeie perfonal capacity. See verfea 8, so. And what it ibtbat a required. of them in thefe -words, could not rails " be 0, plain to thole unto whom they-were originally

mod; to wit, that it. is falling and huiniliation that wag,

by. degp; For this epic le. was written to thole

woe joys by nation, the twelve -hi bee leafleted abroad,

I. And this is-the very language of the Old Tef.

oat cafe, the fame manner of expreflion in which.

;;;;Iets called them to it ; Lev. xxiii. 27. On th4

44, kmenth month, there lhall be a day of alone‑

4„„)! yourfouls ; to suit, with Meng, Ifa.

,; fa'? as I have chofen ? c day for a matt,

• Jr. more agreeable to the original, Shall

_ A # dal of meset4iflitling their.firl•.1iie

lealllts unto me—with fafting, and with ' t

And the mourning required •


s"' Air le weeping, . aathe habit and

vidltnP rom their tears, Gen. xxxvii..

40,4 ' 'ng unto the duty of left.-

he word,. whiChfuppor:
praEtife ; inafmuch as
Now it is intim.

Of the divine Warrant for perfbnal Falling. 285

nt with the holinefs of God, to give direaions for re‑
it ing of vvill.worlhip, which he doth fimply condemn,
tth. xv. 9. Cal. ii. 23. Jer. vii. 31. But our Saviour

direftiona about perfonal fatting, Matth. vi. 16.; yen ye fait, be not as the hypocrites, of a fad countenance e they di ffigure their faces, that they may apear unto men to t. Verily I fay unto you,•they have their reward, verfe . But thou when thou fafteft, anoint thine bead, and wafh face ; ver. 18. That thou appear not unto men to fall, but to thy Father which is in flare::. and thy Father which .th in fearer, shall reward thee openly. And it is evident, at thefe direaions do concern fecret and perfonal fatting: r betides that the text {peaks exprefsly of that which is ane in fecret, and therefore it is to be kept fecret, con. ary to the praaice of the hypocritical Pharifees, who lade it their bufinefs to propale their fecret devotions, the utward figos of fatting are commended in the cafe of pub. is false, Exod. xxxiii: 4. Jonah iii. 8. Joel ii. 15, i 6, 17. n like manner the apottle Paul gives a dire1ion about his duty, i Cor. vii. 5. Defraud ye not one the other, except it be with confent for a time, that ye may give yourfelves to fatting and prayer ;' where the confent men­tioned as neceffary, determines the faking to be perfonal; forafmuch as, in the cafe of public falls, the matter is pre. determined by a fuperior authority, and in the cafe of family fails, it follows of courfe on the, appointment of fuch a fail.

2. It is promifed that the faints (hall perform this duty: Zech. xii. to. I will pour upon the hopfe of David, and

upon the inhabitants of Jerufalem, the fpirit of grace and

of fupplication. ver. 12. And the land (hall mourn, e‑

very family apart,—and their wives apart.' Thus in vir­tue of the grace of the covenant, this duty is made the matter of a promife, even as other duties of holy obedience are. Accordingly our Lord• promifed it, in the cafe of his difciples in particular, Matth. ix. 15. 4 The days will 4 come when the bridegroom fhall.be taken from them,

and then (hall they fall :' to wit, pet fonally : for it was not the neglea of the public fart appointed and hated in the law, Lev. xxiii. 27,-32. that they were taxed for but the negled of perfonal fatting, ufed by the difcl• '

286 Of perfbaat Failing in particular. - Chap. z.

John, upon the OCC11601r of their mailer, the friend of the bridegroom, his being taken from them ; and alfo by the Pharifees, out of their fupetftltioua and vain-glorious dif potation, Matth. ix. 14. with Luke xviii. 1•2.

It is recommended unto' us by the praElice of the faints mentioned in fcripture. 'It was, as we have already ken, praelifed by David, a man according to God's own heart, a Sam. xii. 16. P(al. xxxvl. 13. by Daniel; a mad greatly beloved, Dan; ix. 3. and x. 2, 3. and by the de­vout Centurian, Ails x. 30. It was a frequent exercife of Paul, the laborious apoftk of the Gentiles, 2 Cor. xi. 27. Thefe all bad the fed of God's good pleaftzre with their work fet upon h, in the communion with God allow. ed them therein. And it is our duty to go forth by the footftepe of the flock, following their approved. exestople.

Lafily, That oceafional religious fatting and bud& :pion is a duty required in the word of God, and to be performed by foeieties in public capacity, will not, I wet lomat, be queltioned. Now, upon that ground,. the &It of perfonal falling and humiliation may be thus evinced.

tfi, There is nothing in the nature of religious faitiat and humiliation; that of itfelf is public, or nectffarily re' quiring a pltarality of parfaits to join therein. Thai proach4 ing of the word, and celebration of the favrament do, ii 1 their own nature, require fociety ; and therefore are not to be ufed by a fingle perfon alone in his clofet. But it is not fo in this cafe. One may keep a faft alone, as well as he may pray, read the kriptures, and flog pfalms alone. No*, whatever ordinance God bath appointed, and bath not tied to focieties or affemblies, nor to any cep wilt; n fet of men, they are the duty of every one in particu. , who is capable to perform them.

idly, The ground upon which the duty of fatting and d4undiation is bound on fooieties, in a public capacity, takes lace ' •lie cafe of particular perfana, namely, that extra­(/' ' *es are called for on extraordinary emergent; 17 If than a church or congregation is called humiliation, on fuch occafions in their cafe; ul a rperfon called tothefasoe, on fuch occafions, ' M abounding fin or Judgment threatened revise falcon public!. farting and

Of the divine warrant for perform? Piffling. 287

ation ; do not the fame things, in the cafe of a par. pertfots, call for perfonal fatting and humiliation t every one ought to keep his own vineyard, with the liligence the public vineyard is to be kept ; if one Tot fo, it .will be bitternefs in the end, Cant. 1. 6. Cy, Extraordinary duties to be performed by a whole n, church or congregation, cannot be Coon overtaken ;, lie All great bodies are flow in their motions ; and foam; s the feafon may be over, ere they can move thereto public capacity ; yea, and oft-times God is calling a­, by his providence, for national and congregational ng and humiliation, when the call is not heeded by n, on which it is incumbent to appoint them. Now, it ihould particular perfons, difcerning the call of pro: ence, do in fuch cafes? Mull they fit Rill, and not wer the call 35 they may, becaufe they cannot an­tr it as they would ? Should they not rather keep per. 13.1 and family faits, for there mules, for which others her cannot or will not keep public faits ; as in the cafe God's pleading with the land of Egypt, He ,that feared e word of the Lord, amongft t)e fervants of Pharaoh, ade his fervants and his' Tattle flee into the houfes, Exod.

20. When the Jews were difperfed, fame at them in ne country, come in another, how Chan the land mourn 4a11 they wait until they be gathered together? no, but he land Thall mourn, families apart, and particular perform mart; even as when our neighbour's houfe is on fire, we do not tarry until the whole town or neighbourhood be gathered ; but immediately fall to work ourfelves, to do what lies in our power for quenching the flames.

And thus much hall ftiffice to have fpoken of the di­vine warrant for this extraordinary duty.
Of a providential Call to perfonal Fafling and Humiliation.

THE cafe of the -church,. the cafe of a •neighbour, and one's own private cafe, may, each of them feparately, and much more all'of them •conjunetly, found a provid, till call ta perfonalfafting and humiliation. , The pr

388 Of erfonal Feting in particular. Chap. 2.

Daniel kept a perfonal fart on the church's account, Din. ix. 2, 3. David, on his neighbour's account, Pfal. xxxv, 13. and on his own, 2 Sam. xii. 16.

Zion's children should reckon her intereft theirs : and al fecret perfonal failing for public caufes, argues a truly pub­lic fpirit ; fo it is highly commendable, and being rightly managed, is very acceptable in the fight of God, Dan. ix. 20, 21.

The communion of faints is an article of our creed, and a thing mot& beneficial in the praetice thereof. Confider­ed only in thefe two parts of it, namely, a communion of burdens, Gal. vi. 2. and a communion of prayers, James v. 16. it is one of the belt cordials the travellers towards Zion have by the way. For one to love his neighbour as himfelf, whereof fecret fatting on his account is a good e­vidence, ' is more than all whole burnt•offerings and facri. fives,' Mark xii. 33. And whether it do good to his neighbour, or not, it will not fail, if rightly managed, to return with a plentiful reward into his own bofom, accord. ing to the Pfalmift's experience, Pfalm xxxv. 3.

Howbeit, it is hardly to be expeaed, that one will be brought to the pra&ice of this duty on the account of o­thers, till once he has been engaged therein upon his owa account. But furely, if profeffors of religion were more exercifed about their own fpiritual cafe, this duty of per­fonal failing and humiliation would not be fo rare as it is. Paul, who had much of this kind of exercife, Alts xxiv. 16. was in faftings often, 2 Cor. xi. 27. ' Kept under his body, and brought it into fubjeaion,' t Cor. ix. 27.

Now, any or all of thefe cafes call for this extraordinary duty, in three kinds of events, other circumftances a­greeing, and pointing thereto in the conduft of provi. dence.

Either, 1. When there is any fpecial evil aaually lying upon us, the church, or our neighbour, in whom we have a fpecial concern ; whether it be a fulfill or a penal evil. There are fome fins that leave fuch guilt on the confcience, and fuch a defilement on the heart and life, ati call aloud for failing and humiliation, in order to recovery from the 'difmal effeas thereof, James iv. 8. A Cleanfe your hands, ye anners, weeliand purify your hearts, ye double. Minded.

Of a providential Call to perfonal Falling. 289

V• er. 9. Be afilieted and mourn, and weep.' Accordingly the I-fraelites gathered to Mifpeh, being fenfible of the a­bominable idolatries they had fallen into, rafted that
6 day, and faid, We have finned againft the Lord,' a Sam.


In like manner, when the tokens of God's high dirplea­fure are gone cut in afflieling providences, it is time for us to roll ourfelves in the duff : and fo to accommodate our fpirit and way to the difpenfation, humbling ourfelves be. fore him with rafting. Thus Nehemiah found himfelf cal. led to rifting, upon information received of the continued ruins of Jerufalem, and the affliEtion that the returned cap­tives were in, Neh. i. 3, 4. David, and thofe with him, upon the news of the defeat of Ifrael, and the death of Saul and Jonathan, 2 Sam. i. I 2. and the people, upon the con­iideration of the (laughter which the Benjamites had made among them, Judges xx. z6.

Or, 2. When there is any fpecial ltroke threatened and impending. Thus the inhabitants of Jerufalem, being in imminent danger from their enemies, were, providentially, called to weeping and mourning, though they heeded it not, Ira. xxii. 12, 13. But the Ninevites took fuch an a­larm, and complied with the call of providence, Jonah iii.

So did David, when God firuck his child with lick-- nefs, 2 Sam. xii. 15, 16. Yea, and fo did even Ahaz, when he heard Elijah's heavy meffage againit him and his bode,

Kings xxi. 27. When the lion roars, it becomes us to fear ; when God's hand is lifted up, and he appears to be about to flrike, it is high time for us to (trip our­felves of our ornaments, and to lie in fackcloth and allies.

Or elle, 3. When there is finite fpecial mercy and fa­vour to be dared of the Lord, as was the return of the Babylonifh captivity, for which Daniel kept his raft, Dan. ix. 1, 2, 3. Chriftians exercifed unto godlinefs, will rare­ly, if ever, want their particular fuits, and fpecial errands unto the throne of grace. The fame God, who makes' fome mercies fall into the lap of others, without their be­ing at much pains about them, will give• his own children many an errand unto himfelf for them, ere they obtain them, becaufe they mull have them in the way of the covenant ;

Of perfonal Puffing in particular.290

Chap: 2.

whereas they come to others only in the way of common providence, in which a blafting curie may come along with the mercy.

To fet this matter in a yet clearer light, we (hall exem­plify thefe general heads, in one's own private cafe ; and that in feveral inftances, to be accommodate to the cafe of the church, and of our neighbour, by thofe who are difpof­ed religioufly to obferve and confider the difpenfations of providence. There is a variety of thefe particular cafes, which, with agreeing circumftances to be difcerned by, each one foi himfelf, call for perfonal fatting and humilia­tion : As, a. When through a long tray of finning and carders walking, the cafe of one's foul is left quite in.diforder and confufion ; Ifa. xxxii. Tremble ye women that are at eafe: be troubled, ye carelefs ones: !trip ye and make 4 ye bare, and gird fackcloth upon your loins.' Certain­ly' the voice of God unto fuck is Thus faith the Lord,

Confider your ways,' Hag. i. 5. Want of consideration ruins many. They deal with their fouls, as fome foolifh men .1 with their eftates, running on without confideration, till they have run themfelves aground. But thole who ad­venture In to take a time for finning, have need to take alto a let time for mourning for it is not to be expeaed, that accounts which have been long running on, can be cleared and adjufted with a glance of one's eye. 0 care­lefs timer, confider how matters ftand betwiit God and you : are you in any tolerable cafe for the other world, for death and eternity ? are not matters gone quite to wreck with your fouls ? are_you not pining away in your iniqui­ty ? is not the {fate and condition of your foul like that of the sluggard's vineyard, that was all grown over with 4 thorns, and nettles covered the face thereof, and the !tone wall thereof was broken down ?' Prov. xxiv. 31. 0 let aboot perfonal failing and humiliation. Ordinary pains win not ferve to recover the long- n egleeted garden ; tt muttched, digud deep. A little may help he cfe "reljtimely feen to : but all this will be littlet enough which bath lain fo long negleeted.

