IF there be this general coincidence between the systems of Babylon and Rome, the question arises, Does the coincidence stop here? To this the answer is, Far otherwise. We have only to bring the ancient Babylonian Mysteries to bear on the whole system of Rome, and then it will be seen how immensely the one has borrowed from the other. These Mysteries were long shrouded in darkness, but now the thick darkness begins to pass away. All who have paid the least attention to the literature of Greece, Egypt, Phenicia, or Rome are aware of the place which the "Mysteries" occupied in these countries, and that, whatever circumstantial diversities there might be, in all essential respects these "Mysteries" in the different countries were the same. Now, as the language of Jeremiah, already quoted, would indicate that Babylon was the primal source from which all these systems of idolatry flowed, so the deduction of the most learned historians, on mere historical grounds, have led to the same conclusion. [1] From Zonaras [2] we find that the concurrent testimony of the ancient authors he had consulted was to this effect; for, speaking of arithmetic and astronomy, he says: "It is said that these came from the Chaldees to the Egyptians, and thence to the Greeks." If the Egyptians and Greeks derived their arithmetic and astronomy from Chaldea, seeing these in Chaldea were sacred sciences, and monopolised by the priests, that is sufficient evidence that they must have derived their religion from the same quarter. Both Bunsen and Layard in their researches have come to substantially the same result. The statement of Bunsen is to the effect that the religious system of Egypt was derived from Asia, and "the primitive empire in Babel." [3] Layard, again, though taking a somewhat more favourable view of the system of the Chaldean MAGI, than, I am persuaded, the facts of history warrant, nevertheless thus speaks of that system:—"Of the great antiquity of this primitive worship there is abundant evidence, and that it originated among the inhabitants of the Assyrian plains, we have the united testimony of sacred and profane history. It obtained the epithet of perfect, and was [[@Page:13]]believed to be the most ancient of religious systems, having preceded that of the Egyptians (Egyptiis vero antiquiores esse MAGOS Aristoteles auctor est in primo de Philosophia libro.—Theopompi Frag.)" [4] "The identity," he adds, "of many of the Assyrian doctrines with those of Egypt is alluded to by Porphyry and Clemens;" and, in connection with the same subject, he quotes the following from Birch on Babylonian cylinders and monuments:—"The zodiacal signs … .show unequivocally that the Greeks derived their notions and arrangements of the zodiac [and consequently their Mythology, that was intertwined with it]from the Chaldees. The identity of Nimrod with the constellation Orion is not to be rejected." [5] Ouvaroff, also, in his learned work on the Eleusinian mysteries, has come to the same conclusion. After referring to the fact that the Egyptian priests claimed the honour of having transmitted to the Greeks the first elements of Polytheism, he thus concludes:—"These positive facts would sufficiently prove, even without the conformity of ideas, that the Mysteries transplanted into Greece, and there united with a certain number of local notions, never lost the character of their origin derived from the cradle of the moral and religious ideas of the universe. All these separate facts—all these scattered testimonies, recur to that fruitful principle which places in the East the centre of science and civilisation." [6] If thus we have evidence that Egypt and Greece derived their religion from Babylon, we have equal evidence that the religious system of the Phenicians came from the same source. Macrobius shows that the distinguishing feature of the Phenician idolatry must have been imported from Assyria, which, in classic writers, included Babylonia. "The worship of the Architic Venus," says he, "formerly flourished as much among the Assyrians as it does now among the Phenicians." [7]

Now to establish the identity between the systems of ancient Babylon and Papal Rome, we have just to inquire in how far does the system of the Papacy agree with the system established in these Babylonian Mysteries. In prosecuting such an inquiry there are considerable difficulties to be overcome; for, as in geology, it is impossible at all points to reach the deep, underlying strata of the earth's surface, so it is not to be expected that in any one country we should find a complete and connected account of the system established in that country. But yet, even as the geologist, by examining the contents of a fissure here, an upheaval there, and what "crops out" of itself on the surface elsewhere, is enabled to determine, with wonderful certainty, the order and general contents of the different strata over all the earth, so is it with the subject of the Chaldean Mysteries. What is wanted in one country is supplemented in another; and what actually "crops out" in different [[@Page:14]]directions, to a large extent necessarily determines the character of much that does not directly appear on the surface. Taking, then, the admitted unity and Babylonian character of the ancient Mysteries of Egypt, Greece, Phenicia, and Rome, as the clue to guide us in our researches, let us go on from step to step in our comparison of the doctrine and practice of the two Babylons—the Babylon of the Old Testament and the Babylon of the New.

And here I have to notice, first, the identity of the objects of worship in Babylon and Rome. The ancient Babylonians, just as the modern Romans, recognised in words the unity of the Godhead; and, while worshipping innumerable minor deities, as possessed of certain influence on human affairs, they distinctly acknowledged that there was ONE infinite and Almighty Creator, supreme over all. [8] Most other nations did the same. "In the early ages of mankind," says Wilkinson in his "Ancient Egyptians," "the existence of a sole and omnipotent Deity, who created all things, seems to have been the universal belief; and tradition taught men the same notions on this subject, which, in later times, have been adopted by all civilised nations." [9] "The Gothic religion," says Mallet, "taught the being of a supreme God, Master of the Universe, to whom all things were submissive and obedient."—{Tacit. deMorib. Germ.) The ancient Icelandic mythology calls him "the Author of every thing that existeth, the eternal, the living, and awful Being; the searcher into concealed things, the Being that never changeth." It artributeth to this deity "an infinite power, a boundless knowledge, and incorruptible justice." * We have evidence of the same having been the faith of ancient Hindostan. Though modern Hinduism recognises millions of gods, yet the Indian sacred books show that originally it had been far otherwise. Major Moor, speaking of Brahm, the supreme God of the Hindoos, says: "Of Him whose Glory is so great, there is no image" (Veda). He "illumines all, delights all, whence all proceeded; that by which they live when born, and that to which all must return" (Veda). [10] In the "Institutes of Menu," he is characterised as "He whom the mind alone can perceive; whose essence eludes the external organs, who has no visible parts, who exists from eternity … the soul of all beings, whom no being can be comprehend." [11] In these passages, there is a trace of the existence of Pantheism; but the very language employed bears testimony to the existence among the Hindoos at one period of a far purer faith.

Nay, not merely had the ancient Hindoos exalted ideas of the natural perfections of God, but there is evidence that they were well aware of the gracious character of God, as revealed in His dealings with a lost and guilty world. This is manifest from the very name Brahm, appropriated by them to the one infinite and eternal God. There has been a great deal of unsatisfactory speculation in regard to the meaning of this name, but when the different statements in regard to Brahm are carefully considered, it becomes evident that the name [[@Page:15]]Brahm is just the Hebrew Rahm, with the digamma prefixed, which is very frequent in Sanscrit words derived from Hebrew or Chaldee. Rahm in Hebrew signifies "The merciful or compassionate one." [12] But Rahm also signifies the WOMB [13] or the bowels; [14] as the seat of compassion. Now we find such language applied to Brahm, the one supreme God, as cannot be accounted for, except on the supposition that Brahm had the very same meaning as the Hebrew Rahm. Thus, we find the God Crishna, in one of the Hindoo sacred books, when asserting his high dignity as a divinity and his identity with the Supreme, using the following words: "The great Brahm is my WOMB, and in it I place my foetus, and from it is the procreation of all nature. The great Brahm is the WOMB of all the various forms which are conceived in every natural womb." [15] How could such language ever have been applied to "The supreme Brahm, the most holy, the most high God, the Divine being, before all other gods; without birth, the mighty Lord, God of gods, the universal Lord," [16] but from the connection between Rahm "the womb" and Rahm "the merciful one"? Here, then, we find that Brahm is just the same as "Er-Rahman," "The all-merciful one,"—a title applied by the Turks to the Most High, and that the Hindoos, notwithstanding their deep religious degradation now, had once known that "the most holy, most high God," is also "The God of Mercy," in other words, that he is "a just God and a Saviour." [17] And proceeding on this interpretation of the name Brahm, we see how exactly their religious knowledge as to the creation had coincided with the account of the origin of all things, as given in Genesis. It is well known that the Brahmins, to exalt themselves as a priestly, half-divine caste, to whom all others ought to bow down, have for many ages taught that, while the other castes came from the arms, and body and feet of Brahma—the visible representative and manifestation of the invisible Brahm, and identified with him—they alone came from the mouth of the creative God. Now we find statements in their sacred books which prove that once a very different doctrine must have been taught. Thus, in one of the Vedas, speaking of Brahma, it is expressly stated that "All beings" "are created from his MOUTH." [18] In the passage in question an attempt is made to mystify the matter; but, taken in connection with the meaning of the name Brahm, as already given, who can doubt what was the [[@Page:16]]real meaning of the statement, opposed though it be to the lofty and exclusive pretensions of the Brahmins? It evidently meant that He who, ever since the fall, has been revealed to man as the "Merciful [19] and Gracious One" (Exodus 34:6), was known at the same time as the Almighty One, who in the beginning "spake and it was done," "commanded and all things stood fast," who made all things by the "Word of His power." After what has now been said any one who consults the "Asiatic Researches," vol. vii. p. 293, may see that it is in a great measure from a wicked perversion of this Divine title of the One Living and True God, a title that ought to have been so dear to sinful men, that all those moral abominations have come that make the symbols of the pagan temples of India so offensive to the eye of purity. [20]

So utterly idolatrous was the Babylonian recognition of the Divine unity, that Jehovah, the Living God, severely condemned His own people for giving any countenance to it: "They that sanctify themselves, and purify themselves in the gardens, after the rites of the Only One, [21] eating swine's flesh, and the abomination, and the mouse, shall be consumed together" (Isaiah 66:17). In the unity of that one Only God of the Babylonians, there were three persons, and to symbolise that doctrine of the Trinity, they employed, as the discoveries of Layard prove, the equilateral triangle, just as it is well known the Romish Church does at this day. [22] In both cases [[@Page:17]]such a comparison is most degrading to the King Eternal, and is fitted utterly to pervert the minds of those who contemplate it, as if there was or could be any similitude between such a figure and Him who hath said, "To whom will ye liken God, and what likeness will ye compare unto Him?"

The Papacy has in some of its churches, as, for instance, in the monastery of the so-called Trinitarians of Madrid, an image of the Triune God, with three heads on one body. [23] The Babylonians had something of the same. Mr. Layard, in his last work, has given a specimen of such a triune divinity, worshipped in ancient Assyria. (Figure 3) The accompanying cut (Figure 4) of such another divinity, worshipped among the Pagans of Siberia, is taken from a medal in the Imperial Cabinet of St. Petersburg, and given in Parson's "Japhet." [24] The three heads are different arranged in Layard's specimen, but both alike are evidently intended to symbolise the same great truth, although all such representation of the Trinity

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

necessarily and utterly debase the conceptions of those, among whom such images prevail, in regard to the sublime mystery of our faith. In India, the supreme divinity, in like manner, in one of the most [[@Page:18]]ancient cave-temples, is represented with three heads on one body, under the name of "Eko Deva Trimurtti," "One God, three forms." [25] In Japan, the Buddhists worship their great divinity, Buddha, with three heads, in the very same form, under the name of "San Pao Full." [26] All these have existed from ancient times. While overlaid with idolatry, the recognition of a Trinity was universal in all the ancient nations of the world, proving how deep-rooted in the human race was the primeval doctrine on this subject, which comes out so distinctly in Genesis. [27] When we look at the symbols in the triune figure of Layard, already referred to, and minutely examine them, they are very instructive. Layard regards the circle in that figure as signifying "Time without bounds." But the hieroglyphic meaning of the circle is evidently different. A circle in Chaldea was zero; [28] and zero also signified "the seed." Therefore, according to the genius of the mystic system of Chaldea, which was to a large extent founded on double meanings, that which, to the eyes of men in general, was only zero, "a circle," was understood by the initiated to signify zero, "the seed." Now, viewed in this light, the triune emblem of the supreme Assyrian divinity shows clearly what had been the original patriarchal faith. First, there is the head of the old man; next, there is the zero, or circle, for "the seed;" and lastly, the wings and tail of the bird or dove; [29] showing, though blasphemously, the unity of Father, Seed, or Son, and [[@Page:19]]Holy Ghost. While this had been the original way in which Pagan idolatry had represented the Triune God, and though this kind of representation had survived to Sennacherib's time, yet there is evidence that, at a very early period, an important change had taken place in the Babylonian notions in regard to the divinity; and that the three persons had come to be, the Eternal Father, the Spirit of God incarnate in a human mother, and a Divine Son, the fruit of that incarnation.

Section II—The Mother and Child, and the Original of the Child

WHILE this was the theory, the first persons in the Godhead was practically overlooked. As the Great Invisible, taking no immediate

Fig 5.

Fig 6.

From Babylon. [30]

From India. [31]

concern in human affairs, he was "to be worshipped through silence alone," [32] that is, in point of fact, he was not worshipped by the multitude at all. The same thing is strikingly illustrated in India at this day. Though Brahma, according to the sacred books, is [[@Page:20]]the first person of the Hindoo Triad, and the religion of Hindostan is called by his name, yet he is never worshipped, and there is scarcely a single Temple in all India now in existence of those that were formerly erected to his honour. [33] So also is it in those countries of Europe where the Papal system is most completely developed. In Papal Italy, as travellers universally admit (except where the Gospel has recently entered), all appearance of worshipping the King Eternal and Invisible is almost extinct, while the Mother and the Child are the grand objects of worship. Exactly so, in this latter respect, also was it in ancient Babylon. The Babylonians, in their popular religion, supremely worshipped a Goddess Mother and a Son, who was represented in pictures and in images as an infant or child in his mother's arms. (Figure 5 [34] and Figure 6 [35], above)—From Babylon, this worship of the Mother and the Child spread to the ends of the earth. In Egypt, the Mother and the Child were worshipped under the names of Isis and Osiris. [36] In India, even to this day, as Isi and Iswara; [37] in Asia, as Cybele and Deoius; [38] in Pagan Rome, as Fortuna and Jupiter-puer, or Jupiter, the boy; [39] in Greece, as Ceres, the Great Mother, with the babe at her breast, [40] or as Irene, the goddess of Peace, with the boy Plutus in her arms; [41] and even in Thibet, in China, and Japan, the Jesuit missionaries were astonished to find the counterpart of Madonna [42] and her child as devoutly [[@Page:21]]worshipped as in Papal Rome itself; Shing Moo, the Holy Mother in China, being represented with a child in her arms, and a glory around her, exactly as ii a Roman Catholic artist had been employed to set her up. [43]


THE original of that mother, so widely worshipped, there is reason to believe, was Semiramis, [44] already referred to, who, it is well known, was worshipped by the Babylonians, [45] and other eastern nations, [46] and that under the name of Rhea, [47] the great Goddess "Mother."

It was from the son, however, that she derived all her glory and her claims to deification. That son, though represented as a child in his mother's arms, was a person of great stature and immense bodily powers, as well as most fascinating manners. In Scripture he is referred to (Ezekiel 8:14) under the name of Tammuz, but he is commonly known among classical writers under the name of Bacchus, that is, "The Lamented one" [48] To the ordinary reader [[@Page:22]]the name of Bacchus suggests nothing more than revelry and drunkenness, but it is now well known, that amid all the abominations that attended his orgies, their grand design was professedly "the purification of souls," [49] and that from the guild and defilement of sin. This lamented one, exhibited and adored as a little child in his mother's arms, seems, in point of fact, to have been the husband of Semiramis, whose name, Ninus, by which he is commonly known in classical history, literally signified "The Son." [50] As Semiramis, the wife, was worshipped as Rhea, whose grand distinguishing character was that of the great goddess "Mother," [51] the conjunction with her of her husband, under the name of Ninus, or "The Son," was sufficient to originate the peculiar worship of the "Mother and Son," so extensively diffused among the nations of antiquity; and this, no doubt, is the explanation of the fact which has so much puzzled the inquires into ancient history, that Ninus is sometimes called the husband, and sometimes the son of Semiramis. [52] This also accounts for the origin of the very same confusion of relationship between Isis and Osiris, the mother and child of the Egyptians; for as Bunsen shows, Osiris was represented in Egypt as at once the son and husband of his mother; and actually bore, as one of his titles of dignity and honour, the name "Husband of the Mother." [53] This [[@Page:23]]still further casts light on the fact already noticed, that the Indian God Iswara is represented as a babe at the breast of his own wife Isi, or Parvati.

Now, this Ninus, or "Son," borne in the arms of the Babylonian Madonna, is so described as very clearly to identify him with Nimrod. "Ninus, king of the Assyrians," [54] says Tragus Pompeius, epitomised by Justin, "first of all changed the contented moderation of the ancient manners, incited by a new passion, the desire of conquest. He was the first who carried on war against his neighbours, and he conquered all nations from Assyria to Lybia, as they were yet unacquainted with the arts of war." [55] This account points directly to Nimrod, and can apply to no other. The account of Diodorus Siculus entirely agrees with it, and adds another trait that goes still further to determine the identity. That account is as follows:—"Ninus, the most ancient of the Assyrian kings," mentioned in history, performed great actions. Being naturally of a warlike disposition, and ambitious of glory that results from valour, he armed a considerable number of young men that were brave and vigorous like himself, trained them up a long time in laborious exercises and hardships, and by that means accustomed them to bear the fatigues of war, and to "face dangers with intrepidity." [56] As Diodorus makes Ninus "the most ancient of the Assyrian kings," and represents him as beginning those wars which raised his power to an extraordinary height by bringing the people of Babylonia under subjection to him, while as yet the city of Babylon was not in existence, this shows that he occupied the very position of Nimrod, of whom the Scriptural account is, that he first "began to be mighty on the earth," and that the "beginning of his kingdom was Babylon." As the Babel builders, when their speech was confounded, were scattered abroad on the face of the earth, and therefore deserted both the city and the tower which they had commenced to build, Babylon as a city, could not properly be said to exist till Nimrod, by establishing his power there, made it the foundation and starting-point of his greatness. In this respect, then, the story of Ninus and of Nimrod exactly harmonise. The way, too, in which Ninus gained his power is the very way in which Nimrod erected his. There can be no doubt that it was by inuring his followers to the toils and dangers of the chase, that he gradually formed them to the use of arms, and so prepared them for aiding him in establishing his dominions; just as Ninus, by training his companions [[@Page:24]]for a long time "in laborious exercises and hardships," qualified them for making him the first of the Assyrian kings.

The conclusions deducted from these testimonies of ancient history are greatly strengthened by many additional considerations. In Genesis 10:11, we find a passage, which, when its meaning is properly understood, casts a very steady light on the subject. That passage, as given in the authorised version, runs thus:—"Out of that land went fourth Asshur, and builded Nineveh." This speaks of it as something remarkable, that Asshur went out of the land of Shinar, while yet the human race in general went forth from the same land. It goes upon the supposition that Asshur had some sort of divine right to that land, and that he had been, in a manner, expelled from it by Nimrod, while no divine right is elsewhere hinted at in the context, or seems capable of proof. Moreover, it represents Asshur as setting up in the IMMEDIATE NEIGHBOURHOOD of Nimrod as mighty a kingdom as Nimrod himself, Asshur building four cities, one of which is emphatically said to have been "great" (Genesis 10:12); while Nimrod, on this interpretation, built just the same number of cities, of which none is specially characterised as "great." Now, it is in the last degree improbable that Nimrod would have quietly borne so mighty a rival so near him. To obviate such difficulties as these, it has been proposed to render the words, "out of that land he (Nimrod) went forth into Asshur, or Assyria." But then, according to ordinary usage of grammar, the word in the original should have been "Ashurah," with the sign of motion to a place affixed to it, whereas it is simply Asshur, without any such sign of motion affixed. I am persuaded that the whole perplexity that commentators have hitherto felt in considering this passage, his arisen from supposing that there is a proper name in the passage, where in reality no proper name exists. Asshur is the passive participle of a verb, which, in its Chaldee sense, signifies "to make strong" [57] and, consequently, signifies "being strengthened," or "made strong." Read thus, the whole passage is natural and easy (Genesis 10:10), "And the beginning of his (Nimrod's) kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh." A beginning naturally implies something to succeed, and here we find it (Genesis 10:11); "Out of that land he went forth, being made strong, or when he had been made strong (Ashur), and builded Nineveh," etc. Now, this exactly agrees with the statement in the ancient history of Justin: "Ninus strengthened ike, greatness of his acquired dominion by continued possession. Having subdued, therefore, his neighbours, when, by an accession offerees, being still further strengthened, he went forth against [[@Page:25]]other tribes, and every new victory paved the way for another, he subdued all the peoples of the East." [58] Thus, then, Nimrod, or Ninus, was the builder of Nineveh; and the origin of the name of that city, as "the habitation of Ninus," is accounted for, [59] and light is thereby, at the same time, cast on the fact, that the name of the chief part of the ruins of Nineveh is Nimroud at this day. [60]