4j1Lytten one is under convictions, entertaining Tome v"." • to Te101113. 09 such an occasion was that fart

Of a providential Call to perfonal Fa/ling. 291

Neb. ix. 1, 2. and had very good effeds, verfe 38, x. 2, 28, 29. This method is, in fuch a cafe, a pro-cans to bring men to a point in the matter, and to .eir refolutions, otherwife ready to prove abortive. have convidions, which at times, coming and palling , like a flitch in one's lids, fet them now and then to prayers : but never prevail to bring them to a fettled e of reformation of life : their difeafe is too inveterate, fo eafily carried off. But were they fo wife, as to thefe conviaions a matter of folemn ferioufnefs,

fome time apart on that occafion for perfonal fatting humiliation, they might, through the divine bleffing, to a good account, for the intercll of their fouls. When the confcience is defiled with the guilt of fume :ions fin. Doth naticnal guilt of that kind require

)nal ? and cloth not perfonal guilt of the fame

require perfonal ? Yea, Pure, God calls men, in

cafe, to be afflided, and Mourn, and weep, James iv. 8, Strong difeafes require ftrong remedies; and confcience. .ing guilt, deep humiliation, as in David's cafe, Plain Lnd Peter's, Matth. xxvi. 75. This kind of guilt, deep: vounding and flinging the foul, defiling and wafting the fcience, may be without any fcandalous enormities of , appearing to the view of the world. God is witnefs keret fins, even to the fins of the heart : and men of der confciences will be lick at the heart with fuch fins ire hid from all the world, and will never move others. 4.. When one would fain get over a fnare he is often ight in, and have victory over a lull that has often mar. ed him. There are not a few who have many good no about them, yet lack one thing : and that one thing like to part between heaven and them ; marring all their od things, both by way of evidence and of efficacy, Mark 2t. They know that it is wrong ; they often refolve amend; and they would fain get above it : but when. er a new temptation domes, Satan attacking them on the !ak fide, down go all their refolutions, like a bowing high all, whole breaking cometh fuddenly at an instant ; and Ley are hard and fall in the bare again. 0 confider that is kind goeth not out, but by prayer and fatting, M

21. Set therefore fometime apart for perfor

ad humiliation, on the account of that very


4 and my Lord hath forgotten me.' This is a more hope¬ful cafe than the former: howbeit it goes to the quick, Prov. xviii. 14. 1 The fpirit of a man will fuflain his in! 6 firmity ; but a wounded fpirit who can bear ?There are many bitter ingredients in it which make it a forrow¬ful cafe, exquifitely painful to the fouls like that of a 6 woman forfaken, and glieved in fpirit, even a wife of

youth,' IN. liv. 6. To one thus deferted, wrath ap¬pears in the face of God, and impreffed on every difpen¬ration, Pfalm lxxxviii. 7, 8. To his fen(e and feeling, his prayer is Phut out, Lam. iii. 8. and flafhes of hell come into his foul, Pfalm lxxxviii. 15, 16. Under the preffure herzof, Tome very grave and folid perfons have not been able to contain themfelves, Job xxx. 28. 1-went mourn

ing without the fun : I flood np, and I cried in the'con. 6 gregation.' This fmarting defertion, in greater or teller meafure, has often been the fearful outgoing from the dead defertion, as it was in the experience of the fpoufe, Cant. v. 3,-7. And it is a loud call to perfonal fading and humiliation, Matth. ix. 15. ' When the bridegroom

Mall be taken from them, then (hall they fall.'

7. When one is preffed with fame outward affliaion, whether in his body, relations, name, fulaftance, or other-wife. In fnch a cafe, Job rent his mantle, and fhaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worfhip.

ped,' Job i. 20. and ' David's knees were weak througii

falling,' Pfalm cix. 24. A time of affliEtion is a fpecia/

feafon for fading and prayer. The Lord often lays af¬fliaion on his people, on purpofe to awaken them to their duty, and as it were to neceflitate them to it : even as Abfalom, who, having in vain tent once and again Le ;Pah, obliged him at length to come unto him, by caufing fet his corn-field on fire. This is the way to get alfliaion fanaified, and in due time removed, James iv. Hum¬ble yourfelves in the fight of the Lord, and he fhell lift

you up. We ought therefore to take heed that we be not of thofe who cry not when he bindeth them ; but that in this cafe we do as Benhadad's fervants, who, upon a fignal defeat of his army, put fackcloth on their loins,

and ropes on their heads, and Went out,' as humble fop.

plicanta, to the king of Ifrael, who had ;mate them, a Kings xx. 3 t.

294 - Ofterfinal Ming in partial*. Chap. 2.

S. When, by the aped of providence, one is threaten. ed with fume fuch affliction. It is an ungracious hard- nefs, not to be affect ed when the Loki is lifting up his band again ft us. He was a man of an excellent fpirit, who faid, My fiefh trembleth for fear of thee, and I am a­fraid of thy judgments,' Pfahn exix. x 20. Though he was an hero that feare3 the face of no man, he laid afide that bravery of fpirit when he had to do with his God. Wherefore, when the Lord was threatening the removal of a child of his by death, though the continuing of that child iu life would have been a falling memorial of his re. - proach, yet the impreffron of the Lord's anger on that threatening difpenfation, moved him to betake himfelf to perfonal falling and humiliation before the Lord, for the life of that child, 2 Sam. xii. 16, 22 .

9. When one would have light and dire&ion in Tome , particular matter of fpecial weight. It is much to be la­mented, that mew profeffing the belief of a-divine provi­dence in human affairs, fhould, in confidence of their own wifclons, take the weight of their matters on themfelves, without acknowledging God in them ; aiming only to pleafe thcnifelves therein, and their God : as if their-fan­-cy, conveniency, or advantage, and not their confcience, were concerned in their determinations and refolvea. Hence it is, that wife men are often left to lignal blunders in conduct, and feel marks of God's indignation juftly impreffed on their rafh determinations. Thus jolhua and the princes of Ifrael, in the matter of the league with the Gibeonitea, finding no need of the exercife of their faith, but of their wit, vainly imagining they could fee well en­ough with their own eyes, took of their victuals, and • Mixed not -counfel at the month of the Lord,' and were egregioufly over-reached by them, as they faw afterward, when it was too-late, Path. ix: 4,-22.

W; have a divine command and promife, extending to our temporal, as well as to our fpiritual concerns ; and very fuitable to the neceffary dependauce we have on God in all things, as creatures on their Creator, iii. 5. 'Lean not unto thine own underflanding. Vale 6. In all 'thy ways acknowledge him, and he thall dire& thy paths.' We ought therefore, in all our matters, to eye him as our

Of a providential' Call tooperfonal Ferns. 291

direaor ; and flees our whole courfc, as he direas by his word and providence. Since he bath laid, 4 I will teach thee in the way wisich thou {halt go : I will guide g thee with mine eye,' Pfalm xxxii 8. it is ungueftionably our duty to fet the Lord always before us, Pfal. xvi. 8. to regulate our acing, and ceafing from anion, by the divine direaion ; even as the Ifraelites in the wildernefs removed and.refted, juft as the pillar of cloud and fire removed or refted before them, Num. ix.,15,-23.

Sometimes indeed an affair may be in, fuch a fituation, as allows not an opportunity of making an addrefa unto God, for light in it, by folemn prayer: but we are never focircura­ftanced, but we have accels to lift up our eyes to the holy 0. rack, in a devout ejaculation; as Nehemiah did in fuch a fr­tuation, Neb. ii. 4, 5. And there is a prom ife;relative to that .cafe, which has been often verified, in the comfortable experi­ence of the faints taking that method to obtain the divine direaion, Prov. iv. 52. When thou runneft thou fhalt g not Rumble.' But Chriftians Ihould accuftom them-revels to lay their matters before the Lord in folemo pray­er, for light and direaion therein, as far as circomitanees do permit. So did Abraham's pious fervant with the affair his wafter had committed to him, Gen. xxiv. 121 I 3, 14. And accordingly he had a pleafureabk experi­ence of the accomplifhment of the promife relative to that cafe ; Prov. iv. Ia. g When thou goeft, thy Reps (hail 6 not be ftraitened.' And where they me to be deter­mined in a matter of fpecial weight, fuch as the change of .their lot, the choice of an employment, Come momentona undertaking, or any the like occurrences in life, whereof ferinus Chriftians will find not a few, allowing them time and opportunity to deliberate on them : that is a fpecial occafion for extraordinary prayer with lifting, for light from the Lord, the Father of lights, to difcover what is their duty therein, and what he is calling them to in the matter. So the captives returning from Babylon with Ezra, kept a fait at the river Ahava, to leek of God a right way, Ezra viii. 21.

so, When duty being cleared in a matter of fpecial weight, it cower to the letting to ; in which event oat

296 Of perAnal Fein: in particular. Chap. z.

needs the prefence of God with him therein, the divine bleffing upon it, and fuccefs in it. Thus Either being to 4 go in unto the king, to make revel/ for her people,' there was a folemn failing, on that occafion, ufed by hee and the Jews in Shulhan, Eilh. iv. 8,— t6., w

And _Bar- nabas and Saul being called of God unto a fpecial work, were not fent away to it, but after failing and prayer', Ails xiii.- 2, 3.- We need not only light from the Lord to difcover unto us our duty in particular cafes ;•but that being obtiined, we need alfo his prefence to go along with us in the thing, that we may be enabled rightly to make our way, in which he bids us go. Therefore laid Mofes, Elrod. xxxiii. 15. If thy prefence go not with me, carry us not up hence.' Sin hath defiled everything to us : and however pronging any worldly {late, condition, or thing' whatfoever, may appear in our eyes • yet iF we have not the prefence of God in it, and his bleffing upon it, to purify it unto ns, we will be mired in it, and find a fnare and a trap, if not a eerie, therein to us.

- it. When one having fome unordinary difficulty to encounter, is in hazard of being infnared either into fin or danger. On filch an oscalion was the forementioned fait at Shuilson-kept : Either jeoparding her life, in going

in unto the-king in the inner court,' not called by him, Eftb. The {hip has need to be well bolt lanced, that fails while the wind- blows high : and in a difficult and ignoring time, there is need of failing and -prayer for Heaven's fafe•conduet through it. Men's trailing to themfelves in fueh a cafe, cannot mils of be­traying them into fnares.

Laft6, When one bath is view Come fpecial folemn approach unto nod ; in which cafe a fpecial preparation is requifite. Thus Jacob called his family to fuch prepa­ration, in the exercife of repentance, in 'order to their ap. peering before the Lord at Bethel, Gen. xxxv. 2, s.

- The Ifraelitea were called to the fame, in order to the awful folemaity of, the giving of the law on mount Sinai, Exod.. xix. 10, 1 And it is obfervable, that, Whereas the fee& of tabernacles was the rnoft joyful of all be katis the Jews had throughout the year, a folemo faft was appointed by God to be obferved always before it,

Of a providential Call to perfonal 297

free days only intervening, Lev. xxiii. 27,-34. For, e method of grace, none !land fo fair for lifting up, ofe who are molt deeply, humbled, Ha. xl. 4. Luke 14. James iv. to. Wherefore it is a laudable prac. .1 our church, that congregatiorii keep a congregations. lit, before the celebration of the feaft of the facra. : of the Lord's Supper, among them, in order to preparation for a folemn approach unto God in that ordinance. And for the fame reafon, fecret falling articular perfons apart, and private falling by fami,. 'part, efpecially fuch as have not accefa to join in the is fall, would be very feafonable on fuch an occafion. 1 if thofe fe&et and private fails could more generally in, and get place in congregations, fome little time be. the communion work did begin, it would be a token ;00d, and might prove like the noife and ihaking a. g the dry bones, that inhered in the breathing on the , and the canting them to fraud up upon their feet, k. xxxvii. 7,10.

'hefe things duly confidered, each Chriftian may be in 'e to judge for himfelf, when it is that he is untie; a ideutial call to perfonal fatting and humiliation.
Direaions anent perfonal Falling and Humiliation-

r AviNG Peen the divine warrant for perfonal falling L and humiliation, and confidered the nature of apro.. ntial call to that extraordinary duty, it remains to of. ome, advices or direEtions for ate profitable managing in, praElice.


Men you find that the Lord is calling you to this de-prudently make choice of a fit, time and place for it a. hand, wherein you may have accefa to go about it out diftraaion. And carefully difpofe of your ordi.

affairs before that time, fo as you may have no let nor erance from that part, which you can prevent. Works eceflity and mercy, which are lawfully done on d's day, are much more fo in this cafe, wher'

298 Of perform! Falling in parikular. Chap. 2,

duty waits not the time, but the time on the duty. Yea, in cafe fomethinguf worldly bufinefs, which you could not forefee nor prevent, do fall out in the time of your fall; ind cannot be deferied or put off without fame notable in­conveniency, you may, without fcruple, difpatch it : for the time is not holy. But, in that cafe, labour that, if poffible, your work be not thereby marred ; and carefully keep up your frame of fpirit for the duty you are engaged in. But Chriftian prudence to weigh circumflances, for Which you are to look up unto the Lord, is neceffary to determine herein, according to the general rules of the word, Matth. xii. 3,-7.

As for fuch as are not mailers of their time, which is the cafe of fervants, they cannot lawfully difpofe of their time it their own hand, even for this duty: for our God • hates robbery for burnt-offerings,' Ifa. lxi. 8. But then they may endeavour to procure the neceffary time, at the hand of their mailer; to whom, if they be godly and feri­ous,they may modeftly hint their defign ; pitchingon a time with fo much difcretion, as that their good may not be e­Vilfpcken of. And if any be fo unmindful of their Mar­ter which is in heaven, as to refufe fuch a difcreet defire; yet let not the party-by any means think, that the facred nature of the thing he has in view, gives him a power to rob his mailer of fo much of his time : for men can offer nothing to God, with a good confcience, but what is their own ; and exercifes of devotion are fo far frOm clacking the tie of moral duty to our neighbour, that they:are nothing but an outward form of devotion, unacceptable to God, fo far as they do not influence the party to a careful and re. ligious obfervance of the duties of morality, fuch as judg­ment or jullice, mercy, and faith or faithfulnefs, Matth. xxiii. 23. Neither yet let him imagine, on the other hand, that he is then no further concerned to look after that extraordinary duty: for no reafon can be afligned, why one ought not to be willing to be at as much pains or ex, pence, for procuring to himfelf an opportunity of commu: nion with God in that duty, as he will be for an opportu­nity of attending fame worldly bufinefs Of his own, placing another in his room. But if none of thefe can effeetuate it ; then though the day or time of labouring is the maf­ter's, yet the night or time of refting is the fervast's; let

Direaions anent perfonal Feting. 290

e unto God what he has, and, it (hall be accepted ;h Chrift. But excepting the cafe of a providential ty obliging one to take the night for this exercire, y is, generally fpeaking, the moft proper time for it, ling the exercife in the morning.