Now, assuming that Ninus is Nimrod, the way in which that assumption explains what is otherwise inexplicable in the statements of ancient history greatly confirms the truth of the assumption itself. Ninus is said to have been the son of Belus or Bel, and Bel is said to have been the founder of Babylon. If Ninus was in reality the first king of Babylon, how could Belus or Bel, his father, be said to be the founder of it? Both might very well be, as will appear if we consider who was Bel, and what we can trace of his doings. If Ninus was Nimrod, who was the historical Bel? He must have been Cush; for "Cush begat Nimrod" (Genesis 10:8); and Cush is generally represented as having been a ringleader in the great apostasy. [61] But again, Cush, as the son of Ham, was Hermes or Mercury; for Hermes is just an Egyptian synonym for the "son of Ham." [62] Now, Hermes was the great original prophet of idolatry; for he was [[@Page:26]]recognised by the pagans as the author of their religious rites, and the interpreter of the gods. The distinguished Gesenius identifies him with the Babylonian Nebo, as the prophetic god; and a statement of Hyginus shows that he was known as the grand agent in that movement which produced the division of tongues. His words are these: "For many ages men lived under the government of Jove {evidently not the Roman Jupiter, but the Jehovah of the Hebrews}, without cities and without laws, and all speaking one language. But after that Mercury interpreted the speeches of men (whence an interpreter is called Hermeneutes), the same individual distributed the nations. Then discord began." [63] Here there is a manifest enigma. How could Mercury or Hermes have any need to interpret the speeches of mankind when they "all spake one language"? To find out the meaning of this, we must go to the language of the Mysteries. Peresh, in Chaldee, signifies "to interpret;" but was pronounced by old Egyptians and by Greeks, and often by the Chaldees themselves, in the same way as "Peres," to "divide." Mercury, then, or Hermes, or Cush, "the son of Ham," was the "Divider of the speeches of men." He, it would seem, had been the ringleader in the scheme for building the great city and tower of Babel; and, as the well-known title of Hermes,—"the interpreter of the gods," would indicate, had encouraged them, in the name of God, to proceed in their presumptuous enterprise, and so had caused the language of men to be divided, and themselves to be scattered abroad on the face of the earth. Now look at the name of Belus or Bel, given to the father of Ninus, or Nimrod, in connection with this. While the Greek name Belus represented both the Baal and Bel of the Chaldees, these were nevertheless two entirely distinct titles. These titles were both alike often given to the same god, but they had totally different meanings. Baal, as we have already seen, signified "The Lord;" but Bel signified "The Confounder." When, then, we read that Belus, the father of Ninus, was he that built or founded Babylon, can there be a doubt, in what sense it was that the title of Belus was given to him? It must have been in the sense of Bel the "Confounder." And to this meaning of the name of the Babylonian Bel, there is a very distinct allusion in Jeremiah 1:2, where it is said "Bel is confounded," that is, "The Confounder is brought to confusion." That Cush was known to Pagan antiquity under the very character of Bel, "The Confounder," a statement of OVID very clearly proves. The statement to which I refer is that in which Janus "the god of gods," [64] from whom all the other gods had their origin, [65] is made to say of himself: "The ancients … called me Chaos." [66] Now, first this decisively shows that Chaos was known [[@Page:27]]not merely as a state of confusion, but as the "god of Confusion." But, secondly, who that is at all acquainted with the laws of Chaldaic pronunciation, does not know that Chaos is just one of the established forms of the name of Chus or Cush? [67] Then, look at the symbol of Janus (see Figure 7[68]), [69] whom "the ancients called Chaos," and it will be seen how exactly it tallies with the doings of Cush, when he is identified with Bel, "The Confounder." That symbol is a club; and the name of "a club" in Chaldee comes from the very word which signifies "to break in pieces, or scatter abroad" [70] He who caused the confusion of tongues was he who "broke" the previously united earth (Genesis 11:1) "in pieces," and "scattered" the fragments abroad. How significant, then, as a symbol, is the club, as commemorating the work of Cush, as Bel, the "Confounder"? And that significance will be all the more apparent when the reader turns to the Hebrew of Genesis 11:9, and finds that the very word from which a club derives its name is that which is employed when it is said, that in consequence of the confusion of tongues, the children of men were "scattered abroad on the face of all the earth." [71] The word there used for scattering abroad is Hephaitz, [72] which, in the Greek form

Fig. 7.

becomes Hephaizt, and hence the origin of the well-known but little understood name of Hephaistos, as applied to Vulcan, "The father of the gods." [73] Hephaistos is the name of the ringleader in the first [[@Page:28]]rebellion, as "The Scatterer abroad," as Bel is the name of the same individual as the "Confounder of tongues." Here, then, the reader may see the real origin of Vulcan's Hammer, which is just another name for the club of Janus or Chaos, "The god of Confusion;" and to this, as breaking the earth in pieces, there is a covert allusion in Jeremiah 1:23, where Babylon, as identified with its primeval god, is thus apostrophised: "How is the hammer of the whole earth cut asunder and broken!" Now, as the tower-building was the first act of open rebellion after the flood, and Cush, as Bel, was the ringleader in it, he was, of course, the first to whom the name Merodach, "The great Rebel," [74] must have been given, and, therefore, according to the usual parallelism of the prophetic language, we find both names of the Babylonian god referred to together, when the judgment on Babylon is predicted: "Bel is confounded: Merodach is broken in pieces" (Jeremiah 50:2). The Judgment comes upon the Babylonian god according to what he had done. As Bel, he had "confounded" the whole earth, therefore he is "confounded." As Merodach, by the rebellion he had stirred up, he had "broken" the united world in pieces; therefore he himself is "broken in pieces."

So much for the historical character of Bel, as identified with Janus or Chaos, the god of confusion, with his symbolical club. [75] Proceeding, then, on these deductions, it is not difficult to see how it might be said that Bel or Belus, the father of Ninus, founded Babylon, while, nevertheless, Ninus or Nimrod was properly the builder of it. Now, though Bel or Cush, as being specially concerned in laying the first foundations of Babylon, might be looked upon as the first king, as in some of the copies of "Eusebius's Chronicle" he is represented, yet it is evident from both sacred history and profane, that he could never have reigned as king of the Babylonian monarchy, properly so called; and accordingly, in the Armenian version of the "Chronicle of Eusebius," which bears the undisputed palm for correctness and authority, his name is entirely omitted in the list of Assyrian kings, and that of Ninus stands first, in such terms as exactly correspond with the Scriptural account of Nimrod. Thus, then, looking at the fact that Ninus is currently made by antiquity the son of Belus, or [[@Page:29]]Bel, when we have seen that the historical Bel is Cush, the identity of Ninus and Nimrod is still further confirmed.

But when we look at what is said of Semiramis, the wife of Ninus, the evidence receives an additional development. That evidence goes

Fig 8.

Diana of Ephesus.

conclusively to show that the wife of Ninus could be none other than the wife of Nimrod, and, further, to bring out one of the grand characters in which Nimrod, when deified, was adored. In [[@Page:30]]Daniel 11:38, we read of a god called Ala Mahozine [76]—i.e., the "god of fortifications." Who this god of fortifications could be, commentators have found themselves at a loss to determine. In the records of antiquity the existence of any god of fortifications has been commonly overlooked; and it must be confessed that no such god stands forth there with any prominence to the ordinary reader. But of the existence of a goddess of fortifications, every one knows that there is the amplest evidence. That goddess is Cybele, who is universally represented with a mural or turreted crown, or with a fortification, on her head. Why was Rhea or Cybele thus represented? Ovid asks the question and answers it himself; and the answer is this: The reason he says, why the statue of Cybele wore a crown of towers was, "because she first erected them in cities." [77] The first city in the world after the flood (from whence the commencement of the world itself was often dated) that had towers and encompassing walls, was Babylon; and Ovid himself tells us that it was Semiramis, the first queen of that city, who was believed to have "surrounded Babylon with a wall of brick." [78] Semiramis, then, the first deified queen of that city and tower whose top was intended to reach to heaven, must have been the prototype of the goddess who "first made towers in cities." When we look at the Ephesian Diana, we find evidence to the very same effect. In general, Diana was depicted as a virgin, and the patroness of virginity; but the Ephesian Diana was quite different. She was represented with all the attributes of the Mother of the gods (Figure 8, below[79]), and, as the Mother of the gods, she wore a turreted crown, such as no one can contemplate without being forcibly reminded of the tower of Babel. Now this tower-bearing Diana is by an ancient scholiast expressly identified with Semiramis. [80] When, therefore, we remember that Rhea or Cybele, the tower-bearing goddess, was, in point of fact, a Babylonian goddess, [81] and that Semiramis, when deified, was worshipped under the name of Rhea, [82] there [[@Page:31]]will remain, I think no doubt as to the personal identity of the "goddess of fortifications."

Now there was no reason to believe that Semiramis alone (though some have represented the matter so) built the battlements of Babylon. We have the express testimony of the ancient historian, Megasthenes, as preserved by Abydenus, that it was "Belus" who "surrounded Babylon with a wall." [83] As "Bel," the Confounder, who began the city and tower of Babel, had to leave both unfinished, this could not refer to him. It could refer only to his son Ninus, who inherited his father's title, and who was the first actual king of the Babylonian empire, and, consequently Nimrod. The real reason that Semiramis, the wife of Ninus, gained the glory of finishing the fortifications of Babylon, was, that she came in the esteem of the ancient idolaters to hold a preponderating position, and have attributed to her all the different characters that belonged, or were supposed to belong, to her husband. Having ascertained, then, one of the characters in which the deified wife was worshipped, we may from that conclude what was the corresponding character of the deified husband. Layard distinctly indicates his belief that Rhea or Cybele, the "tower-crown" goddess, was just the female counterpart of the "deity presiding over bulwarks or fortresses;" [84] and that this deity was Ninus, or Nimrod, we have still further evidence from what the scattered notices of antiquity say of the first deified king of Babylon, under a name that identifies him as the husband of Rhea, the "tower-bearing" goddess. That name is Kronos or Saturn. [85] It is well known that Kronos, or Saturn, was Rhea's husband; but it is not so well known who was Kronos himself. Traced back to his [[@Page:32]]original, that divinity is proved to have been the first king of Babylon. Theophilus of Antioch shows that Kronos in the east was worshipped under the names of Bel and Bal; [86] and from Eusebius we learn that the first of the Assyrian kings, whose name was Belus, was also by the Assyrians called Kronos. [87] As the genuine copies of Eusebius do not admit of any Belus, as an actual king of Assyria, prior to Ninus, king of the Babylonians, and distinct from him, that shows that Ninus, the first king of Babylon, was Kronos. But, further, we find that Kronos was King of the Cyclops, who were his brethren, and who derived that name from him, [88] and that the Cyclops were known as "the inventors of tower-building," [89] occupied a position exactly correspondent to that of Rhea, who "first erected (towers) in cities." If, therefore, Rhea, the wife of Kronos, was the goddess of fortifications, Kronos or Saturn, the husband of Rhea, that is, Ninus or Nimrod, the first king of Babylon, must have been Ala mahozin, "the god of fortifications." [90]

The name Kronos itself goes not a little to confirm the argument. Kronos signifies "The Horned one." [91] As a horn is a well-known Oriental emblem for power or might, Kronos, "The Horned one," was, according to the mystic system, just a synonym for the Scriptural epithet applied to Nimrod—viz., Gheber, "The mighty one" (Genesis 10:8), "He began to be mighty on the earth." The name Kronos, as the classical reader as well aware, is applied to Saturn as the "Father of the gods." We have already had another "father of the gods" brought under our notice, even Cush in his character of Bel the Confounder, or Hephaistos, "The Scatterer abroad;" [92] and it is easy to understand how, when the deification of mortals began, and the "mighty" Son of Cush was deified, the father, especially considering the part which he seems to have had in concocting the whole idolatrous system, would have to be deified too, and of course, in his character as the Father of the "Mighty one," and of all the "immortals" that succeeded him. But, in point of fact, we shall find, in the course of our inquiry, that Nimrod was the actual Father of the gods, as being the first of deified mortals; and that, therefore, it is [[@Page:33]]in exact accordance with historical fact that Kronos, the Horned, or Mighty one, is, in the classic Pantheon, known by that title.

The meaning of this name Kronos, "The Horned one," as applied to Nimrod, fully explains the origin of the remarkable symbol, so frequently occurring among the Nineveh sculptures, the gigantic

Fig 9.              

HORNED man-bull, as representing the great divinities in Assyria. The same word that signified a bull, signified also a ruler ox prince. [93] Hence the "Horned bull" signified "The Mighty Prince." thereby pointing back to the first of those "Mighty ones," who, under the name of Guebres, Gabrs, or Cabiri, occupied so conspicuous a place in the ancient world, and to whom the deified Assyrian monarchs covertly traced back the origin of their greatness and might. This explains the reason why the Bacchus of the Greeks was represented as wearing horns, and why he was frequently addressed by the epithet "Bull-horned," as one of the high titles of his dignity. [94] Even in comparatively recent times, Togrul Begh, the leader of the Seljukian Turks, who came from the neighbourhood of the Euphrates, was in a similar manner represented with three horns growing out of his head, as the emblem of his sovereignty (Figure 9). [95]

Fig. 10.

This, also, in a remarkable way accounts for the origin of one of the divinities worshipped by our Pagan Anglo-Saxon ancestors under the name of Zernebogus. This Zernebogus was "the black, malevolent, [[@Page:34]]ill-omened divinity," [96] in other words, the exact counterpart of the popular idea of the Devil, as supposed to be black, and equipped with horns and hoofs. This name analysed and compared with the accompanying woodcut (Figure 10), from Layard, [97] casts a very singular light on the source from whence has come the popular superstition light on the source from whence has come the popular superstition in regard to the grand Adversary. The name Zer-Nebo-Gus is almost pure Chaldee, and seems to unfold itself as denoting "The seed of the prophet Cush." We have seen reason already to conclude that, under the name Bel, as distinguished from Baal, Cush was the great soothsayer or false prophet worshipped at Babylon. But independent inquirers have been led to the conclusion that Bel and Nebo were just two different titles for the same god, and that a prophetic god. Thus does Kitto comment on the words of Isaiah 46:1:—

"Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth," with reference to the latter name: "The word seems to come from Nibba, to deliver an oracle, or to prophesy; and hence would mean an 'oracle,' and may thus, as Calmet suggests ('Commentaire Literal,' in loc), be no more than another name for Bel himself, or a characterising epithet applied to him; it being not unusual to repeat the same thing, in the same verse, in equivalent terms." [98] "Zer-Nebo-Gus," the great "seed of the prophet Cush," was, of course, Nimrod; for Cush was Nimrod's father. Turn now to Layard, and see how this land of ours and Assyria are thus brought into intimate connection. In the woodcut referred to, first we find "the Assyrian Hercules," [99] that is "Nimrod the giant," as he is called in the Sepruagint version of Genesis, without club, spear, or weapons of any kind, attacking a bull. Having overcome it, he sets the bull's horns on his head, as a trophy of victory and a symbol of power; and thenceforth the hero is represented, not only with the horns and hoofs above, but from the middle downwards, with the legs and cloven feet of the bull. Thus equipped he is represented as turning next to encounter a lion. This, in all likelihood, is intended to commemorate some event in the life of him who first began to be mighty in the chase and in war, and who, according to all ancient traditions, was remarkable also for bodily power, as being the leader of the Giants that rebelled against heaven. Now Nimrod, as the son of Cush, was black, in other words, was a Negro. "Can the Æthiopian change his skin?" is in the original, "Can the Cushite" do so? Keeping this, then, in mind, it will be seen that in that figure disentombed from Nineveh, we have both the prototype of the Anglo-Saxon Zer-Nebo-Gus, "the seed of the prophet Cush," and the real original of the black Adversary of mankind, with horns and hoofs. It was in a different character from that of the Adversary that Nimrod was originally worshipped; but among a people of a fair complexion, as the Anglo-Saxons, it was inevitable [[@Page:35]]that, if worshipped at all, it must generally be simply as an object of fear; and so Kronos, "The Horned one," who wore the "horns," as the emblem both of his physical might and sovereign power, has come to be, in popular superstition, the recognised representative of the Devil.

Fig 11.

In many and far-severed countries, horns became the symbols of sovereign power. The corona or crown, that still encircles the brows of European monarchs, seems remotely to be derived from the emblem of might adopted by Kronos, or Saturn, who, according to Pherecydes, was "the first before all others that ever wore a crown." [100] [[@Page:36]]The first regal crown appears to have been only a band, in which the horns were set. From the idea of power contained in the "horn," even subordinate rulers seem to have worn a circlet adorned with a single horn, in token of their derived authority. Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller gives examples of Abyssinian chiefs thus decorated, (Figure 11) in regard to whom he states that the horn attracted his particular attention, when he perceived that the governors of provinces were distinguished by this head-dress. [101] In the case of sovereign powers, the royal head-band was adorned sometimes with a double, sometimes with a triple horn. The double horn had evidently been the original symbol of power or might on the part of sovereigns; for, on the Egyptian monuments, the

Fig. 12.

heads of the deified royal personages have generally no more than the two horns to shadow forth their power. As sovereignty in Nimrod's case was founded on physical force, so the two horns of the bull were the symbols of that physical force. And, in accordance with this, we read in "Sanchuniathon," that "Astarte put on her own head a bull's head as the ensign of royalty." [102] By-and-by, however, another and a higher idea come in, and the expression of that idea was seen in the symbol of the three horns. A cap seems in course of time to have come to be associated with the regal horns. In Assyria the three-horned cap was one of the "sacred emblems" [103] in token that the power connected with it was of celestial origin,—the three horns evidently pointing at the power of the trinity. Still, we have indications that the horned band, without any cap, was anciently the corona or royal crown. The crown borne by the Hindoo god Vishnu, in his avatar of the Fish, is just an open circle or band, with three horns standing erect from it, with a knob on the top of each horn (Figure 12). [104] All the avators [[@Page:37]]are represented as crowned with a crown that seems to have been modelled from this, consisting of a coronet with three points, standing erect from it, in which Sir William Jones recognises the Æthiopian or Parthian coronet. [105] The open tiara of Agni, the Hindoo god of fire, shows in its lower round the double horn, [106] made in the very same way as in Assyria, [107] proving at once the ancient custom, and whence that custom had come. Instead of the three horns, three horn-shaped leaves came to be substituted (Figure 13); [108] and thus the horned band gradually passed into the modern coronet or crown with the three leaves of the fleur-de-lis, or other familiar three-leaved adornings.

Among the Red Indians of America there had evidently been something entirely analogous to the Babylonian custom of wearing the horns; for, in the "buffalo dance" there, each of the dancers had his head arrayed with buffalo's horns; [109] and it is worthy especial remark, that the "Satyric dance," 1 or dance of the Satyrs in Greece, seems to have been the counterpart of this Red Indian solemnity; for the satyrs were horned divinities, and consequently

 Fig 13

those who imitated their dance must have had their heads set off in imitation of theirs. When thus we find a custom that is clearly founded on a form of speech that characteristically distinguished the region were Nimrod's power was wielded, used in so many different countries far removed from one another, where no such form of speech was used in ordinary life, we may be sure that such a custom was not the result of mere accident, but that it indicates the wide-spread diffusion of an influence that went forth in all directions from Babylon, from the time that Nimrod first "began to be mighty on the earth."

There was another way in which Nimrod's power was symbolised beside's by the "horn. [110] A synonym for Gheber, "The mighty one," was "Abir," while "Aber" also signified a "wing." Nimrod, as Head and Captain of those men of war, by whom he surrounded himself, and who were the instruments of establishing his power, was "Baal-aberin," "Lord of the mighty ones." But "Baal-abirin" [[@Page:38]](pronounced nearly in the same way) signified "The winged one," [111] and therefore in symbol he was represented, not only as a horned bull, but as at once a horned and winged bull—as showing not merely that he was mighty himself, but that he had mighty ones

Fig 14.

Bull from Nimrod. From VAUX, p. 236.

Fig 15.