,ke fome preparation for it the night before, turning thoughts towards the exercife you Save in view, con­ig it, and avoiding every thing that hath a tendency ;fit or indifpofe for it. Shun carnal mirth, and fen-lelights : fup fparingly ; to eat the more, that one is

religioufly after, is to mock God, and cheat one's In the intervals of fleep, take heed that your thoughts nt in vain, and much more that they be not vile : but they be fuch as tend to fit you for the extraordinary in view.

ife early in the morning, even fooner than ordinary, fs by reafon of bodily weaknefs, that would tend to dif­ou for the work: for then you are called, in a fpecial ner to watch unto prayer,' Eph. vi. 28. Sleep is a ly comfort, which howbeit it is neceffary, yet one is in cafe called to be (paring of. Therefore the priefis e bid lie all night in fackcloth, Joel i.13. and it is record-,f Ahab, that be in his fait lay fo, t Kings Kai. 27. a ?er means to make one fleep sparingly.

foon as you awake in the morning, let holy thoughts, h a view to this work, imthediately have accefs ) your heart. And bewareithat carnal or worldly ughts get not the flan of them ; for, if you allow that, y will be to your foul like water poured upon firewood, t makes it hard to kindle. Surely, if one is at any time follow the example of the Pfalmift David, Pfal. cxxxix. . When I awake, ram Dill with thee,' he is to do it fuch a time.

Let your ordinary duties of praying and readin‑

Of primal Fofiag Air partial's?. Chap. 2.

word, be firft of all performed : for extraordinary duties are not to joint out the ordinary, but to be fuperadded un­to them. And, in fuch prayers beg of God grace to ena­ble you For the work before you, according to his promife. Yea, it may be very expedient, that thereafter you go unto God again by prayer, particularly and purpofedly for his grace to enable you unto the duty now come to the letting to. And forafmoch as our corrupt hearts are, upon a near view of a difficult and laborious holy exercife, very apt to wax faint, and our hands to bang down: albeit g the way g of the Lord is declared to be ftrength to the upright,' Pray. x. 29. do you therefore, by all means, *Judy to ex­ercife faith: and labour to believe ftedfaftly, that his grace Lhall be fufficieot for you, to the making of his yoke eafy. and his burden light unto you, 2 Cor. xii. 9. with Matti). xi. 30. For no man than ever be able to perform a duty acceptably unto God, without a believing perfuafion, in greater or leffer meafure, of an allowance made him of grace fufficient for an acceptable performance of it, 2 Cor. iii. 4, g. Phil. ii. 12, 13. One will otherwife be but a wicked and flothful fervant, as our Saviour teacheth, Matt. xxv. 24, 25, 26.

After prayer in faith, for the aid of divine grace, as is the preceding dire&ion, begin the work with a folemn re­view of your fits, in deep meditation, and ferioua commun­ing with your own heart thereupon : applying youtfelf to think of them in fuch a manner as you think of your affairs, when confidering how to manage them in cafes-of difficul­ty. God calls for this at your band, Hag. i. 5. 6 Thus faith the Lord of boas, Confider your ways.' Lam. iii. 40. Let us fearch and try our ways, and turn again to

the Lord.' It is recommended unto us by the prat:Hee of the faints, Pfal. lxxvii. 6. ' I communed with mine heart, and my fpirit made diligent fearch; and cxix. 59 thought on my ways, and turned my feet unto thy testimonies.' The nature of a religious fart requires it: how can the deep humiliation thereia to be aimed at,
utl erwife obtained ? or what way elk can one be, fttted
a confeffion fuitable to fuch an occafion? it is ob‑

PireSions anent perfinal Fajling, 3©r

tervable, that in the fait mentioned, Neh. ix. the reading of the law went before the making of the confeffion, ierfe A. So the fitit work was to fet the looking-glafs before their eyes, that therein every one'might fee his foul face. And. the dire&ion givep to fallen Ifrael, in order to a recovery, Hof. xiv. 2. 4 Take then with you words, and fay,' &c. cloth plainly hear, that there fhould, in that cafe, be folemn feri­ous thinking beforefolemn prayer.

Now, to affift you in thepra&ice of this part of your work, the following advices are offered.

Fit-ft, Read forne pertinent paffage of holy fcripture ; and that with application, as reading your own heart and life therein. Such are thole paffages, which contain dif­coveries and confeffion of fin, as Ifa. fix. or lifts of fins, re of feveral forts of sinners, as Rom. •i. 29,-32. 2 Con vi. 9, to. Gal. v• ,19, 20, 21; 2 Tim. iii, r,-5. Rev. xxi. 8. Particularly, I recommend for this pQrpofe, Ezra'ix. Neh. ix. Dan. ix. Of. *have_ or other .fcriptures of the like nature, you may read fuch as you (hall judge meet.

Secondly, It will be expedient and ufeful, in this cafe, to read alfo the Larger Catechifm on the Ten Commands, in the anfwers to the quellions, What is required ? and What • is forbidden? and efpecially the latter. For by reading thereof with application to yourfelf, you will find out your giiiltinefi io many points, which perhaps would_not other. wife cotne.into your mind.

Thirdlj,this done, apply yourfelf to ;pink of your fins, in order to, your getting a broad and humbling view of youflinful and wretched cafe. And for your,help herein, 1 fuggeff to Touthefe things following.

r. You may, cAmppfe yourfelf what way you find, by -experience, to he,14,for keeping the mind fixed. It is a piece of Chris an prudence _in this cafe,.to difpofe of every thing fo, as you may the more readily reach that end, and block up the avenues by which impertinent thoughts may make their entrance. As, ( a.) Becaufe the eyes often be- • tray the heart, through a variety of obje&s, which prefent • themfelves to one's view in the light: if you are in a houfe you may darken it by iloPpiog the light : if ih the fields, you may lie down.upon your face, and dole your eyes. (2.) If you can by no means keep your heart at timple think‑

of perfoad FOR: iorpart'sc. ular. Clap. 1. 51:

yourttlf with a low voice, that wards il)(...reu may (peak to iprotiethe a mind unto the thing. Thete are. tna pri 0,30)621 advices, which they that heed may oft, they ir that need not may let alone.

2. it will be very profitable to obferve force method and _..er, in thinking of our fins. A confufed and iocletermi.

7...em uuner of thinking of our fins, doth, in feveral rt. ort of an orderly thought about them. It is t1;e, as, fali ;b %Alen carrying Spirit of the Lord is cing on a fpecial work of convielion in the heart of a finner, the mares fins will of courfe, bt readily laid to hand, and fet in order briv: i, ves Pfal. 1. ft. But it is another cafe, where one , fearching out his fins, with an ordinary aferaniice oft. Spirit: herein thole do not duly confalt their own intern who refute the help of method in the fearch.

And there is a twofold method or order, which may, lio, helpful order therein ; to wit, the order of the tim.i) and the order

Ii. Reatbd of the ten commanJments. Both thefe t• natural, and ea fy Thinking on your fine, to the meancli capacity. in theo al viewr 019ff tyteu rt iomtve own !todna g : your whole And in t' life, you will thereby g ) Think, what a finful lump thou wait in th the foie of the pit whence ye are ti. ore t° method, vide, and that through 0 e ife. ifi; Von are ro con itapen in inty, conceived in fin, Pf 1 ' }oak tom the rock whence confider the fin of yyou areht v . igged,' Ifa I" thy c°ncept i0/7 an: 1.77, and . 1. S our. nature. l' thou camed iato the world, with cords f a .'

5. Hol birth, J. guilt w binding thee over to vvratiao i}tder tliecur ink; at tipped naked of original righteoufnefs about thy neck, b the very reverie f _ , t iy wilt& nature ,,,,,lit thy foul in all its faculties!

Acolti A es qronuite paverted, re toady nature at' o the holy ,,,,ivegr tcd, being .ntos, ht he &ft ' ts oceation its wrong get, namely a Fa. rc- t", and an averfian to good ; and thy body in orr, finful fiefh. In confederation whereof thou 41 Sri.y, with admiration of the divine patience, 1 , he knees prevent me! Or why the breads foal' n your thoughts to the fins of your child.

b4 hit penitentials tells us, that,' childhood

DireMons anent perfonal Fafing. 303

d youth are vanity,' Ecclef. xi. to. Truly, the fins of t early period of our life, are not to be remembered to laughed at, but mourned over ! and fo they will be by e penitents : for they are the early fproutings and buds corrupt nature that might have been fatal to tir; ere we 3 gone further: Behold, how in that period thou haft poken and done evil things as thou couldit.' It is like-that many of thefe things are forgotten: but yet you fearch out as many of them, as may be matter of op humiliation unto you before the Lord. There may fins of childhood, that will make a bleeding wound in a -acioua heart, on every remembrance thereof, even unto dying day.

idly, Then take a view of the fins of your youth. Job of a moving view of his, when he was come to a good age, xiii. 26. Thou write:ft bitter things againfl me, and make me to pilfefc the iniquities of my youth. David's heart aleeds at the remembrance of his, crying unto God, Re­member not the ins of my youth, Pfalm xxv. 7. Youth is vain, rafh and inconfiderate ; and therefore a dangerous period of life, precipitating fume into fuch fteps as make them to halt all their life after, proving-fatal to, many, and laying up matter of repentance to all. And if the follies of it be not timely repented of, and mourned over by the • !inner, they 'hall lie down with him in the dull, Jab xx. 41. and prefent thernfelves again in ,full tale,,w hen for all theft God will bring him into judgment, Ecclef. xi. 9. Therefore do you take a mournful view of them, and judge yourfebtes in time.

4thly, If you are come to middle age, proceed' to the fearching out of the fins of that period of your life: Io it you cannot mils of matter of deep humiliation : for man at his heft eftate is altogether vanity, Pfalm xxxix. 5'. Every period of life is attended with its proper fnares and temp­tations. And he who, right or wrong, bath made his way Through thole F,f youth, doth,but enter into a new throng of temptations of another kind,,whae he enters on the neat gate of life.: in the which men often, ere they-are aware, pierce themfelver through with many forrows, lifethemfelves in a cloud of rare: and bufineft ; and, troubled about ma, things, forget the one thing needful.

304 of perjUnol Fo/ling in particular. Chap.

Lafily, If you are advanced Into old age, go forward and view your tins in that period. Whatever infirmities do at­tend it, the fins of it muff be fearched out, and repented of too : for it will oot excufe a man, before a holy God, That he is an aged firmer. The corruption of nature, the longer it hath kept its ground, is the more hateful, and will be the more humbling to a gracious foul.

Thus you will have your whole life before you in parcels. And that you may, with the greater difiinauefa, review any period thereof, which you have fully paft, or of which you have pail a great part ; you may dittinguifh the fame into feller periods, according to the more notable crew., turns, or changes that were iu it, and review them feparAte­ly ; as for irsitance, the time befrre you went to fehool, by felf ; the tone of your being at it, by Web ; and ft, its o­t;rer cafe..

But lot a more full and particular view of your fins, do von proceed in the order of the ten commandments. The holy law, confidcred in its fpirituality and van extent, is the proper means for found conviaion: it is the finner's looking leafs, whereby to difcern the raft multitude of his ipots and defilements, in order to his huthiliation, Rom. vii. 7. 1 bud nut luovva.fitt, but by the law : fort bad not known loft, except the law bad fail, Thou lbah not covet. Where­fore by uo means neglea, in this review, to go through the -ten commandments; and 'pale upon every one of them, 'cottlidering the 'duties required therein, arid wherein you ,bave been guilty of oiniffion of them ; and dt fins forbid­den therein, and wherein you have been guilty by commif­fion ofthem ; guilty iu both kinds, in thought, word, and deed. This would be a proper means to Phew you the _multitude of your tratifgreflions.

But to proceed in both the ode and the other order joint­ly, namely, by reviewing each period of your life fepamte­-Ay, in the r.irder of the ten commandments, would, through the divine bleffing, be of the molt fingular ufe for reaching .tbe molt humbling view of your whole life.

Thus far of the fecond thing 'fuggelled for your help to think of your furs, in order to a humbling view of your cafe. . 41nd For your further help therein,

3. Be Cure that in a fgecial, manner you let before your

Dix Mons anent perfonal 305

s the Signal mifcarriages of your life, thole fins that have
a nded your eonfcience deepell. I doubt there are but

if any, of a tender confcience, who fee not fome fuch to -in their efcutcheon ; fome remarkable trefpaffes in trt or life, that are ready to gall them on every rernern­ince ;- though perhaps known unto none but God did trafelves. _ Good Eli had fuch a blot on him, pointed

t to him under the name of The iniquity which he. znoweth,' Sam. iii. 13. And the belt of the faints entioncd in fcriphire, had fomething of that nature to amble them. Now, as ever you would be duly humbled your exercife of perfonal fatting, let there, in your re­ew of your fins, be brought forth by head mark; and fee .fore, you in the fight of a holy God: and that, although ley be freely pardoned unto you long. ago ; for the view there is xpott likely to afilitt you ; and pardoned (anal. lafmuch as they are pardoned, are humbling in the remem.- rance of them, Luke viii. 37, 38, 47• as Paul's par lotted blaipherny -and perfecurion were to him,. 1. Tim,- . 1 3,

4. In thinking on your fins, take along with you the aggravations of them. Reprefent to yourfelf the infinite Majefty of Gad, againft .whom you have finned; and as ever you would be duly -humbled,. entertain high and ele, voted thoughts of the Lord our Lawgiver, This will make you fay with David, Pfalm li. 4. Againtt thee,,

thee only have I tinned, and done this evil in thy fight ;'' underhoding by your own experience what he meant there... by. In your meditation, fet God's way of dealing with, you, all along from your very birth, over againd your way of dealing with him :. fo shall conviction be brought home­on.your conicience,with a peculiar edge ; while, confider-- ing the mercies be huh heaped'on you,the light and warn.- ings-he bath afforded you, your guilt-will-appear of a deep.. eft dye..

5. Having thus Peen your extreme finfulnefs,, confider-' in the next place the jail demerit of your fin, even God's, wrath• and curie, both in this life and' that which is to' some. For becaufe of there things cometh the wrath, I of Cod upon the children of difobedience,' Eph. v. 6, The law is a looking-glafs for finners, uot only, in ity

306 Of prtfonal Failins in particular: • Chap.

mands, but alfo in its threatenings and curie ; (hewing unto all their curfrd Rate by nature ; to unbelievers,. what they are aetually lying under for their fins, and to believers, what theirs do dderve. Andtherefore, after ye have, as before¬r."reEted, pile through all the ten commandments,,for your conviElion and humiliation ; do you, for your further hit. let your eyes upon the threatenings and. Curie of that holy Law 26 a covenant of works;. and fee therein your jolt &fel ving, In as that God may be jullified when he fpeaketh againft you, and clear whet; he judgeth,?- Pfalm Ii, 4. And think with thyfelf; how thou fhouldeft, without peradventure, eternally perith under his wrath, if-he fhould proceed again ft thee according to law and ju a ice : as he bath a 1ually proceeded againft many, for thole verj fins wherewith thou art chargeable.