Bull from Persepolis. Ibid. p. 320.

under his command, who were ever ready to carry his will into effect, and to put down all opposition to his power; and to shadow forth the vast extent of his might, he was represented with great and wide-expanding wings. To this mode of representing the mighty kings of Babylon and Assyria, who imitated Nimrod and as successors, there is manifest allusion in Isaiah 7:6-8: "Forasmuch as this people refuseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly, and rejoice in Rezin and Remaliah's son; now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and mighty, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory; and he shall come up over all his banks. And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over; he shall reach even unto the neck; and the STRETCHING Out Of His WINGS shall Fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel." When we look at such figures as those which are here [[@Page:39]]presented to the reader (Figures 14 and 15, above), with their great extent of expanded wing, as symbolising an Assyrian king, what a vividness and force does it give to the inspired language of the prophet! And how clear is it, also, that the stretching forth of the Assyrian monarch's WINGS, that was to "fill the breadth of Immanuel's land," has that very symbolic meaning to which I have referred—viz., the overspreading of the land by his "mighty ones," or hosts of armed men, that the king of Babylon was to bring with him in his overflowing invasion! The knowledge of the way in which the Assyrian monarchs were represented, and of the meaning of that representation, gives additional force to the story of the dream of Cyrus the Great, as told by Herodotus. Cyrus, says the historian, dreamt that he saw the son of one of his princes, who was at the time in a distant province, with two great "wings on his shoulders, the one of which overshadowed Asia, and the other Europe," [112] from which he immediately concluded that he was organising rebellion against him. The symbols of the Babylonians, whose capital Cyrus had taken, and to whose power he had succeeded, were entirely familiar to him; and if the "wings" were the symbols of sovereign power, and the possession of them implied the lordship over the might, or the armies of the empire, it is easy to see how very naturally any suspicion of disloyalty affecting the individual in question might take shape in the manner related, in the dreams of him who might harbour these suspicions.

Now, the understanding of this equivocal sense of "Baal-aberin" can only explain the remarkable statement of Aristophanes, that at the beginning of the world "the birds" were first created, and then, after their creation, came the "race of the blessed immortal gods." [113] This has been regarded as either an atheistical or nonsensical utterance on the part of the poet, but, with the true key applied to the language, it is found to contain an important historical fact. Let it only be borne in mind that "the birds"—that is, the "winged ones"—symbolised "the Lords of the mighty ones," and then the meaning is clear, viz., that men first "began to be mighty on the earth;" and then, that the "Lords" or Leaders of "these mighty ones" were deified. The knowledge of the mystic sense of this symbol accounts also for the origin of the story of Perseus, the son of Jupiter, miraculously borne of Danae, who did such wondrous things, and who passed from country to country on wings divinely bestowed on him. This equally casts light on the symbolic myths in regard to Bellerophon, and the feats which he performed on his winged horse, and their ultimate disastrous issue; how high he mounted in the air, and how terrible was his fall; and of Icarus, the son of Dsedalus, who, flying on wax-cemented wings over the Icarian Sea, had his wings melted off through his too near approach to the sun, and so gave his name to the sea where he was supposed to have fallen. The fables all referred to those who trod, or were supposed [[@Page:40]]to have trodden, in the steps of Nimrod, the first "Lord of the mighty ones," and who in that character was symbolised as equipped with wings.

Now, it is remarkable that, in the passage of Aristophanes already referred to, that speaks of the birds, or "the winged ones," being produced before the gods, we are informed that he from whom both "mighty ones" and gods derived their origin, was none other than the winged boy Cupid. [114] Cupid, the son of Venus, occupied, as will afterwards be proved, in the mystic mythology the very same position as Nin, or Ninus, "the son," did to Rhea, the mother of the gods. [115] As Nimrod was unquestionably the first of "the mighty ones" after the Flood, this statement of Aristophanes, that the boy-god Cupid, himself a winged one, produced all the birds or "winged ones," while occupying the very position of Nin or Ninus, "the son," shows that in this respect also Ninus and Nimrod are identified. While this is the evident meaning of the poet, this also, in a strictly historical point of view, is the conclusion of the historian Apollodorus; for he states that "Ninus is Nimrod." [116] And then, in conformity with this identity of Ninus and Nimrod, we find, in one of the most celebrated sculptures of ancient Babylon, Ninus and his wife Semiramis represented as actively engaged in the pursuits of the chase, [117] —"the quiver-bearing Semiramis" being a fit companion for "the mighty Hunter before the Lord."


WHEN we turn to Egypt we find remarkable evidence of the same thing there also. Justin, as we have already seen, says that "Ninus subdued all nations, as far as Lybia," and consequently Egypt. The statement of Diodorus Siculus is to the same effect, Egypt being one of the countries that, according to him, Ninus brought into subjection to himself. [118] In exact accordance with these historical statements, we find that the name of the third person in the primeval triad of Egypt was Khons. But Khons, in Egyptian, comes from a word that signifies "to chase." [119] Therefore, the name of Khons, the son of Maut, the goddess-mother, who was adorned in such a way as to [[@Page:41]]identify her with Rhea, the great goddess-mother of Chaldea, [120] properly signifies "The Huntsman," or god of the chase. As Khons stands in the very same relation to the Egyptian Maut as Ninus does to Rhea, how does this title of "The Huntsman" identify the Egyptian god with Nimrod? Now this very name Khons, brought into contact with the Roman mythology, not only explains the meaning of a name in the Pantheon there, that hitherto has stood greatly in need of explanation, but causes that name, when explained, to reflect light back again on this Egyptian divinity, and to strengthen the conclusion already arrived at. The name to which I refer is the name of the Latin god Consus, who was in one aspect identified with Neptune, [121] but who was also regarded as "the god of hidden counsels," or "the concealer of secrets," who was looked up to as the patron of horsemanship, and was said to have produced the horse. [122] Who could be the "god of hidden counsels," or the "concealer of secrets," but Saturn, the god of the "mysteries," and whose name as used at Rome, signified "The hidden one"? [123] The father of Khons, or Khonso (as he was also called), that is, Amoun, was, as we are told by Plutarch, known as "The hidden God;" [124] and as father and son in the same triad have ordinarily a correspondence of character, this shows that Khons also must have been known in the very same character of Saturn, "The hidden one." If the Latin Consus, then, thus exactly agreed with the Egyptian Khons, as the god of "mysteries," or "hidden counsels," can there be a doubt that Khons, the Huntsman, also agreed with the same Roman divinity as the supposed producer of the horse? Who so likely to get the credit of producing the horse as the great huntsman of Babel, who no doubt enlisted it in the toils of the chase, and by this means must have been signally aided in his conflicts with the wild beasts of the forest? In this connection, let the reader call to mind that fabulous creature, the Centaur, half-man, half-horse, that figures so much in the mythology of Greece. That imaginary creation, as in generally admitted, was intended to commemorate the man who first taught the art of horsemanship. [125] But that creation was not the offspring of Greek [[@Page:42]]fancy. Here, as in many other things, the Greeks have only borrowed from an earlier source. The Centaur is found on coins struck in Babylonia (Figure 16), [126] showing that the idea must have originally come from that quarter. The Centaur is found in the Zodiac (Figure 17[127]), [128] the antiquity of which goes up to a high period, and which had its origin in Babylon. The Centaur was represented, as we are expressly assured by Berosus, the Babylonian historian, in the temple of Babylon, [129] and his language would seem to show that so also it had been in primeval times. The Greeks did themselves admit this antiquity and derivation of the Centaur; for though Ixion was commonly represented as the father of the Centaurs, yet they also acknowledge that the primitive Centaurus was the same as Kronos, or Saturn, the father of the gods. [130] But we have seen that Kronos was the first King of Babylon, or Nimrod; consequently, the first Centaur was the same. Now, the way in which the Centaur was represented on the Babylonian coins, and in the Zodiac, viewed

Fig 16.

in this light, is very striking. The Centaur was the same as the sign Sagittarius, or "The Archer." [131] If the founder of Babylon's glory was "The mighty Hunter," whose name, even in the days of Moses, was proverb—(Genesis 10:9. "Wherefore, it is said, Even as Nimrod, the mighty hunter before the Lord")—when we find the "Archer" with his bow and arrow, in the symbol of the supreme Babylonian divinity, [132] and the "Archer," among the signs of the Zodiac that originated in Babylon, I think we may safely conclude that this Man-horse or Horse-man Archer primarily referred to him, and was intended to perpetuate the memory at once of his fame as a huntsman and his skill as a horse-breaker.

Now, when we thus compare the Egyptian Khons, the "Huntsman," with the Latin Consus, the god of gorse-races, who "produced the horse," and the Centaur of Babylon, to whom was attributed the [[@Page:43]]honour of being the author of horsemanship, while we see how all the lines converge in Babylon, it will be very clear, I think, whence the primitive Egyptian god Khons has been derived.

Khons, the son of the great goddess-mother, seems to have been generally represented as a full-grown god. [133] The Babylonian divinity was also represented very frequently in Egypt in the very same way as in the land of his nativity—i.e., as a child in his mother's arms. [134] This was the way in which Osiris, "the son, the husband of his mother," was often exhibited, and what we learn of this god, equally as in the case of Khonso, shows that in his original he was none other than Nimrod. It is admitted that the secret system of Free Masonry was originally founded on the Mysteries of the Egyptian Isis, the goddess-mother, or wife of Osiris. But what could have led to the union of a Masonic body with these Mysteries, had they not had particular reference to architecture, and had the god who was worshipped in them not been celebrated for his success in perfecting the arts of fortification and building? Now, if such were the case, considering the relation in which, as we have already seen, Egypt stood to Babylon, who would naturally be looked up to their as

Fig 17.                        

the great patron of the Masonic art? The strong presumption is, that Nimrod must have been the man. He was the first that gained fame in this way. As the child of the Babylonian goddess-mother, he was worshipped, as we have seen, in the character of Ala mahozim, "The god of fortifications," Osiris, in like manner, the child of the Egyptian Madonna, was equally celebrated as "the strong chief of the buildings." [135] This strong chief of the buildings was originally worshipped in Egypt with every physical characteristic of Nimrod. I have already noticed the fact that Nimrod, as the son of Cush, was a Negro. Now, there was a traditional Egypt, recorded by Plutarch, that "Osiris was black" [136] which, in a land where the general complexion was dusky, must have implied something more than ordinary in its darkness. Plutarch also states that Horus, the son of Osiris, "was of a fair complexion," [137] and it was in this way, for the most part, that Osiris was represented. But we have unequivocal evidence that Osiris, the son and husband of the great goddess-queen of Egypt, was also represented as a veritable Negro. In Wilkinson may be found a representation of him [138] (Figure 18) with the unmistakable features of the genuine Cushite or Negro. Bunsen would have it that [[@Page:44]]this is a mere random importation from some of the barbaric tribes; but the dress in which this Negro god is arrayed tells a different tale. That dress directly connects him with Nimrod. This Negro-featured Osiris is clothed from head to foot in a spotted dress, the upper part being a leopard's skin, the under part also being spotted to correspond with it. Now the name Nimrod [139] signifies "the subduer of the leopard." This name seems to imply, that as Nimrod had gained fame by subduing the horse, and so making use of it in the chase, so his fame as a huntsman rested mainly on this, that he found out the art of making the leopard aid him in hunting the other wild beasts.