6. In this revievri of your fins, endeavour all along that your eye may affect your heart. lu vain will you rake in to that dunghill, if fuitable affediona or emotions of heart be not thereby excited in you. And there fuitable affecttions are,. ( L.) Hatred, deteaation, and abhorrence of fin,. Pfalm cxtx. 1 2d. Rom. xii. 9. Wherefore pull the rue& from ofrit, remove the paint and varniflithavhas been laid over it, that, you may fee it in its native deformity ; and. look on. it- untiryour stomach turn on.the fometimes fiveet rnorfel. (.2.) Giiefand forrow of heart for it,,Pfalm.xxxviiii 8. Let your heart be rent, in confideration of the offence thereby given to a,gracions God, its contrariety to his holy nature and will„its. difhonouring of his Son who gave himfelf a facrifice for fin, and grievin&of his Spirit who: fanEtifieS-us. (3, ),Ei Yy ihanit upon the account of it, jet: xixi. 19: &lad it as a filthy thing,. the very rererfe of the beauty of holinefs,the holinefit Of God expreffed in his law ; and be confounded at, the fight.. ' Behold it as a bare, requital of divine favour, and btufh before him.. (4.). Self.: Ezek. xxxvi. 31. Purfue the thought .of the fit; thine fs4of your firr, till you lothe yourfell in your own fight as rendered" unclean all-over,, by abominations of:heart and 1:fe. ; 5. IA Tangingto be rid of fin, the .guitt,defilementi. prevailing, and indwelling of it.' .tovVell on the thought of your finfulnefs, till your heart, pained and burdened there. with, groan-taut longing &fires of deliveraoce,, as R:ost; sa.

e terfonal Fafiing. 309

but yet is never a whit the ti. ,f,... O ,:aufefling his fins with a

.urk : your heart —.ay to milgive you in it

.) 114 and turn afide : therefore prefs forward in it, fting your eyes every now and ,then to the Lord fox elp.

With this review otyour own fine, let a view'of the pa.. is fins of the church and land wherein you live, be joined 1, In the fame helps, as in your own particular cafe, which ,cd not be here repeated. .

And in relation to this, I, fubjoin only three advises. i. • Begin always with your own fins ; even though the ;cc:pal caufe of your fait be the {late of the church or ad. This has been the manlier of the faints c Ifa. vi. 5. Then faid 1, Wo is me, for I am undone, becaufe lam• a man of unclean lipo, and I dwell in the midi} of a peo•

of -unclean lips.' Dan. ix. 20 cAnd whilft I was (peaking, and praying, and confeffing my fin, and the fin of my people Mad.' The reafon hereof is manifeft : r one will never be 'dilly humbled for the fine of o. era, who is not in the fitft place fo humbled for his 7n.

2. Reprefent public fins to yourfrlf, under Each notions may tend to excite fuitable affe6tions and emotions of art in you. Look , on them as they are diftionouring our gracious God, wounding or ruining to the fouls of

r7, chfgraceful to our holy Chriftian profeffion, and r, king God to'wrath againft the land. Hate sr, :m, be &flume& of them, and mourn over them, :owns i and long for the day of purging them

306 Of pifonll :'n Particular. Chap- z

mands, but alfo in its threat, part in them, by all 4fleaps•• all their cmfccl Itate by r. own ecmfcienoe, before the Lord are aEtually lying und, oat of the gnilF thereof you are, theirs do (Verve. ..oreekly, chargeable with is his fight ; (;:reaed, gout tiumbled for the fame.

conriElion ar t .the "Sri"' of fu'.of thxt

yootter this review of your five made,- go unto God by- terayer,and make confe0on of thern.‘ And here, cor4ef, on is to be the _chief part of your prayer : yea, and if the avhok,of it alcooft bc,confi:ffion, it will not be amifs. Cer- tainly extraordinary couftflion of Cm is a great part of the wor.k Al a religious fait, Neb. ix. 3. Dan. ix. 2o. and the fulemn review, in which p.nes fins are fo particularly fearch­ed of nativelv iifues therein.

. For the more .profitable management of ;hip confefara. of fin, the following advices are offered.

1. Take no thought of your .voice, farther than to keep-it from beiog unfeafooably high. For the voice in itfelf is nothing before the heart-fearehiog God, who regards not the found of men's throats, but of their heart and af feaiona. nrtrar aporfkifiperofball wolyhip the Father ix pirit.and in truth: for toe.Father/eleth.tucb Ia worifhip

John iv. 23. But fossetimes there is adeceit in the voice, to the beguiling of ahe foul, as it fared with Ezekiel'i bearers, with the mouth fheiving much love, Eack.

31. And one* by indikoreet management of it, may be fruitlefoly w.ealtened, and disfitterl—for continuing at the work, in As /teed may require. 'rheaffeaions are the belt rulers ,of the waie-e.

a. Endeavour to bring adong. into your eonleffino, carry along, dance affeaioaa and emotions of heart, of which before ; namely, hatred and detefiation of fin,god­ty forrow,,holy theme, felf.lothing, and loafing to be rid' of .fin, .Pfalot 18". I will declare mane iniquity: I

fora for /vim. When the leper was to cry un.. ;leap, ,onelean, hie gloaters were to .be,reat, bis head bare,. god. tibge„w4a to be a covering %Too his---upper lip, Lev, '

45- A -contelnog tongue requires a broken- heart, a: kW; ArAr Wleitg4te4 Ruth a folk of iv.. .A _the man

Diregions anent perfonal Fatting. 309

ble that fweats in foul weather, but yet is never a whit the f Ifter, {hall be an emblem of one confeffing his fins with a hale heart. Yet let pone fenfible of the hardnefs of their heart, he thereby made to Rand aloof from confection, toy­ing, Who will roll away the _gone! Let them go forward, and einy it : let them confefs their hardnefs of heart, and untitnets to make confeffiun; for fo they may find the fione rolled away to their hand.

3. Be as full as you can in your confeffion, laying all your fpiritual fares before the Lord, fo far as y ,u know them. One wound concealed from the phyfician may prove fatal to the patient : and one fin incluffrioufly paffed over in confeffinn may prove fatal to the (inner; for be thot eoveret4 his lot fhall not pr,fper, Prov. xxxvi.i. 13. David was aware of this, Plaim xxxii. 5. I acknowle4ged rnyfin unto thee, and mine iniquity have 1 noi hid. It fared ill with Ananias and Sapphira, for that, in another cafe, they lied unto God, and kept back a part, Afis v. And he is no true penitent, that clefires to hide any fweet model under his tongue, and not willing to take flume to himklf for every know fin.

4.. Be very particular in your confeffion, opening out your fpiritual (ores before the Lord, Pfal. ti. 4. 1 have done this evil in thy fight. JAL vii. 20. I havefiuned,—and thus have 1 done. To confefs the feveral kinds of your fin in general, without defcending to particulars, is too toper-f cial work on fuch an occafion. The particular abotni­'lotions of your heart and life are raifed up in meditation. to be laid before the 'Lord in humble confeffion. I fop­pofe you to be at this work in a fecret place, where you may freely utter before him, what it would not be proper you thould fay in the hearing of others. No doubt, a great deal of freedom may be ufed in fecret prayer, in nar­rating of thoughts and atiions, with the defignation of time, place, ,and.perfonv, fo as may tend to one's deeper humiliation; which would not be to edification in foetal prayer.

Now, in'order to you being the sabre full and particti­lar in your corifeffion; I would recommend the fame met' and order to be obferved therein, as in the review

ins. I believe, that. fo doing, you Will find, the a

310 Of peifonal Fafi .ing particular. Chap. 1-

of it. Go orderly through the feveral periods of your lift, and through all the ten commandmenta,making your cm-region ; where alto you may take in the confeffion of pc­blic fins, always fo as may belt tend to the further hucnili. ation of yourfelf. In a fpecial manner, be very particular n to the fignal mifcarriagts of your life: and aggravate your guilt, acknowledging the aggravating circumgances there of. And unto the confeffi.mo of your known firm, agaiftri all the ten commandments, add a humble acknowledgemeo: of a large void and blank to be left for your unknown fin againfl every one of them ; which you can by no means fil: up, but the all-knowing God can ; for who can underliami his errors ? Prol. six. oz. And confliering the commands of the perfe8 law, as binding you to embrace the gofpel, confers your atrocious guilt in finning againtt the remedy of fin, therein revealed, offered and exhibited unto you.

S. It will be profitable, that all along through year confeffion, you approve of the law as holy juji and good Rom. vii. z. For as black doth beg appear, when fat by white ; In (in appears muff clearly in its native hue, exceed­ing finful, when let over aoit,ft the pure, hay, juft, and good commandment. As for exampk, -who you are to confers your fins again ft the fird commaadolgot, you may fay to this purpofe, Lord, thou commandett spa, (ayiag, 44 Thou fiats have no other, gods before me. I acknowledgt " this thy command is mutt juft and rearm:table ip if and molt .good for me. It was thou alone who made fi me, thou :alonehaft preferved wiser -needed ae. other god trades thee, and nc nq hot thee .could ever do " the part of a god to me—Thoµ,didft magnify thy rich '" grace, in condercending to be in Chrift a •(mod to me, a moll: wretched creature. Neverthelera, over the belly of if this law of love, my duty, and my interefl, I have had if many othergoda before thee : I have let up my curled. r, (elf in thy room and,fleac1,--mlu3e the,vain mintid my-god, ---&c." And Co ip.othRr cafes. -

Lafily, Let your confeffion be doled with 4 fell-cos. nip , rglretoptylogivand a look pi faith.' .pclenin yourfelf, as did the returniag prodigal, Father, I •avefinned againft heaven, and ver. 19. and I Ain 99 gapre woctby tQ be

DA-a:lions anent perfand Pafting. 3 t t

allesithy fun.' As you looked to-the commandments eforei and cunkffed your.fin; fo look now to the threat. flings and curie of the law, and could's your juft deferv. 1T4. • Read there your dcferved doom, and pats fentence­gainft yourfelf. Nothing is more natural, than that now -ott call yourfelf fool and beaft, for that you have follow-d the wild fire of your corrupt inclinations, to the miring, if yourfelf thus in fin and guilt t and have broken over he -hedge, where now you find the ferpent biting you. And' here,

(1.) Confers you deferve no good, but all evil, in time... If the cattle of your fart be fome evil you are at prefent ['flatting under, acknowledge God to be juft, very juft in it. If it is fome ftroke threatened, and hanging over your head, confefs that you well deferve it fhould fall on you in it full weight. Hit is light that you want, confefsyou de­ferve to be left in darkneftt: or whatever be the mercy yott come to make lupplication for, acknowledge from the heart, that you have forfeited it. Surely, in cafe your uncireumcifed heart be humbled, you will accept of the puniffanent of your iniquity,' Lev. xxvi. 4t. And then if your fins have found you out, you will own the procedure again( you to be righteous and holy: if your broken bones intact, you will fay it is jolt : if the Lord }lath turned his farmer- (miles into frowns, mixed your comforts with gall and wormwood', (outing them fo as to fet your teeth on edge, blafted your enjoyments, and fqueezed the Cap out of them, you will after confeflion of fiu, fay, from your %Try heart, My folly males it fo.

(a.) Confefs you deferve eternally to perifh, and that it is of the Lord's mercies you are not confumed,' Lam. ra. that God might in juflice wrap you up in the fil­thy garments of your fin, and call you out of his fight, io­ta the lake burning with fire and .briintIone; as the fitteft place for fuch a finful lump. Acknowledge yourfelf to be, in yourfelf; a wretched creature, jufily under the curie and condemnatory fe.ntence of the law, having nothing to fat for yourfelf, at.the bar ofjuaice, why it may not be fully executed againff you, a felf•condetuned, as. well 39 a laW condenined" finner, Pfalm

Whatever yo— " be in the fight of God, it is altogether kill, that y againft yourfelf be not concluded without this.

312 Ofperfonal Faiting in particular. Chap. 2.

2dly, Be emptied of yourfelf, in humble and hearty ac­knowledgment of utter inability to help-yourfelf. Having taken a view of the load of fin lying upon you, and laid before the Lord the particulars of your burden, with the finking weight thereof, acknowledge that it is quite beyond your power to move it from off you. Say, from the heart,

Lord, here is a load of guilt lying upon me, which by 4‘ no doing or fuffering of mine can be moved ; here 'is a " mighty power of fin I am no more able to grapple with, gr than a little child with a giant ; a dead weight I can no " more remove, than. L can remove• a mountain. If thou 1' leave me under it, as thou jualy may eft, I perifh."

This is true humiliation, where the poor broken tan­ner lies at the Lord's feet, fenfible that he is bound with ten thoufand cords of guilt, but unable to loofe the weak-ell of them ; that his foul is preyed upon, and like to be devoured, by a fwarm of living lulls, yet unable to kill or shake off any of them. If we are duly humbled, our hu­miliation mill be carried thus far ; for it is the ruin of ma­ny, that they fee not theabfolut,e need of the blood of Chrift fur removing of their guilt • and far left the abfolute need of his Spirit, for breakingnf the power of fin in them.

Laftly, Let there be a look of faith out of the low dun­geon ; look unto God in Chrifl, and fay, God be merciful to me alnner, Luke xviii. 13. "Ind turn thou me, and Ilhetll be turned, Jer. xxxi. 18. Tell him, that, fince according to his holy gape], there is yet hope in Mad concerning this thing, you muff and will take the benefit of the gape'. proclamation of grace and mercy, and lay hold of the horns of the altar : and therefore, though your weight be heavier than mountains of brafs, you do, with humble con­fidence at the Father's bidding, lay it wholly over on the blood of his Son, the Lord Jefus Chriff, frulling thereon allenarly for remiffiou of fin, fanaification, and complete falvation.

Now, as to the two direaions 'fait mentioned, I mean not, that what ie propofed in either of them, muff needs Le done all at once, without intermiffion. You may, ufe them, as Iron are beft'able to reach them. 'It is not very likely, that thofe who fpent One fourth part of the day in confeffing and worfhipping, Neh. ix. 3, 42 made but one

Mt-enjoin. anent perfonal Falling. 3 13

confiflion continued without intermiffion. So you may make fuch intermiffion in either or both of them, as you find neceffary. Chriltian prudence mutt direEt in the Matter, to ufe the means, fo as may bell conduce, to the end.

After cOnfeflion of fin, apply yourfelf to the duty of perfonal covenanting, explicit entering into, or renewing covenant with God, by taking hold of God's covenant of grace in exprefs words. That this is a neceffary part of the work of a perfonal fall, may be gathered from Jer. 1. 4. and Neh. ix. 38. both cited before. And it is clear front the nature of the thing ; for to what purpofe thall men lay open their wounds before the Phyfician of fouls, if-they mind not to put themfelves in his hand for cure, in-the way of the covenant ? or how can they pretend to Mourn for fin, if they are not to enter on the way of re­formation ? A time of perfonal fatting is a time for the runaway to return to his duty, and to fet• matters right again, that were put wrong by turning afide from God and his way. And one unwilling to enter into covenant with God, cannot be fincere in his confeffion Of fig and mourning over it, whatever he may pretend.

For the right managing of this duty of perfonal cove­nanting, thefe three following advices are offered.

t. See that you underftand and rightly take up the co­venant, the covenant of grace, together with the way and manner of a tanner's perfonal entering into it, and being inftated in it unto falvation-; the which-are to be learned from the holy fcripture alone, as being revealed in it only. Makes and milapprehenflons of thefe things maybe of very bad confequence in the praelice of this duty : for which caufe men ought earnelily to pray, that God would,. by his own word and Spirit thew them his covenant, ac­cording to the promife, Pfal. xxv. 14.

According to the fcripture, the covenant, namely, the covenant of grace for life and falvation, is not left unto you to make, in whole nor in part, by propofing and con­defcending on the terms thereof, as a part•contr it is made already, completely made and conch'

314 Gf perfonal Fafling in particular. Chap. 2,

the articles thereof, whether conditionary or, prortiffory; and that between God the party•contraElor on Heaven's fide, and Chrift as Mediator and fecond Adam, the party. contraelor on loll man's fide. And it is regillered in the facred records, the holy fcripture. And you are invited unto the fellowfhip of it, Pfal. lxxxix. 3. ' I have made a coverant with my chofen,—David my fervant.' (for. xv. 45. The laft Adam.' t John. i. 3. 4 That which we have Peen and heard, declare we unto you, that ye alto may have fellowlhip with us: and truly our fel‑ 1.,wfhip is with the Father, and with his Son Jefus Chritt.'

The condition of it is, Chrift's fulfilling all righteouf­ncfs in the name of his fpiritual feed, Matth. iii, I 5. 7 hut it Iwo:rah us to fulfil all righteoufnef:r. This righteoufnefs was Rated from the broken covenant of works ; and that in three things, namely perfeEt holinefs of nature, tioliteoufnefs of lift., and fatisfa6lion for fin ; all which Chrilt did fulfil, in his being born perfthly 11,-ly, living per. IL ;11y righteous, and making complete fatisfaEtion by his death and [offerings. And thus the condition of the co-I chant, on which is founded the right and claim to the pro. miles of it, is fulfilled already to your hand.

The promife of it, relpeEling loft (inners, is the promifc of eternal life in its full latitude, comprehending all things urcrffary to make a (inner holy and happy.: that God in thrift will be their God, and they (hall be his people, Tit.i. :. In hope of eternal tif-, which God that cannot lie, prornife,d ',Are the wort./began. Heb. viii. to. This is the ,covenant; will be to them a God, and they flail be to .me a people, Awl it is begun to be fulfilled to all who have taken hold et the and is ready tote ftilfilled unto all, who hold thereof.

'iant is the plan laid by infinite wifdom for the (inners; upon which they may fafely yen,- ' for time and eternity, as upon a bottom , Ifa. Iv. 3. I will male an rverlafiing ( HeL. / will cut to you aneverlafiing covenant,) •• treks of David. t Car. i. 23, 24. We preach the power of God, and the wif4m of God. evict fur repairing the lufs we futlained by

Dirt's'lions anent perfal Fafiing.

Adam's fall, whereby we become unholy and mifet:able, tying in ignorance, which we could not cure ; under guilt and the curie, which we could not remove ; and under - bondage to fin and Satan, which- we could not break, verfe 30. But of him are ye in Chrift jefus, who of God is made -unto us wipont, and righteoufnefs, and fanaification, and re­demption.

. The great defign of it is, to exalt the free grace of God, in the falvation of (inners ; to !hew therein the exceeding riches of his grace to them, in Chri!l. It is a plan laid for cutting off all ground of b 'ailing from the creature ; to make Chrift all, and the creature nothing in its own ialva­t ion, as being indebted to free grace for the whole therm'', Eph. i. 6. To the praifi of the glory of his grace. Chap. ii. 7. That he might Thaw the exceeding riches of his grace, in his kindutfr towards us through Chrtft 7tfis. Ver. 9. Not of works, left any manfiou.id log/i. It is much like unto a contraa of marriage, deviled and drawn by a wealthy and wife phyfician, of his own proper mot ion alone, between himfelf and a plor woman, drOwned in debt, weak and witlefs, and withal over run with Iothfome f ires, render­ing her incapable to do any thing, whether for her own relief, or for his fo.vice ; and this upon a defign to have her wholly indebted to-him for relief, the payment of her. debt, the management of her perfon, and her-recovery for anion and bufinefs.

This covenant is offered and exhibited to you in the gape!, as really as that contra& drawn and figned by the phyfician, would be offered and exhibited to the woman, if he fhould come and prefent it to her, for her acceptance : Rom. x. 6. '.Say not in' thine heart, Who (hall afcend into heaven ? (that is, to bring Chritt down from above :) 4. Ver. 7. Or, Who (hall defcend into the deep ? (that is to bring up Chritt again from the dead.) Ver. 8. But what faith it ? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth ' 4 and in thy heart : that is the word of faith which we preach.' So that the righteoufnefs of Chritt, to wit, the holinefs of nature wherewith he was born, and which he retained unfpotted till death, the righteoufnefs of his life, and his fatisfaaion made by. his fufferings, is in t' word freely offered and exhibited to you, as the f

316 Of perfonal Failing in particular. Chap. 2.

condition of the covenant, being therein revealed ubto faith, Rom. i. t 7. GI-. as alio, the promife of eternal life, as the promife of the covenant to be fulfilled, being therein left you, Heb. iv. a.

Hence it appears, that the duty of perfonal covenanting is much miffaken and mifmanaged, where the party ap­prehending that God, in the word, declares himfelf willing to be his God, upon certain terms to be by him performed, different from accepting God's full and free covenant of promife, does accordingly make a covenant with God, folemnly taking him for his God upon thefe terms; pro. miring and vowing, that if God will be his God, pardon his fine, be at peace with him, and lave his foul, he will, fir his part, be mile of his people, and faithfully ferve him all the days of his life, watching againft all known fin, and performing every known duty. This is kill as if the wo­man in the cafe before put, fhould tell him who offers bet the coctraet, that the is content to take him, for her bd. bane?, upon certain terms ; particularly, that if he will be her huiband, and do'the duty of a hufband fo her, fhe will, for her part, be a faithful, wife to him all the days of her life, doing all that the is able to do for paying of her debt, managing herfelf and his houfehold to. the belt of her &ill, and taking all pains on her fores, to make her lovely in lig eyes : the which being quite contrary to the defigo sad end of that unufual kind of contrafi, which is, to have the wife wholly indebted to the hulband for all, dpth alter the nature of the propofal, and would quite marr the fur­prifing match, which was in a fair way to be carried on. -

But likeas in that cafe nothing remains for the woman to do, to entitle her to the benefit of the contrael, but be­lieving it to be a real and ferious, not a ludicrous deed, to for, her acceptance ; which figning with the hand is ne­becatife her belief of the reality of the offered con­nd to it accordingly, being inward aas of cannot be known among men, but by a proper ;Igo even fo all that remains for you, to inflate •ig,ly in God's covenant of grace, offered and eshi­Air in the gofpel, is to take hold of it, ha.

DireRions anent perfonal Falling. 317

And to the end that, in your aiming to take hold of the ,enant, you may not be at a lofs, fearing that you may Is any part or parts thereof, lying fcattered through bleffed Bible ; know, that Jefus Chrift, the fecond A. n, head of the covenant, is by his Father given for a Tenant to you, Ifa. xlix 8. So that you have the while tenant in him ; and.you take hold of it, by taking hold him offered and exhibited tb you in the free promife of gape].

And this is done by faith, or believing on his name, according to John i. 12. As many as received him, to them rave he power to become the forts of God, even to them hat believe on his name.' Wherefore, by believing on : name of Chrift, we take hold on the covenant, and are fated in it unto falvation. And God hath made believ: ; to be the means of inftating finners perfonally and fay. rly in the covenant, in confonancy with the great thfign end thereof, declared in the word, and of whicff before :. )m. iv. 16. Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by ;race. Chap. iii. 27. 'Where is boafting then ? it is xcluded. By what law ? of works ? Nay ; but by the a w of faith.

Now, to believe on the name of Chrift, is to believe or dit the free promife of the gofpel with application tp urfelf, and accordingly to truft on him as the Saviour of world and your Saviour, in whom God will be your ld, and you fhall.be one of his people, tint° your falva­n from fin and from wrath: Mark i. Believe the gofpel.' Gal. iii. 2. The hearing of faith.' a Their. i.

Our gofpel came not unto you in word only, but alfo n power, and in the Holy Ghoft, and in much affurance.': Cor. ii. 4. demonitration of the Spirit, and of power verse 5: That your faith fhould ftand—in the power of God.' And A&s xvi. Believe on the Lord _
refits Chrift, anchhou (halt be faved.' Pfalm xxxvii. 40. He (hall fave them, becaufe they truit in him- And H.. z. Blefied are all they that ppt their truft in him.' A&s . r r. We believe, that, through the grace of the Lord' Jefus Clirift, we (hall be faved.' This believing, or cre­ting the word, and truiting on the perfon of CI-It '11.

at which of all things is• fartheti removed from the

318 Of perfonal Fafting in particular. Chap. 2.

of a work, according to the fcripture ufe of that word; and therefore is the moft agreeable means of faving entrance into that covenant, which is of faith, that it might be by grace ; not of works, left any man fhould boat}.

A (inner, being by this believing on Chrift united to him as the head of, the covenant, is thereby perfonally en­tered into the covenant ; fo as, in his right, to have a fav­ing intereft in the condition, promife, and privileges there­of, unto his eternal falvation : even as becoming, through natural generation, children of Adam, the head of the co­venant of works, we are perfonally entered into that cove­nant, fo as to be involved in the guilt of the breach of ir, and laid under the curie thereof; Rom. v. 59..For as by nne man's difobedience many were made joiners.: fo by the o­bedience of one flail many be made riskteozgr. John it. 9. I am the floor : by me if any man enter in, be flail L. famed. Eph. iii. 17. That Chrill may dwell in your heart: by faith.

Upon this believing on the name of Chrift, crediting and truffingin manner Paid before, cto neceffarily follow, an ab­folute content to take him for our linfband, Head, and Lord, and God in him for our God ; aq unconditional re­signation of ourfelves unto him, foul, and body, to he his only, wholly and for ever ; with as nnlimited reounciation of all other for him: even as, io the cafe before pot, upon the woman's believing the reality of the offer of the con­traa of marriage between the phyfician and her, anal ac­cordingly, that he will indeed be her hutband, follows her contenting to take him for her hufband, head, and lord, giving up herfelf unto him, and renouncing all other for him, abfolutely, unconditionally, without limitation or re­fervation ; the which the can never do, till once the believe that. And thus, to the word of grace, the covenant of­fered 4 exhibited in the gofpel, I will be t6 them a they (hall be to me a people,' the believing foul as an echo, My beloved is mine, and F am. ii. t6. underflood the 'covenant aright, together
4 manner 9f being perfonally and lovingly amine yourfelf anent it impartially, as. He fure work in this weighty matter.
fe of your need of the covenant, your

Direfiinv #nant ferfenat Ming. 319

4" of itr and the difpoiltion of your bent ttiwaids it. upon thefe beads, pofe yourfelf with theft or the like

a theft' i plard, " t3 my foul, do •1 verily believe, that was loft, ruined, and undone in Adam, by his break­tg the cotenant of Works : and that I have ruined tyfelf more and mote, by my attualtranfgreffionk? Do believe that I am by nature wholly corrupt and finful, verre to g904, prone to evil, and juitly laid under the urfe, hiodiog me over to the revenging wrath of God -)r time and eternity ? 'Am I convinced, that I am ut, erly unable to help myfelf, in whole or in part, out of his golf of fin and ertifery ipto which I am plunged : nd that I muff needs perifb under the guilt, dominion, nd pollotion of my fin, without being juffified or fanc ified, for ever, if I be not relieved by I-haven% own.

" 0 my foul, do I believe, that there is a. cove, Ant of grace, for the relief of loft linnets, eflatilifhed letween God the Father, and his Son Jelin Chrift ay econd Adam, wherein, upon condition of Chrift'a fut. 'Bing all righteouroefs, as a public perfun, is promifed ternal life to them,. that God in Chrift will be their god, and they fhall be his people Do I believe, that his is the plan and device of' Heaven, for life and fat.' ation to loft finners, for making of them holy, and for naking of them happy ? Do I believe, that Jefus Chrift lath, by his holy birth, righteous life, fatisfa&ory death nd !Offerings, performed that condition of the covenant,' nd thereby porchafed and fecured the benefit therein rnmifed, for-poor fionirs? Then, do I indeed believe, hat this covenant, already fulfilled in its condition, and .ertainly to be fulfilled in its promife, is in Chrift crpcifi. d, really offered and exhibited to me in the gofpel: and hat, I am called to the fellowfhip of it in him ? And hen, do I verily believe on the name of Chrift crucified,- ffered and exhibited to me as the great High Prieft; vim, by the farrifice of himfelf, bath made the atone neat, paid the ranfom, and brought in everla fling vigil­eoulnefs for poor linnets? That is to fay, (1.)

rerlit,his word of .grace to me, that he with his

320 Of perfonal Polling in particular. Chap. 2.

a oufnefe will be mine, and, in him, God will be my God, if and I (hall be one of his people. • (2;) And, can I, al u on a fafe h ttom, truft on him as my Saviout, that is 64 him it (hall be fo unto me, to my eternal life and falva. s‘ tion, to the making of me holy and happy?