Fig 18.

A particular kind of tame leopard is used in India at this day for hunting; and of Bagajet I., the Mogul Emperor of India, it is recorded that in his hunting establishment he had not only hounds of various breeds, but leopard also, whose "collars were set with jewels." [140] Upon the words of the prophet Habakkuk 1:8, "swifter than leopards," Kitto has the following remarks:—"The swiftness of the leopard is proverbial in all countries where it is found. This, conjoined with its other qualities, suggested the idea in the East of partially training it, that it might be employed in hunting … Leopards are now rarely kept for hunting in Western Asia, unless by kings and governors; but they are more common in the eastern parts of Asia. Orosius relates that one was sent by the king of Portugal to the Pope, which excited great astonishment by the way in which it overtook, and the facility with which it killed, deer and wild boars. Le Bruyn mentions a leopard kept by the Pasha who governed Gaza, and the other territories of the ancient Philistines, and [[@Page:45]]which he frequently employed in hunting jackals. But it is in India that the cheetah, or hunting leopard, is most frequently employed, and is seen in the perfection of his power." [141] This custom of taming the leopard, and pressing it into the service of man in this way, is traced up to the earliest times of primitive antiquity. In the works of Sir William Jones, we find it stated from the Persian legends, that Hoshang, the father of Tahmurs, who built Babylon, was the "first who bred dogs and leopards for hunting." [142] As Tahmurs, who built Babylon, could be none other than Nimrod, this legend only attributes to his father what, as his name imports, he got the fame of doing himself. Now, as the classic god bearing the lion's skin is recognised by that sign as Hercules, the slayer of the Nemean lion, so in like manner, the god clothed in the leopard's skin would naturally be marked out as Nimrod, the "leopard-subduer." That this leopard skin, as appertaining to the Egyptian god, was no

Fig 19.            

occasional thing, we have clearest evidence. Wilkinson tells us, that on all high occasions when the Egyptian high priest was called to officiate, it was indispensable that he should do so wearing, as his robe of office, the leopard's skin (Figure 19). [143] As it is a universal principle in all idolatries that the high priest wears the insignia of the god he serves, this indicates the importance which the spotted skin must have had attached to it as a symbol of the god himself. The ordinary way in which the favourite Egyptian divinity Osiris was mystically represented was under the form of a young bull or calf—the calf Apis—from which the golden calf of the Israelites was borrowed. There was a reason why that calf should not commonly appear in the appropriate symbols of the god he represented, for that calf represented the divinity in the character of Saturn, "The HIDDEN one," "Apis" being only another name for Saturn. [144] The cow of Athor, however, the female divinity corresponding to Apis, is well known as a "spotted cow," [145] and it is singular that the Druids of Britain also worshipped "a spotted cow." [146] Rare though it be, however, to find an instance of the deified calf or young bull represented with the spots, there is evidence still in existence, that [[@Page:46]]even it was sometimes so represented. The accompanying figure (Figure 20) represents that divinity, as copied by Col. Hamilton Smith "from the original collection made by the artists of the French Institute of Cairo." [147] When we find that Osiris, the grand god of Egypt, under different forms, was thus arrayed in a leopard's skin or spotted dress, and that the leopard-skin dress was so indispensable a part of the sacred robes of his high priest, we may be sure that there was a deep meaning in such a costume. And what could that meaning be, but just to identify Osiris with the Babylonian god, who was celebrated as the "Leopard-tamer," and who was worshipped even as he was, as Ninus, the Child in his mother's arms?


THUS much for Egypt. Coming into Greece, not only do we find

Fig 20.

evidence there to the same effect, but increase of that evidence. The god worshipped as a child in the arms of the great Mother in Greece, under the names of Dionysus, or Bacchus, or Iacchus, is, by ancient inquirers, expressly identified with the Egyptian Osiris. This is the case with Herodotus, who had prosecuted his inquiries in Egypt itself, who ever speaks of Osiris as Bacchus. [148] To the same purpose is the testimony of Diodorus Siculus. "Orpheus," says he, "introduced from Egypt the greatest part of the mystical ceremonies, the orgies that celebrated the wanderings of Ceres, and the whole fable of the shades below. The rites of Osiris and Bacchus are the same; those of Isis and Ceres (Δημητρα) exactly resemble each other, except in name." [149] Now, as if it identify Bacchus with Nimrod, "the Leopard-tamer," leopards were employed to draw his car; he himself was represented as clothed with a leopard's skin; his priests were attired in the same manner, or when a leopard's skin was dispensed with, the spotted skin of a fawn was used as a priestly robe in its stead. This very custom of wearing the spotted fawn-skin seems to have been imported into Greece originally from Assyria, where a spotted fawn was a sacred emblem, as we learn from the Nineveh [[@Page:47]]sculptures; for there we find a divinity bearing a spotted fawn, or spotted fallow-deer (Figure 21), in his arm, as a symbol of some mysterious import. [150] The origin of the importance attached to the spotted fawn and its skin had evidently come thus: When Nimrod, as "the Leopard-tamer," began to be clothed in the leopard-skin, as the trophy of his skill, his spotted dress and appearance must have impressed the imaginations of those who saw him; and he came to be called not only the "Subduer of the Spotted one" (for such is the precise meaning of Nimr—the name of the leopard), but to be called "The spotted one" himself. We have distinct evidence to this effect borne by Damascius, who tells us that the Babylonians called "the only son" of the great goddess-mother "Momis, or

Fig 21.

Moumis." [151] Now, Momis, or Moumis, in Chaldee, like Nimr, signified "The spotted one." Thus, then, it became easy to represent Nimrod by the symbol of the "spotted fawn," and especially in Greece, and wherever a pronunciation akin to that of Greece prevailed. The name of Nimrod, as known to the Greeks, was Nebrod. [152] The name of the fawn, as "the spotted one," in Greece was Nebros; [153] and thus nothing could be more natural than that Nebros, the [[@Page:48]]"spotted fawn," should become a synonym for Nebrod himself. When, therefore, the Bacchus of Greece was symbolised by the Nebros, or "spotted fawn," as we shall find he was symbolised, what could be the design but just covertly to identify him with Nimrod?

We have evidence that this god, whose emblem was the Nebros, was known as having the very lineage of Nimrod. From Anacreon, we find that a title of Bacchus was Aithiopais [154]—i.e., "the son of Æthiops." But who was Æthiops? As the Æthiopians were Cushites, so Æthiops was Cush. "Chus," says Eusebius, "was he from whom came the Æthiopians." [155] The testimony of Josephus is to the same effect. As the father of the Æthiopians, Cush was

Fig 22.

Æthiops, by way of eminence. Therefore Epiphanius, referring to the extraction of Nimrod, thus speaks: "Nimrod, the son of Cush, the Ethiop." [156] Now, as Bacchus was the son of Æthiops, or Cush, so to the eye he was represented in that character. As Nin "the Son," he was portrayed as a youth or child; and that youth or child was generally depicted with a cup in his hand. That cup, to the multitude, exhibited him as the god of drunken revelry; and of such revelry in his orgies, no doubt there was abundance; but yet, after all, the cup was mainly a hieroglyphic, and that of the name of the god. The name of a cup, in the sacred language, was khus, and thus the cup in the hand of the youthful Bacchus, the son of Æthiops, showed that he was the young Chus, or the son of Chus. In the accompanying woodcut (Figure 22), the cup in the right hand of Bacchus is held up in so significant a way, as naturally to suggest that it must be a symbol; and as to the branch in the other hand, we have express testimony that it is a symbol. But it is worthy of notice that the branch has no leaves to determine what precise kind of a branch it is. It must, therefore, be a generic emblem for a branch, or a symbol of a branch in general; and, consequently, it needs the cup as its complement, to determine specifically what sort of branch it is. The two symbols, then, must be read together; [[@Page:49]]and read thus, they are just equivalent to—the "Branch of Chus"—i.e., "the scion or son of Cush." [157]

There is another hieroglyphic connected with Bacchus that goes not a little to confirm this—that is, the Ivy branch. No emblem was more distinctive of the worship of Bacchus than this. Wherever the rites of Bacchus were performed, wherever his orgies were celebrated, the Ivy branch was sure to appear. Ivy, in some form or other, was essential to these celebrations. The votaries carried it in their hands, [158] bound it around their heads, [159] or had the Ivy leaf even indelibly stamped upon their persons. [160] What could be the use, what could be the meaning of this? A few words will suffice to show it. In the first place, then, we have evidence that Kissos, the Greek name for Ivy, was one of the names of Bacchus; [161] and further, that though the name of Cush, in its proper form, was known to the priests in the Mysteries, yet that the established way in which the name of his descendants, the Cushites, was ordinarily pronounced in Greece, was not after the Oriental fashion, but as "Kissaioi," or "Kissioi." Thus, Strabo, speaking of the inhabitants of Susa, who were the people of Chusistan, or the ancient land of Cush, says: "The Susians are called Kissioi," [162]—that is beyond all question, Cushites. Now, if Kissioi be Cushites, then Kissos is Cush. Then, further, the branch of Ivy that occupied so conspicuous a place in all Bacchanalian celebrations was an express symbol of Bacchus himself; for Hesychius assures us that Bacchus, as represented by his priest, was known in the Mysteries as "The branch." [163] From this, then, it appears how Kissos, the Greek name of Ivy, became the name of Bacchus. As the son of Cush, and as identified with him, he was sometimes called by his father's name—Kissos. [164] His actual relation, [[@Page:50]]however, to his father was specifically brought out by the Ivy branch, for "the branch of Kissos," which to the profane vulgar was only "the branch of Ivy," was to the initiated "The branch of Cush." [165]

Now, this god, who was recognised as "the scion of Cush," was worshipped under a name, which, while appropriate to him in his vulgar character as the god of the vintage, did also describe him as the great Fortifier. That name was Bassareus, which, in its two­fold meaning, signified at once "The houser of grapes, or the vintage gatherer," and "The Encompasser with a wall," [166] in this latter sense identifying the Grecian god with the Egyptian Osiris, "the strong chief of the buildings," and with the Assyrian "Belus, who encompassed Babylon with a wall."