Finally, " 0 my Elul, how do I like the covenant? Am is I plcafed with the frame of it', whereby Chrift was from lit eternity appointed, not only the Prieft of the covenant, " to fulfil the condition of it, but alfo the Prophet and 44 the King thereof, to adminifier it ' And can I find is a my heart to acquiefce in that device for falvation as al 14 my falvation, and all my defire, for making me holy and 44 happy ? Am I content to take Chrift, the Son of God, it for my only Prieft, Surety, Intereefror, and Redeemer; ", and in him, the Father for my Father, and the Holy a Ghoft for my.San6tifier ; God in Chriff for my God? di Am I willing wholly to refign myfelf, foul and body, to 0 him, to be laved by his blood alone, renouncing all con­e( fidence in my own rightenufnefs, doings, and fufferine 04 Am 1 content to take him for my Head and Hufband? 44 Particularry, Am I content to take him for my alone a Prophet, Oracle, and Guide : to refign, and give up “ myfelf wholly to him; to be taught, guided, and &tea­" ed in all things, by his word and Spirit, renouncing t' mine own witdom, and the wifdom of this world ? Am 44 I content to take him for my alone King and Lord: K to refign myfelf wholly, foul and body, unto him, to be a refcued by his power, from fin, death, the devil, and " this preient evil world, for to ferve him for ever, and to " be ruled by the will of his command, as to my duty, 44 and the will of his providence, as to try lot ? And am I c heartily content to part with, and renounce every known a fin, and particularly that which molt eafily befets me ; a together with my own foolifh will, and all other lords

l'Oldes him ; without refervation,' and without excepn againft his crofs ? and I am really, as in his fighting to have difcovered unto me, and upon difcovery art with every fin in me, that I know not ?"

"howbeit all doubting as to Inch of theft points, as trof faith, and every the leaft degree of averfion to 'g, refigoation, and renunciation, is fin before' Ia

Theeitions anent perfonnl Fty2ing. 321

Lord, and needs to be purged away by the Redeemer's • d ; yet they aught not to (top your proceeding, unlefa be predominant over your belief and willingnefs in the ter: Mark ix. 24. Lord, I believe ; help thou mine tbelief.' Gal. v. 7. 4 The fleffi lufteth again* the fpi-- ;,—fo that ye cannot do the things that ye •would,' ely, in that perfection that ye fain would •do them. indeed, if they be predominant, keeping your mind and

t quite unfettled, and wavering like a wave of the fea, bath nothing to fix it ; one cannot advife proceeding hat cafe: for that would be to lie unto the Lord, with itnefs: - James i. 6. For he that wavereth is hie a wave

fea, driven with the wind, and teed : Ver. 7. For ;of that man think that he 'ball receive anything of the

d. Howbeit, a fincere belief and Aviliingnefs in thefe its, may indeed waver like a fhipp at anchor, which is held Taft in the place, notwithitanding of all its waver. therein. And one may take hold of Godls covenant vace,.unto,faliation, even with a trembling hand. ;. Laft y, Having in your felf•examination, fatisfied ir confcience as to.thefe points; go unto God by prayer, therein folemnly, and in exprefa words, take hold of covenant : The which may be done in words to this

pofe :

0 Lord, the God and Father of- nur Lord Jefus Chrift, I confefs I am by nature a loft finner, wholly corrupted, and laid under the curie, in Adam, through the breach of the covenant of works : and have ruined my felf more and -more by•y aftual tranfgreffions innu¬merable. I •am convinced, and do acknowledge, that I am utterly unable to help myfelf, in whole or in part, out of this gulf of fin and mifery into which I am pint:: ged ; and that it is beyond the reach of the whole cre¬ation to help me out of it : fo that I muft inevitably perifh for ever, if thine own drong hand do not make help to me. •

" But forafinuch as there is a covenant of grace for life and falvation to loft finners, eft:1M fhed between thee and thine own Son, the Lord JefuaChrift, as fecund Adam; wherein, upon condition °Otis fulfilling all righteoof

which is now ppesfoemed is his having been h

322 Of perfinal Fulling in particular. Chap. t.

feelly holy, lived altogether rightemilly, and -made per. " fea fatisfadlion to jullice by his death and fufferings, thou haft promifed, that thou wilt be their God, and sr they (hall he thy people, to the making of them holy and happy for ever : • and that this covenant is, in Chrift "- the head thereof, offered and exhibited to me in thy " gape': and thou caileft n.e into the fellowfbip of it in " him : Therefore, upon 11 warrant of, and in obedi• cg -ence to thy command and :all, I, a poor perifhing fin¬" ner, do take hold of that c, renant, for life and falvation " to me ; believing on the ame of Chrift crucified, the " head thereof, offered and exhibited to me as the great High Prieft, who, by the facrifice of himfelf, hatli made- atonement, paid the ranfom, and brought in e¬gg verlafting righteoufnefs for poor (inners.

I credit his ," word of grace to me, and accordingly trait en hint, as that he with his righteoufnefs will he mine, and that, if in and through him, God will be my God,and I (hall " f he one of his people, to he making of me holy and " happy for ever.

"O my God, I do, by thy grace, acquierce in- that co. venant, as all my falvation, and all my defire. With " my whole heart and foul, the Son incarnate is my only Prieft, my Surety, my Interceffor, and my Redeemer; if and, in him, the Father my Father, the Holy Gild " my San&ifier God in Chriff- my God. I refign my¬" felt, foul and body, to him, to be faved by his blood alone; renouncing all confidence in mine own righteousness, doings, and fufferings. With my whole heart

and foul, he is my Head and Hufband. And I am his s, only, wholly, and:for ever, to live by him, and for him. " I take him for my alone Prophet, Oracle,.and Guide r it give up myfelf wholly to him, to be taught, guided; efted, in all things, by his word and Spirit ; and ace mine own wifdom, and the wifdom of this He is with my heart's confent, my alone Lord. And 'I refign myfelf wholly, foul to him, to he refcued by the ftrength of d, from fin, death, and the devil, and

world, for to ferve him for ever, and to ill of his command, as to my.


Dig efilont anent perf,nal Fi4fting.

and the will of his providence, as to my lot. - I am, with my whole heart, content (Lord, thou knoweft)" - to part with, and do renounce every known fin, lug, or idol, and particularly, my -,— the fin which molt eafily befets.me ; together with my own foolifh will; and all other lords befides him ; without refervation, and without exception againff his crofs; protefting in thy fight, 0 Lord, that I anr, through grace, willing to have difoovered unto me, and npon.difccvery to part with every fin in me that I know not and that the doubtings and averfenefs of bean mixed with this my Accepting of thy covenant, are what I allow nut ; and that notwithftanding thereof, _I look to be accepted of thee herein, in the Beloved, thine: only Son, and my Saviour, purging away thefe, with all my other fins,' by his precious blood.

Let it be recorded in heaven, 0 Lord, andlet and whatever is here prefent, bear witnefs, that though moll unworthy, have this day here taken- hold. of, and come pram thy -covenant of grace, mffered. and exhibited to me in thy gofpel ; and that thou art my God in the tenor of that covenant, and I am one• of thy people,,from henceforth and for ever."

After covenanting with God, fit yourfelf to ply the throne cf grace by prayer and supplication, with reference' to what is the particular caufe or caules of your fall. This is Surely the propex order: for then is one in belt cafe to make fpecial requeffs unto•the Lord, when, by ap. plication of the blood of thrift, in taking hold of the-co.' versant, his conscience is purged; whereas; if one falls to that work before this, .he cannot have the confidenceto-' wards God neceffary in this cafe, a John iii. 20p 21.

And,for the right-managing hereof, the following ad. vices are offered.

a. As it is fit you Should, the night before+, coridefcenti.. in your owu mind, on the caufes of your !aft fo now a¬- gain yo.0 Should review them,. partly, that the things-which you are to lay before the Lord in prayer and fop. plicaticn, maybe ready before you ; and partly, that yus .alay be duly affected therewith.

324 Ofperfonal F4ing irr par:kaki-. Chap. z.

a. Then go to prayer, and preterit your petitions a• neat them, to your covenanted God. And pt-ay again and again on thtfe heads, as you fhall find your cafe tore. quire for the time is fet apart for that very end, that yos marhave opportunity to vnefhle with God in ptayer•and fupplications there-anent.

3. In thefe pnayert, let there be a holy mixttire of ho. utility. fuitable to our unworthinefs, of fervency fnitableto our preffing needs, and of confidence in 'God, fuitablen the accefs unto him allowed< us by the covetrant ; the which are the fprcial ingredients in prevailing prayer.

tfl, In all your addreffes to the throne of grace, eon• tinue a humble fupplicant, not forgetting but maintaining a due fenfe of your finfulnefs; vilenefs• and- unworthineG of the mercies you make fuit for. ' Lord, I am not woe.

thy that thou ihouldeft come under my roof,' faith the Cc:Annan', Matth. viii. £0. ' I ain not worthy of the I teal} of all the mercies,' faith Jacob, Gen. xxxii. to. Due humility, will oblige-you to look on yourfelf as abfo- lutely. unworthy of fpiritual mercies, though., in the mean­time, you fee an abfolute need•ofithem : it will keep yin from being peremptory in the matter of temporal mercies, and difpofe you to a holy fttbeniffion unto therwill of God therein ; and it will engage you, in matters of light, to lay yourfelf fairly open to the divine determination.

If, in this latt cafe, your own inclination do fway Ton to any one fide; yet be lure to have no regard to it be­fore the Lord, but come unto•him, as it were, in an (*- wife, to be cal} to what fide be will. Such are the

meek he will guide in judgment, the meek he will teach 4 his way,' Pfalm xxv. 9. Unfair dealing with God in this cafe is exceeding finful and dangerous. They who venture on it, are therein diffemblers ; and will readily' throw off their meat, if the anfwer of God fall not in with' the fide that <their inclination is on.: they will repel it; they will not fee it ; but will take their own way, not­withitanding, to the provoking of the eyes of his glory. Whereof we have a remarkable inftance, in the Jews con. fulting, God as to what they ihould do, while, in the mean•

me they were aforehand refolved what to do, being
" to Egypt, Jer. xli. t 7. Chap xlii. ZD.

Direaion: anent perfonol Faftio44 325

ap. xliii. 2,-7. Such dealing with sod, in the mat-of light, fometimes provokes him to give men their 1, with a vengeance. Thus Balaam got an anfwer m God, plainly notifying to him, that he fhould not go h Balak's meffengers, Numb. xxii. 12. But that an-:r not fuiting his inclinations, which were towards the ges of unrighteoufnefs, 2 Peter ii. 15. he went back for Aber anfwer mol.e agreeable thereto, and in wrath he t it, verfes 26, 21, 22.

2d/y, Be fervent in your addreffes, labouring fervently &rayers, Col. iv. In On fuch occafions, the body is 'eked, that the fpirit may become the more earneft in /plication: the ordinary weight of worldly incum­tnces is laid slide, that the foul may the more readily :e wing, and mount heavenward. ' The effe6tual fervent. rayer of a righteous matt availeth much,' James. v. 16. 3dly, Pray with confidence in God, thro' Jefus Chrift, ievingly, not doubtingly and dittrufifully: Matth. xxi. . g And all things whatfoever ye (hall a& in prayer, be-eying, ye (hall receive.' Whether your petitions be for nporal or fpirituat mercies; prefent them to the Father the name of Chrift, according to the promifes of the co= cant relative thereto ; believing, and being confident on : ground of the merit and interce(lion of the 'Mediator, it God will do the belt in year cafe, that your labour 111 not be in vain in the Lord; and that what is for his )ry and your good (hall not be with-held from you; al.' xxxv. 12. 1 Cor. xv. 58. Plat lxxxiv. 1 I.

4. In the intervals of prayer, give yourfelf to fome godly ercife ; fuch as finging of pfalms, reading of the word, meditation. And particularly, if you be feeking light o a matter, you may enter on thinking about it, in or-r to your clearing therein ; weighing circurnRances with pendenee on the Lotd, according to the promife, Plaice xii. 8. I will ioftruet thee, and teach thee in the way vhich thou (halt go : I will guide thee with mine eye.° nd, fpecially, if you are feeking light into the Rate of ur foul ; here ie a favourable nick of time for it ; the Irks and evidences of a gracious Rate being, upon the ck of covenanting with God, in a fair way to be difcever­, to the fatisfidion of the fincete foul.


326 Of perfm'al Felling in particular. Chap. 2.

5. Let", Lay no weight on the quantity of your pray­ers ; that is to lay, how long, or how many they are. Thefe things avail nothing with God, by whom prayers are not meafured, but weighed. And what makes the weight in them, is the faith, fervency, and humility there­in ; fo that one of thole groaninga mentioned, Rom. viii. 26. will down-weigh a whole day's prayers, in which theft: things are wanting. Do you labour to get near God in prayer, and prefs forwaid to obtain that.

As you have ability and opportunity, let works of charity end mercy be joined with your faft ; doing them, whether in time of it, or before it, or after it; Ifa. lviii. 6. Is not this the fell that I have elVin ?—verfe 7.-.-to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor, that are call out to thy hoele P_ when thou feefi the naked, that thou cover him; and that thou hide not thyfelf from thine own flesh ? Let the poor be gainers by your fall ; for it is the promife of God, that he that watereth, (hall be watered alfo him­fclf,' Prov. ix 25. and one's finding mercy with God; natively iffues in a merciful dipofition towards one's fel. law•creatures, Matth. xviii. 33. Eph. iv. 32.

Before you give over your work, you will do well to confider ferioufly, that you are now. the Lord's and no more your owe ; and forafrnuch as your covenanting with God, fuppofeth that yam are refolved to reform, and to walk more clofely. with God ; lay down refolutions, in the firength of your covenanted God, to watch. And by all means forget not to confider, what are thole things where­by, in a fpecial manner, your fpiritual condition bath for­merly been Awn-fled ; and by: what means it may be kept right and lincerely refolve to efcitew the one, and purfue the other ; that fo what gaps have been in your converfa­tion, may be filled up, whereby it will appear, that by, your fait you have been Let forward in your Chi-Mien courfe. And withal review your failures in all the-parts of the eX­ercife you have now been employed in,

You may conclude the work with "prayer, wherein you

eliion.r anent perfonal Fatting. 327

ly humbly cenfefa- your failures in the management of is duty, and apply anew to the blood of fprinkline,a, for rging them away; avouch your covenant- intereft inGodv d his in you; and-lay the caufes of your raft again be-re him, and folerrrnly leave them on him. The laying er a matter on the Lord believingly, in prayer, gives eat eafe to a burdened heart : it turns a fail fometimes to a fpiritual feaft. When Hannah had done fo with r cafe, the ' went away, and did eat, and her countenance was no more fad,' a Sam. i. 7g. And lay over yourfelf )on him, for the grace of the covenant, to fubdue your irruptions, bear you up againft temptations, and carry on )Ur refolutions; that you may go out into the world a-tin, in the faith of his grace fufficient for you in all exi­rncies.