Thus from Assyria, Egypt, and Greece, we have cumulative and overwhelming evidence, all conspiring to demonstrate that the child worshipped in the arms of the goddess-mother in all these countries in the very character of Ninus or Nin, "The Son," was Nimrod, the son of Cush. A feature here, or an incident there, may have been borrowed from some succeeding hero; but it seems impossible to doubt, that of that child Nimrod was the prototype, the grand original.

The amazing extent of the worship of this man indicates something very extraordinary in his character; and there is ample reason to believe, that in his own day he was an object of high popularity. Though by setting up as king, Nimrod invaded the patriarchal system, and abridged the liberties of mankind, yet he was held by many to have conferred benefits upon them, that amply indemnified renown. By the time that he appeared, the wild beasts of the forest multiplying more rapidly than the human race, must have committed great [[@Page:51]]depredations on the scattered and straggling populations of the earth, and must have inspired great terror into the minds of men. The danger arising to the lives of men from such a source as this, when population is scanty, is implied in the reason given by God Himself for not driving out the doomed Canaanites before Israel at once, though the measure of their iniquity was full (Exodus 23:29-30): "I will not drive them out from before thee in one year, lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee. By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased." The exploits of Nimrod, therefore, in hunting down the wild beasts of the field, and ridding the world of monsters, must have gained for him the character of a pre-eminent benefactor of his race. By this means, not less than by the bands he trained, was his power acquired, when he first began to be mighty upon the earth; and in the same way, no doubt, was that power consolidated. Then, over and above, as the first great city-builder after the flood, by gathering men together in masses, and surrounding them with walls, he did still more to enable them to pass their days in security, free from the alarms to which they had been exposed in their scattered life, when no one could tell but that at any moment he might be called to engage in deadly conflict with prowling wild beasts, in defence of his own life and of those who were dear to him. Within the battlements of a fortified city no such danger from savage animals was to be dreaded; and for the security afforded in this way, men no doubt looked upon themselves as greatly indebted to Nimrod. No wonder, therefore, that the name of the "mighty hunter," who was at the same time the prototype of "the god of fortifications," should have become a name of renown. Had Nimrod gained renown only thus, it had been well. But not content with delivering men from the fear of wild beasts, he set to work also to emancipate them from that fear of the Lord which is the beginning of wisdom, and in which alone true happiness can be found. For this very thing, he seems to have gained, as one of the titles by which men delighted to honour him, the title of the "Emancipator," or "Deliverer." The reader may remember a name that has already come under his notice. That name is the name of Phoroneus. The era of Phoroneus is exactly the era of Nimrod. He lived about the time when men had used one speech, when the confusion of tongues began, and when mankind was scattered abroad. [167] He is said to have been the first that gathered mankind into communities, [168] the first of mortals that reigned, [169] and the first that offered idolatrous sacrifices. [170] This character can agree with none but that of Nimrod. Now the name given to him in connection with his "gathering men [[@Page:52]]together," and offering idolatrous sacrifice, is very significant. Phoroneus, in one of its meanings, and that one of the most natural, signifies the "Apostate." [171] That name had never likely been given him by the uninfected portion of the sons of Noah. But that name had also another meaning, that is, "to set free;" and therefore his own adherents adopted it, and glorified the great "Apostate" from the primeval faith, though he was the first that abridged the liberties of mankind, as the grand "Emancipator!" [172] And hence, in one form or other, this title was handed down to his deified successors as a title of honour. [173] All tradition from the earliest times bears testimony to the apostasy of Nimrod, and to his success in leading men away from the patriarchal faith, and delivering their minds from that awe of God and fear of the judgments of heaven that must have rested on them while yet the memory of the flood was recent. And according to all the principles of depraved human nature, this too, no doubt, was one grand element in his fame; for men who will readily rally around any one who can give the least appearance of plausibility to any doctrine which will teach that they can be assured of happiness and heaven at last, though their hearts and natures are unchanged, and though they live without God in the world.

How great was the boon conferred by Nimrod on the human race, in the estimation of ungodly men, by emancipating them from the impressions of true religion, and putting the authority of heaven to a distance from them, we find most vividly described in a Polynesian tradition, that carries its own evidence with it. John Williams, the well-known missionary, tells us that, according to one of the ancient traditions of the islanders of the South Seas, "the heavens [[@Page:53]]were originally so close to the earth that men could not walk, but were compelled to crawl" under them. "This was found a very serious evil; but at length an individual conceived the sublime idea of elevating the heavens to a more convenient height. For this purpose he put forth his utmost energy, and by the first effort raised them to the top of a tender plant called teve, about four feet high. There he deposited them until he was refreshed, when, by a second effort, he lifted them to the height of a tree called Kauariki, which is as large as the sycamore. By the third attempt he carried them to the summits of the mountains; and after a long interval of repose, and by a most prodigious effort, he elevated them to their present situation." For this, as a mighty benefactor of mankind, "this individual was deified; and up to the moment that Christianity was embraced, the deluded inhabitants worshipped him as the 'Elevator of the heavens.'" [174] Now, what could more graphically describe the position of mankind soon after the flood, and the proceedings of Nimrod as Phoroneus, "The Emancipator," [175] than this Polynesian fable? While the awful catastrophe by which God had showed His avenging justice on the sinners of the old world was yet fresh in the minds of men, and so long as Noah, and the upright among his descendants, sought with all earnestness to impress upon all under their control the lessons which that solemn event was so well fitted to teach, "heaven," that is, God, must have seemed very near to earth. To maintain the union between heaven and earth, and to keep it as close as possible, must have been the grand aim of all who loved God and the best interests of the human race. But this implied the restraining and discountenancing of all vice and all those "pleasures of sin," after which the natural mind, unrenewed and unsanctified, continually pants. This must have been secretly felt by every unholy mind as a state of insufferable bondage. "The carnal mind is enmity against God," is "not subject to His law," neither indeed is "able to be" so. It says to the Almighty, "Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of Thy ways." So long as the influence of the great father of the new world was in the ascendant, while his maxims were regarded, and a holy atmosphere surrounded the world no wonder that those who were alienated from God and godliness, felt heaven and its influence and authority to be intolerably near, and that in such circumstances they "could not walk," but only "crawl,"—that is, that they had no freedom to "walk after the sight of their own eyes and the imaginations of their own hearts." From this bondage Nimrod emancipated them. By the apostasy he introduced, by the free life he developed among those who rallied around him, and by separating them from the holy influences that had previously less or more controlled them, he helped them to put God and the strict spirituality of His law at a distance, [[@Page:54]]and thus he became the "Elevator of the heavens," making men feel and act as if heaven were afar off from earth, and as if either the God of heaven "could not see through the dark cloud," or did not regard with displeasure the breakers of His laws. Then all such would feel that they could breathe freely, and that now they could walk at liberty. For this, such men could not but regard Nimrod as a high benefactor.

Now, who could have imagined that a tradition from Tahiti would have illuminated the story of Atlas? But yet, when Atlas, bearing the heavens on his shoulders, is brought into juxtaposition with the deified hero of the South Seas, who blessed the world by heaving up the super-incumbent heavens that pressed so heavily upon it, who does not see that the one story bears a relation to the other? [176] Thus, [[@Page:55]]then, it appears that Atlas, with the heavens resting on his broad shoulders, refers to no mere distinction in astronomical knowledge, however great, as some have supposed, but to a quite different thing, even to that great apostasy in which the Giants rebelled against Heaven, [177] and in which apostasy Nimrod, "the mighty one," [178] as the acknowledged ringleader, occupied a pre-eminent place. [179]

According to the system which Nimrod was the grand instrument in introducing, men were led to believe that a real spiritual change of heart was unnecessary, and that so far as change was needful, they could be regenerated by mere external means. Looking at the subject in the light of the Bacchanalian orgies, which, as the reader has seen, commemorated the history of Nimrod, it is evident that he led mankind to seek their chief good in sensual enjoyment, and showed them how they might enjoy the pleasures of sin, without any fear of the wrath of a holy God. In his various expeditions he was always accompanied by troops of women; and by music and song, and games and revelries, and everything that could please the natural heart, he commended himself to the good graces of mankind.


HOW Nimrod died, Scripture is entirely silent. There was an ancient tradition that he came to a violent end. The circumstances of that end, however, as antiquity represents them, are clouded with fable. It is said that tempests of wind sent by God against the Tower of Babel overthrew it, and that Nimrod perished in its ruins. [180] This could not be true, for we have sufficient evidence that the Tower of Babel stood long after Nimrod's day. Then, in regard to the death of Ninus, profane history speaks darkly and mysteriously, although one account tells of his having met with a violent death similar to that of Pentheus, [181] Lycurgus, [182] and Orpheus, [183] who were [[@Page:56]]said to have been torn in pieces. [184] The identity of Nimrod, however, and the Egyptian Osiris, having been established, we have thereby light as to Nimrod's death. Osiris met with a violent death, and that violent death of Osiris was the central theme of the whole idolatry of Egypt. If Osiris was Nimrod, as we have seen, that violent death which the Egyptians so pathetically deplored in their annual festivals was just the death of Nimrod. The accounts in regard to the death of the god worshipped in the several mysteries of the different countries are all to the same effect. A statement of Plato seems to show, that in his day the Egyptian Osiris was regarded as identical with Tammuz; [185] and Tammuz is well known to have been the same as Adonis, [186] the famous Huntsman, for whose death Venus is fabled to have made such bitter lamentations. As the women of Egypt wept for Osiris, as the Phenician and Assyrian women wept for Tammuz, so in Greece and Rome the women wept for Bacchus, whose name, as we have seen, means "The bewailed," or "Lamented one." And now, in connection with the Bacchanal lamentations, the importance of the relation established between Nebros, "The spotted fawn," and Nebrod, "The mighty hunter," will appear. The Nebros, or "spotted fawn," was the symbol of Bacchus, as representing Nebrod or Nimrod himself. Now, on certain occasions, in the mystical celebrations, the Nebros, or "spotted fawn," was torn in pieces, expressly, as we learn from Photius, as a commemoration of what happened to Bacchus, [187] whom that fawn represented. The tearing in pieces of Nebros, "the spotted one," goes to confirm the conclusion, that the death of Bacchus, even as the death of Osiris, represented the death of Nebrod, whom, under the very name of "The Spotted one," the Babylonians worshipped. Though we do not find any account of Mysteries observed in Greece in memory of Orion, the giant and mighty hunter celebrated by Homer, under that name, yet he was represented symbolically as having died in a similar way to that in which Osiris died, and as having then [[@Page:57]]been translated to heaven. [188] From Persian records we are expressly assured that it was Nimrod who was deified after his death by the name of Orion, and placed among the stars. [189] Here, then, we have large and consenting evidence, all leading to one conclusion, that the death of Nimrod, the child worshipped in the arms of the goddess mother of Babylon, was a death of violence.