When the work is over, take heed to your fpirit. And, .1. Beware of fpiritual pride. Do not value yourfelf ur‑

n the account of the work- done, as they did who fee, Therefore have we feted, and thou feeli act

'he opinion of the merit of good works, Is what the he;tt f man eafily goes off into, by its natural bias: and there' i In much of the old man in the heft, that they are apt to hink highly of their religious performances and fervices. Wherefore be on your guard, particularly on that fide ; nd confider the perfeEtion required by the holy law, and eep in view your own mifmanagements, fo as when you 1111 have done all thole thing:, you may be obliged to fay, We re unprontablefervants, Luke xvii. so.

2. Beware of carnal fecurity. Saints fometimes fall deep illicitly after a full meal of fpiritual enjoyment ; as it fared vith the fpoufe, Cant. v. 1, a. And Satan watching the ad­antage, rallies his fcattered forces, and, with his wounded nen, burns the city. So it comes to pals, that, according

o Solomon's obferve, Pray. xii. 27. The flothful roafieth at that which he took in hunting: what was gathered with nuch pain, is loft through unwatchfulnefs, ere he gets the de of it.

3. Lately, Beware of forgetting the caufes of your fad - )ut, in your ordinary addreffea to God, remember t'

3 28 Of perfonal Falling in particular.. Chap. 3.

and wait on for an anfwer: Pfal. v. 3. .1 will caret my frayer unto thee, and will look up. Prayers may be accept. et!, and yet not prefeutly anfwered. In which cafe, it is neeafary, that, with patience, we wait for a return from I leaven, meanwhile ufing the appointed means for obtain. ;lig the end. The heglefting hereof, may provoke the ',old to continue the fymptoms of his anger, or ftroke of his hand, which otherwife might former be removed : and to leave one perplexed and embarrailed, in matters wherein light is needed.

But, in your waiting for light, whatever the fovereiga Lund may do, do not you look for impreffions, far lets fur voices, nor extraordinary revelations any manner of way,

dileovrr your duty in particular cafes, z Pet. i. 12, 19, Itut, having laid )ourfelf fairly open to the divine deter. mination, and made humble and carnet} fupplication unto ;,..I fee light in your particular cafe; believe that you shall be guided, taught, and difetled by him, according to-his ;nonlife, Pfal. xxv. 9. Prov. iii. 6. And then, in depend?

on the Lord, weigh the mutter and circnroftaatiate ,alt in the balauc: of fanaitied reafon, according to the vuel al jireaiznts of the word, fuch as Philip. iv. 8. What. woo. things are true, whatfoever thing: are honer', whatfr

$1,ings are juft, whatfoever things are pure, what/over filings are lovely, whatfoever think, are of good report; ff fore be any virtue, and if there be any praife, think an theft And carefully obferve the conduit and motions of —c c, with reference to it, Rill comparing them with . And you will find, that he will guide you with ccording to the promife,, Pfal. xxxii. 8. And et thereto, you may put up that petition unto ith, Pfal. lxxxvi. 17. Shew me a token for good.

1r of perfonal failing and humiliation.
Facing and Humiliations in particular.

.e fubitance of this duty, which is the ram ;1 faits whatfoever, doth cona, is al. d there being many things common (anal ones, of which we have treai...

Of the Divine Warrant for family Fafling. 329'

at large ; it remains' only to add here fome few things :uliar to family failing. And,

Firft, As to the divine warrant for it, one may be fa­iled upon thefe grounds.

z Forafmuch as every Chriftian family ought to be a urch, Rom. xvi. 5. to receive all ordinances appointed of od, and competent to them in their family capacity; and at religious fatting is an ordinance of divine appointment, the nature whereof there is nothing to hinder its being !rformed by a family in their family capacity ; it is evi-' tnt, that family failing and humiliation is apart of family' orfhip ; namely, an extraordinary part thereof, to be oc­afronally performed. Accordingly, it is promifed, as an flea of the pouring out of the Spirit, Zech. xii. 12. 6 The land (hall mourn, every family apart.' We have alfo ;lain inftance of it, in' Efther"s family, on the occafion of he mifchievous decree againft the Jews, procured by Ha--flan, Efth. iv. a&. 4" 1 alfmand my maidens will fart like­' wife.' And the falling of the Jews, on the fame occalion, in # every province whitherfoever that decree came,' men- tioned ver 3. Teems to have been molly, if not altogether, of the fame kind, to wit, family fatting; not only, in re­fpea of their circumftances in thole provinces where they were difperfed, Chap. iii. 8. but alfo, that the thankfgiving for their deliverance was appointed to be g'kept through-,

out every family,' Chap. ix. 28.

2". The ground upon, which the duty oFfaftingand fitr•- tniliation is bound upon public worihipping foeieties, and upon particular perfons, takes place alfo in, the dale of fa­milies. If national, congregational, and perfonal fins to be mourned over, judgments to be deprecated; and mercies to be fought, do found a call to a nation, congregation, or perfon, refpeEtively, to hnmble themftives with falling ; can there be any realm affigned, why the fame thould not hold in like manner, in the cafe of families? Surely, as there atetimes wherein it goes ill with a land, or with a par­ticular congregation or perfon ; fo there are times wherein # it goes evil with one's houfe,' a Chron. vii. 2-3. in refpea of fpecial family fins or ftrokes ; and in which there are fpecial family mercies needed: And families are ob17 to the dog of the fame appointed means for gen i,

331 Of Fafilag ia.frardevion. Chap. 3,

of the one, and obtaining the other ; as other worfhipping imieties, and particular perfons,are,in their refpeetive cafes And where the concern of members of a family is common, although it be not equal, all of them ought in reafou, to take part of the burden.

3. 1..fdy, The promife made soloist prayers bath weight 1.cre, Matt& aviii. -I 9. 4 If two of you (hall agree on earth,

as touching any thing that they (hall ark, it 'ball be done

for them of my Father which is in heaven. Ver. no. For

where two or three are gathered together in ray -name,

there am I in the midft of them.' It is certain, there is Such a thing as extraordinary prayer, which hatha thane in the benefit of this promife: and if the t.ord is.pleafcd to jay fuch a weight on fome of his people their agreeing to. gether to a& a thing of him, or their founding together, as the word properly fignifies; it is not to be doubted, but extraordinary prayer in families, upon Come fpecial. occa­sion, is both required by him, and acceptable onus him through jefus Chrift his Son.

Secowi/y, As,for a providential can to family falling and humiliation by what is faid before for clearing of one's call to perfonal failing, it may be judged of and dffeerned; the cireumflances of the family being duly eonfulored,. and what the condua of providence towards it Aspens:a-to point unto. The cafe of others, in whom the family bath, a pan ticular concern, efpecially the cafe of the church, ,niay tWund a Gall to family failing t as ii clear from the praaice of Either with her maids, Efth. iv. s6 And Co may the private cafe of the family itfelf ; whether in refpet of fa, may. tins, family-ftrokas threatened or infliEted,. or fome tixt,161 family-mercies to be cleared. And fine ,the enent- plik asva ;(111 of thefe general heads, in one's private cafe, waste in the fecond feaion of the foregoing chapter,.roay,. nt:tht Nulty be accommodated to the cafe of one's lona of the meaneit capacity difpofed to- con in not neceffary here-to defcend to pink reftions towardt family fatting:, there are ;la be added unto tkok given .before in I failing. it is plain from the alarm be external. ordering and managelicnt

Diretrfieer anent famit, FfOre. , 33 t

of this matter belongs to the head .of the family; and he or.fhe is difcreetly to chute and appoint the time and placer wherein thefamily may perform the duty with leaf( difitub­once ; and to fee that all be done decently and is order. And,

i. Let the bead of the family, [we competent time, at leaf( the night before, give notice to them, that fuels a time is fet.spart for, and to.be fpent in that exercife : and withal thew them the caufes of it, and exhort them to flit op thernfelves to the duties of fuch a Colman approach unto God. Common prudence will dire% as well as Chriftian duty -cloth oblige, the hunsand to confult his wife aforehand, as to the fixing of the time to be fet apart in the family for that extraordinary piece .of devotion.

a. in the morning, let each member in the family go a­part by.hisofelf into fotne fecret place, and there fpeod foam time in reviewing, confeffing, covenanting, praying, and fupplicating, as direaed in the cafe of •erfouai fatting, fo far. as he can overtake them. The more conkientioufly this fecret,work is managed,, it will readilf fare the better-with the family when Met together.

3. Let tbe..bead of the family,haring taken to himfelf, and allowed to them, a competent time for their extraordi­nary fecret devotions, thereafter call them together. And the family Icing ;owned, he may again, if need be, lay before them the canfe,s of their fail, with ,fuitable exhorta­tions and encouragements, for exciting them unto the du. ty. And,. after calling on God for the aid of his Holy 8pirit, let him ling with them fome pfalm or part of a pfalm, fuitable to fuch an oecafion, ftsch as Pfahn lxxx. 1. and downwards, Pfalrn .ssixix. 6. to theend, rfalm and clownwards4 mad before them fome .pertinzatrffage of fcripture, fuels as thofe mentioned in the 6th dtre4tion of the preceding chapter;. and then pray with them. Af. ter prayers made by the head of the family, let the millrefs of the family, and fusth.otbers as he judgeth fit,pray, one after another. It is very defirable, that each member of the family, being through grace fit to be employed, do take a part in that work. in the intervals of prayer, there may lee tinging,. reading, or coafereneetaa may be lotted: mutt napedieot

332 Maker owl Exhoriatiomr.

4. It is fit that in thcfe prayers there be extraordinary cork-Son of fin, as particularly as may bi expedient; to getber with profeffion of repentance, and hearty forrow for fin, and of unfeigned claire to return unto God, and onto the duties of a Chriftian life: and then, fervent and eared fupplications, upon the matters that are the peculiar cats of the fall.

g. It is proper, that the concluding prayer be made!), the head of the-family; and that therein he refume•the confeffions, profe/fions, and fupplications on the matters of the Taft; humbly acknowledge their failures in the manage. ment of the work ; and profefs their looking for pardon and acceptance through the blood of Jefus Chrift alone, and alfo for grace to walk in the ways of new obedience, through the fame atoning blood. Then the joint exercife rniy be doled, with finging fome part of a pfalm, Inch as Pfalm xc. 13. to the end, Pfalm lxxxv. 6. to the end, or Pfalm Isis. 3o. and downward. ‑

6. Lally, joint esercife of the family being over, let each of them go apart by himfelf again, and fpendfome time in a review of whit they have been employed in, and in fecret prayer: the which is but a fuitableconcluficnito Inch folemn work. And family reformation ought to fol. low hereupon; every member of the family watching over bimfelf, and all of them watching one over another ; that by their holy walking, in peace and unity, and a confcien• tious performance of their relative dirties, it may appear, that they have been fincere and upright before the Lord, in their faft.

AND now, to recommend the pratice of thole duties, to perform and families, thefe five things are offered

in favour thereof; namely, that the praaice of them is a proper means, i. To bring ftrangers to religion acquainted with it; 2. To recover backfliders; 3. To prevent relapfest 4. To Prepare for a time of trial; and lely, to'get mat­ter:: • f•r eternity. he praelice of perfonal 'and family falling and is a proper means to bring ilrangers to religion ; that thole who have not yet dipt into

Notkutr gad Exhortation:. .333

etieal-religion, may begin to enter into it. The work convertion unto God begins at folemn ferious confide-ion of one's own fpiritual (late and'cafe ; the which if ners could once be brought unto, there would be fome pe of them, as of the prodigal, when he came to him-- f, Luke xv. 17. And if they would fet theinfelves to the ty of performl failing, and mailers of families would nosy d then ufe family fails, they might at length be brought confider of their fpiritual (late and cafe. Wherefore, z. Ye who are young, apd have not yet dipt into the tart of religion, this rnemoQal is for you. It is prefum­I, ye were baptized in your infancy, and that now ye are Mme to the years of difcretion : but have you ever as et taken 2 folemn deliberate view of your loll and use. one date by nature under fin and the curfe ; and of thg effiedy provided for you in jefus Chrift ? And have yeti ver as yet perfonally entered into covenant with pod, by :king hold of his covenant of grace? You ea't, you drink, rot; Om, you work, you play or divert yourfelves and o do young Eiesaits ;too, the which, when they are dea4, ire done: but you bsvean immortal ffrpl, that mutt eternal--

happy' heauen, or miferable itt bell. It ai4y bq• you fay your prayers too : but have you Pif yet perfopally renounced the devil, the vain world, mad the flef4 ? You cannot but fee, Ahat .death feizeth foul; as young and fprightly as you are ; and you know not how fpon God 'nay call you off ; have you then laid your sneafures for e­ternity-? Alas! you are be;dlefsly running about the de• vet's trap, playing yonrfelf about the pit 'a mouth : and ihould your foot flip now, you are undone for ever. Thar

faith the Lord of hods, Confider your way.'

2. .Carelefs finnera, carelefs about the .concerns of the ether world, whatever your age or years be, this memori­al is for you. Ye carelefs cues, ftrip yet and 410e IT bare,

.and gird fackcIptb upon your loins,' Ifa. xxsii, as. What is your relisionl Is it not like the foam on the water, no fubflauce in it ? What is your life and cnover. ration ? See your own picture, er..ii. ;4. 4 wild afs Ufed to the wildernefs, that f'nuffeth up the wind at 1 *afire.' What condition is your foul in

Islets of it is the Iluggard's vineyard, g All gro

334 Motives and Exhortations.

with thorns, nettles covering the face thereof, and the

flone wall thereof brolten down,' Prov. xxiv. 3o, 31. Can you really perfuade yourfelves, that you are going forth by the footfleps of the flack ? that the faints now in glory took the finful liberty of thinking, fpeaking, and acing, that you do ; that their foul's Rate and cafe coil them as few ferious thoughts as yours bath colt you ? Do you think to Rumble on a Paving intereft in Chriff, a par. don, a heaven ? No, you will not find it fo. Up, then, and be doing: Pet apart fotre time for confidering of, and *doing fomething effectually in your foul's cafe ; that you may go to the ground of the matter, and get it reEtified.

Secondly, It is a proper means for the recovery of back. fliders, that they may remember whence they are fallen,

and repent, and do the fiat works,' Rev. it. 5. There are not a few, who fome time a day bloffomed fair, hi hopeful beginnings of religion, who are now withered. Their bones are dried, and there is no Pap of that kind in them now : and by their finning againft lightt -they have 'provoked God to depart from than, fo as there is no rap in ordinances, nor in providences, to them, neither 1)14 there are all, as it were, blafted tcrthem, and-they are left in the unhappy cafe of the vineyard, Ifa. v. 6. I will aro g command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it.' And fome are not only withered, but are become noifome in their life and converfation: they have not only loft any life of religion they fometimes feemed to have, but their lofts are become rampant in them, as given up to vile af­fettions, defiling the very outward man. It has. happened • -unto them according to the true proverb, The dog is turned to his own vomit again ; and,. The fow that was‑wafhed, to her wallowing, in the mire,' a Pet. ii. 22. 0 backfliders I your cafe is a fearful one : Heb. x. 3 8'.

If any man draw back, my foul fhall hive no pleafure in 6 him.' What mind ye to do with it ? Will ye continue in it, to your eternal ruin ? Oh r •o, pity your own fouls. There is hope in lfrael concerning this thing,' as bad as it is. Perhaps you heart tells you, that your cafe is now gone on too far, to be mended but it is not fo ; that is but a fatanical fuggeftion. God's word fays otherwife ; jer. iii. r. 6 Though thou haft played the harlot wit&

Motives and Exhortations. 335

ny lovers ; yet return again to me, faith the Lord,' liv. 6. ' I have called thee as—a wife of youth, when au waft refufed, faith thy God.' Wherefore, 0 back. r, beflir thyfelf to anfwer the Lord's call, and remem­_hat fome devils go not out but by prayer and failing,' th. xvii. 22. Try this method then for your recovery:, it, as you would not be guilty of wilful dying of your ale. Our heavenly Father kindly meets returning pro­als : the returning backflider will be treated by him as dear fon, a pleafant child,' Jer. xxxi.2o. Return ye hen, and he will rearm to you the years that the locuft lath eaten,' Joel ii. 25. And as yet, your bones fhall lourifh like an herb,' Ifs. lxvi. i4.

Thirdly, It is a proper means to prevent relapfes, and keep one's fpiritual cafe right, when once it is right. equent Rating of accounts, keeps matters clear, which herwife might come to be perplexed and involved. And ,e cafe which, being on the decline, is taken in time, is ifily righted, in cornparifon of that which has long run on .ren as when Chrift railed to life the young man of Alain, horn they were carrying out to the grave, he only touch­ed the bier and laid, Young man, I fay unto thee arife,' .uke vii. 24. but he wept and groaned once and again at he railing of Lazarus, who had been four days dead, john xi. 33, 35, 38. The unhealthy and fickly difpofi­ion of the fouls of men, by reafon of the remains of cor­ruption that are always in the bell, while here, makes the ocoafional performance of extraordinaryduties now and then neceffary., over and above thecourfe of their ordinary and Rated devotions.

Fourthly, It is a proper means of preparation for a time of trial. It is a piece of Chriftian prudence to forefee thi evil, and hide one's felf, while the fimple pafs on, and are punifhed,' Prov. xxii. 3. When God is threatening a land with, his judgments, it becomes the inhabitants to take the alarm, and prepare to meet their God ! and perfonal and family falls are proper expedients for that end ; fince they who in finning times figh and cry for all the abonri. ' nations done in the midfl thereof,' Rand fair to receive the mark for fpecial favour in fuffering times, Ezrk. ix. Tor all the tear ilroki.s and deliverances thefe nation.

534 Motives and Exhortations.

tart with of late years, it is, alas! vifible to fober men of whatever denomination, that we are not thereby reformed, nor duly convinced of, far lets humbled under, the caufo of God's flaming coatrOverfy with us. And while there is a God to judge on the earth, we can have no reafon to think that a generation chargeable with the guilt Which we are chargeable with, is in fafety with fuch a load upon them ; but that either God will, by an unordinary pouring out of his Spirit, awaken, humble, and make the land to smot:rn ; or elk by forne roofing ftroke of judgment, will vindicate his own honour, injured to a pitch that our fa. tilers arrived not • at; And the lefs appearance there is ol the former, there is the greater appearance of the latter. However, we teem to have no fuch fecurity again!{ it, at to render it unfeafonable• to keep perfonal and family fails so that view; that we May mourn over our own fans, and the fins of the nations, and may folemnly commit ourfelves and our families to the divine grace, mercy, and proteetion Whatever may be the occurrences of providence in our day. None know what dark fteps• may be betvVeen them and the grave ; and therefore it cannot be an unwire courfe, timely to take God in thrift for our guide, through the mountains of darknefa, for our protellor iii all dal,• gers, and for our fupporter and helper in the misfit of trouble.

. Lafily, It is , a proper means to get matters clear for e• ternity, and fo make us a fafe and comfortable paffage out of this world. It was David's unfpeakable comfort on his deathbed, that he could fay of the God unto whom his fpirit was about to return, 1 He hath made with me an

everlalling covenant,' 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. Jacob being an -' liqo and a dying, comfortably refleaed on die place whete and when, in the days of his youih, he able communion with God, received the blessed the vow, Gen. xlviii. 3. with chip. xxxviii.

Would one be in a condititm to look death ace ? to pafs fafely and comfortably to the other :here is not a more fenfible Means to reach it than :herefore, e who are under doubts and fears, complaining, never reach clear eiidencei fOr heaven, this it

Roane, and Exhortatisn 331

tnerndrial is for you. No wonder they walk in the dark, who will not be at fo much pains to get light into their Rate. The obtaining of fuch light, might of itfelf be a fufficient ground for fuch an exetcife. Clear evidences for heaven are fuch an unfpeakable comfort, and• fo hard te raife up amid& fo much corruption of heart and life, that it is not at all ftrange, they require fomething beyond the ordinary courfe of devotion and application, to obtain the fame. And this is a molt feafible means for that purpose

for after one has got his foul humbled by a review of his fins, bath poured out his heart before the Lord in folema confeffion of fin, and perfonally entered into, or renewed covenant with God, by taking hold of God's covenant of grace ; if he (hall then take the matter in hand, and exa. mine himfelf as to .the evidences of laving grace in him, they will then be as likely to appear clearly as ever.

2. Ye who are, one way or other, getting warnings of approaching death, this memorial is for you, Do you obferve your equals in years, or younger than you, carried off by death? Have you been at any time refcued from imminent danger of your life arifing from fome accident, or unforefeen occurrence ? Are you now and then vifited with ficknefs ? Do you perceive your ftrength begin to fail, the pins of your tabernacle begin to be looked ? There and the like are loud providential calls to you to prepare for the other world. And preparation for that world, is fufficient to found a call unto fuch extraordinary devotion : a profpeEt of approaching death, may be well allowed to call one to let fome time a part, in order to prepare for it. Preparation for death is work to be done in time of health : and why fhould it be delayed, fince you fee that death is approaching ? How usreafonable is it for men, to leave that work to the fick-bed, where they will have enough ado to die, or may be deprived of their judgment, if they do at all get a Fick-bed, and be not fuddeuly fnatched a. way ere they or their friends are aware ? No, firs ; ‘N-know that death is coming : therefore while ye are

frt fume time apart for that very end, to prepar, and to state matters clearly for eternity ; others/it cruel to your own fouls, by your negligence, in.. death a leap in the dark into the other *odd.

339 Maims and Eslariatiosr.

3. Lefthy, All without exception, who believe a beam-sad a bell, this memorial is for you. The eternal *ate . is not a matter to venture upon at random. If you do really believe a life to come, ye-cannot reafonably think, that this is too much to make a fuitable preparation for it. Their hearts are certainly more flout than holy, who amid* fo many infiances of mortality, as the world is fill afford­ing, are not thereby excited to fet their own fouls' cafe in order, with an cye to death's coning about to their own door, and thus to fet fume time apart for that end, is little enough in a cafe of Inch vaft importance.


HE Introduetion and general fcheme 3'

I-IEAD I. The Parties in the Covenant of. Grace ' i v

God the party-cantratior on Heaven's fide ib.

Confidered in a threefold• view itz

The Lord Jefus Chrift the party-contradtor on man's fide - 14

The covenant of grace made with Chrift, as the Laft Adam, head and reprefentative of his fpiri­tual feed,

Evinced from five confiderations 13

Fivelreafons why it was fo made 20

Inferences 23

III. The party contracted and undertaken for 27

The ele& were the party reprefenred .and contraet‑

ed for in the covenant 28

Four proofs of it ib.

Three ways they are viewed' in this covenant-- reprefentation 31

Inferences 3 z'

Objelf. I fear I am none of thofe whom Chrift repro­fented in•the•covenant r how then can I take•lold of it by believing ? Anfwer 34-

Ritefi. Are there no 'marks whereby a firmer may know himfelf to be one of thole who are reprefent­' ed by Chrift in•the fecond do-remit 1• Anfwer' 36.

HEAD IL Thelfaking of the Covenant of Grace

How atilt the Son of God became the Second F dam.

Pf a•


Pap How the covenant was made with Chrift as the Se‑

cond Adam 41
Cbrift giving his confent to the covenant, rook upon

hips a threefold cbarafter 43

The Rinfman.redeemer in the covenant a.
Performances of the Kinfroan-redtemer four 44

The furety of the covenant 47

For whom Cbrift became Corer," ii.

For what he became furety 5°

Whether or not Chritt's feretithip is ago 'of-the nature of furetidrip for one's performing of a deed ? .infaver 5!

'Fbe pried &fthe covenant 6o

The neeeffuy of this proved -6t

Inferences from the fecond bead 64

HEAD III. The Ante of the Covenant of Grace 7°

I. The conditionary part of 'the Covetaltin a

Condition, the word esplained _ ib.
Chrift's righteoufnefs the condition of the covenant 71

Proved by five arguments ii.

Cafe, How (hall I know that ChriO'a righteoufnefs

is indeed mine in poffeffion ? Anfwered 76

Chrifti rightetosintfe conaits of three parts 77

Holinefs of nature 78

Righteoufnefs of life 8o

SatieftoStion for fin - -81

Inferences from the coaditionary part of the covenant 90

,erfons that have Chrift's rightsouint4 imp*.

I to tham# three chttra6lors 94

„gory partef.the covenant. too

lee of the promiffory part of the covenant A by loin dotifickeatibts lot irt al kinds of promifea lo3

they were ffiade 204.107

• to Cbrift m


Affiltance III Acceptince 112

Reward. 313

Promife of eternal life to the elea .1i 5

More generally confidered • _ , 116

More particularlyin three periods 118

Before their union with Chrift 119-

Promife of prefervation ii. Promife of the Spirit 121

From their union with, Chrift until death 125

Prornife of jut ifioation of a new and living covenant-relation Th.to.God 129

Sanaification 42

Perteverance 352

Temporal benefits 157

Froth death through eternity 161

Promife of viaory over death 162

Everlsftingli& in heaven 164

Inference from the Promife of eternal life 1.68

1.0 proper ,penahy of the •covenant of grace 170

HEAD IV. 'The ildminifiratiass of the Covenant of Grace. 172

Chrift the Atiminiftrator of the covenant , - ib..

' Sinners of mankind the olvjea oftheadmirtiRtet•

tion of the covenant 176

' Confirmed by five arguments - 177

Enda ofthe adminiitration of the covenant 182

Thebringing of'finners into the covenant lb.

The management of them therein , 183

The completing of their happinefs 4.

The nature of theadminittration of the covenant., .185

The relations Chrithath to the covenant as the -Adminiftrator thereof 186

I: The Truttee of the covenant, in nine particulars ih.

IL The Tedator of the covenant: and here are opened 192

The making of the teltament 193


Who are the legatees 197'

Who is the executor of the teftament 201

What are the legacies left 202

III. The Prophet ofl the covenant 207

I.V. The King of the covenant 212

V. The Interceffos of the covenant. 223

HEAD V. The Trial of a falling perfonal In being in the Covenant of Grace . 228

Chargiers of thole who are favingly within the co. venant 229

HEAD VI. The way of inflating finnerti personally and favingly in the Covenant of Grace 242

The means of inflating a finner in-the covenant, is faith 243

It is molt agreeable to the- nature and end of the Covenant 245•

The import of the-word believing, in the fcrip¬ture.ufe of it 247

A twofold word to be believed the law and the gofpel ib.

The faith of the law preparatory for the covenant 248

The faith of the gofpel, inflating in the covenant, carries in it four things 251

I. The faith of Chriil's fulEciency

IL The faith of the gcifpel-offer 253

Objets. t. But Chrift is now in heaven, and I hear no voice from thence : how then can I believe that he offereth himfelf to me in particular ? iinfauer 255.

Objet. a. But Chrift in the•word, of the gofpel doth not name me:. how then can 'believe that he offereth himfelf to -me in particular ?

Answer 256,

Objet. 3. I fear I want the qualifications determinative of thofe to whom, the gape' coffer is


clireeted, &c. how then can I believe that Chrift off 'r hitnfelf to me in particular ? Aryl 256

The faith of our, right to Chrift 259

How can I, a poor finner, by nature under the curie, believe that Chrift is my Saviour, that his righteoufnefs; and eternal life are mine? Anfwer 26o

)bjet!. r. If it be true, that Chrift is my Saviour, that his righteoufnefs, and eternal life in him, are mine; then I may be eafy, I will certainly be Paved without any more ado ? Anfwer 264

Objatt. a. But Chrift a Saviour, his righteoufnefs, •

and eternal life, are things fo exceeding preci-,

ous, and' am fo very finful and unworthy, that

it is mighty hard for me to believe they are

mine. Anfwer , 265

The faith of particular truft for falvation 266

Objett. r. Since it is not true of all who hear the gofpel, that they (hall be fared ; there cannot be, in the cafe of every one of them, a ground on which this particular truft may be warrant¬ably founded. Anfwer 273

Objet!. 2. Many truft in Chrift as their Saviour with a particular confidence that he will fare them; and yet are grofsly ignorant, profane, or formal hypocrites ; and therefore not true be. lievers. Aftver 274