Now, when this mighty hero, in the midst of his career of glory, was suddenly cut off by a violent death, great seems to have been the shock that the catastrophe occasioned. When the news spread abroad, the devotees of pleasure felt as if the best benefactor of mankind were gone, and the gaiety of nations eclipsed. Loud was the wail that everywhere ascended to heaven among the apostates from the primeval faith for so dire a catastrophe. Then began those weepings for Tammuz, in the guilt of which the daughters of Israel allowed themselves to be implicated, and the existence of which can be traced not merely in the annals of classical antiquity, but in the literature of the world from Ultima Thule to Japan.

Of the prevalence of such weepings in China, thus speaks the Rev. W. Gillespie: "The dragon-boat festival happens in midsummer, and is a season of great excitement. About 2000 years age there lived a young Chinese Mandarin, Wat-yune, highly respected and beloved by the people. To the grief of all, he was suddenly drowned in the river. Many boats immediately rushed out in search of him, but his body was never found. Ever since that time, on the same day of the month, the dragon-boats go out in search of him." "It is something," adds the author, "like the bewailing of Adonis, or the weeping for Tammuz mentioned in Scripture." [190] As the great god Buddh is generally represented in China as a Negro, that may serve to identify the beloved Mandarin whose loss is thus annually bewailed. The religious system of Japan largely coincides with that of China. In Iceland, and throughout Scandinavia, there were similar lamentations for the loss of the god Balder. Balder, through the treachery of the god Loki, the spirit of evil, according as had been written in the book of destiny, "was slain, although the empire of heaven depended on his life." His father Odin had "learned the terrible secret from the book of destiny, having conjured one of the [[@Page:58]]Volar from her infernal abode. All the gods trembled at the knowledge of this event. Then Frigga [the wife of Odin]called on every object, animate and inanimate, to take an oath not to destroy or furnish arms against Balder. Fire, water, rocks, and vegetables were bound by this solemn obligation. One plant only, the mistletoe, was overlooked. Loki discovered the omission, and made that contemptible shrub the fatal weapon. Among the warlike pastimes of Valhalla [the assembly of the gods]one was to throw darts at the invulnerable deity, who felt a pleasure in presenting his charmed breast to their weapons. At a tournament of this kind, the evil genius putting a sprig of the mistletoe into the hands of the blind Hoder, and directing his aim, the dreaded prediction was accomplished by an unintentional fratricide. [191] The spectators were struck with speechless wonder; and their misfortune was the greater, that no one, out of respect to the sacredness of the place, dared to avenge it. With tears of lamentation they carried the lifeless body to the shore, and laid it upon a ship, as a funeral pile, with that of Nanna his lovely bride, who had died of a broken heart. His horse and arms were burnt at the same time, as was customary at the obsequies of the ancient heroes of the north." Then Frigga, his mother, was overwhelmed with distress. "Inconsolable for the loss of her beautiful son," says Dr. Crichton, "she despatched Hermod (the swift) to the abode of Hela [the goddess of Hell, or the infernal regions], to offer a ransom for his release. The gloomy goddess promised that he should be restored, provided everything on earth were found to weep for him. Then were messengers sent over the whole world, to see that the order was obeyed, and the effect of the general sorrow was 'as when there is a universal thaw.'" [192] There are considerable variations from the original story in these two legends; but at bottom the essence of the stories is the same, indicating that they must have flowed from one fountain.


IF there was one who was more deeply concerned in the tragic death of Nimrod that another, it was his wife Semiramis, who, from an originally humble position, had been raised to share with him the throne of Babylon. What, in this emergency shall she do? Shall she quietly forego the pomp and pride to which she has been raised? No. Though the death of her husband has given a rude shock to her power, yet her resolution and unbounded ambition were in nowise checked. On the contrary, her ambition took a still higher flight. In life her husband had been honoured as a hero; in death she will have him worshipped as a god, yea, as the woman's promised [[@Page:59]]seed, "Zero-ashta," [193] who was destined to bruise the serpent's head, and who, in doing so, was to have his own heel bruised. The patriarchs, and the ancient world in general, were perfectly acquainted with the grand primeval promise of Eden, and they knew right well that the bruising of the heel of the promised seed implied his death, and that the curse could be removed from the world only by the death of the grand Deliverer. If the promise about the bruising of the serpent's [[@Page:60]]head, recorded in Genesis, as made to our first parents, was actually made, and if all mankind were descended from them, then it might be expected that some trace of this promise would be found in all nations. And such is the fact. There is hardly a people or kindred on earth in whose mythology it is not shadowed forth. The Greeks represented their great god Apollo as slaying the serpent Pytho, and Hercules as strangling serpents while yet in his cradle. In Egypt, in India, in Scandinavia, in Mexico, we find clear allusions to the same great truth. "The evil genius," says Wilkinson, "of the adversaries of the Egyptian god Horus is frequently figured under the form of a snake, whose head he is seen piercing with a spear. The same fable occurs in the religion of India, where the malignant serpent Calyia is slain by Vishnu, in his avatar of Crishna (Figure 23); and the Scandinavian deity Thor was said to have bruised the head of the great serpent with his mace." "The origin of this," he adds, "may be readily traced to the Bible." [194] In reference

Fig 23.

to a similar belief among the Mexicans, we find Humboldt saying, that "The serpent crushed by the great spirit Teotl, when he takes the form of one of the subaltern deities, is the genius of evil—a real Kakodsemon." [195] Now, in almost all cases, when the subject is examined to the bottom, it turns out that the serpent destroying god is represented as enduring hardships and sufferings that end in his death. Thus the god Thor, while succeeding at last in destroying the great serpent, is represented as, in the very moment of victory, perishing from the venomous effluvia of his breath. [196] The same would seem to be the way in which the Babylonians represented their great serpent-destroyer among the figures of their ancient sphere. His mysterious suffering is thus described by the Greek poet Ararus, whose language [[@Page:61]]shows that when he wrote, the meaning of the representation had been generally lost, although, when viewed in the light of Scripture, it is surely deeply significant:—

"A human figure, 'whelmed with toil appears;
Yet still with name uncertain he remains;
Nor known the labour that he thus sustains;
But since upon his knees he seems to fall,
Him ignorant mortals Engonasis call;
And while sublime his awful hands are spread,
Beneath him rolls the dragon's horrid head,
And his right foot unmoved appears to rest,
Fixed on the writhing monster's burnished crest." [197]

The constellation thus represented is commonly known by the name of "The Kneeler," from this very description of the Greek poet; but it is plain that, as "Engonasis" came from the Babylonians, it must be interpreted, not in a Greek, but in a Chaldee sense, and so interpreted, as the action of the figure itself implies, the title of the mysterious sufferer is just "The Serpent-crusher." [198] Sometimes, however, the actual crushing of the serpent was represented as much more easy process; yet, even then, death was the ultimate result; and that death of the serpent-destroyer is so described as to leave no doubt whence the fable was borrowed. This is particularly the case with the Indian god Crishna, to whom Wilkinson alludes in the extract already given. In the legend that concerns him, the whole of the primeval promise in Eden is very strikingly embodied. First, he is represented in pictures and images with his foot on the great serpent's head, [199] and then, after destroying it, he is fabled to have died in consequence of being shot by an arrow in the foot; and, as in the case of Tammuz, great lamentations are annually made for his death. [200] Even in Greece, also, in the classic story of Paris and Achilles, we have a very plain allusion to that part of the primeval promise, which referred to the bruising of the conqueror's "heel." Achilles, the only son of a goddess, was invulnerable in all points except the heel, but there a wound was deadly. At that his adversary took aim, and death was the result.

Now, if there be such evidence still, that even Pagans knew that it was by dying that the promised Messiah was to destroy death and him that has the power of death, that is the Devil, how much more vivid must have been the impression of mankind in general in regard to this vital truth in the early days of Semiramis, when they were so much nearer the fountain-head of all Divine tradition. When, therefore, the name Zoroastes, "the seed of the woman," was given to him who had perished in the midst of a prosperous career [[@Page:62]]of false worship and apostasy, there can be no doubt of the meaning which that name was intended to convey. And the fact of the violent death of the hero, who, in the esteem of his partisans, had done so much to bless mankind, to make life happy, and to deliver them from the fear of the wrath to come, instead of being fatal to the bestowal of such a title upon him, favoured rather than otherwise the daring design. All that was needed to countenance the scheme on the part of those who wished an excuse for continued apostasy from the true God, was just to give out that, though the great patron of the apostasy had fallen a prey to the malice of men, he had freely offered himself for the good of mankind. Now, this was what was actually done. The Chaldean version of the story of the great Zoroaster is that he prayed to the supreme God of heaven to take away his life; that his prayer was heard, and that he expired, assuring his followers that, if they cherished due regard for his memory, the empire would never depart from the Babylonians. [201] What Berosus, the Babylonian historian, says of the cutting off of the head of the great god Belus, is plainly to the same effect. Belus, says Berosus, commanded one of the gods to cut off his head, that from the blood thus shed by his own command and with his own consent, when mingled with the earth, new creatures might be formed, the first creation being represented as a sort of a failure. [202] Thus the death of Belus, who was Nimrod, like that attributed to Zoroaster, was represented as entirely voluntary, and as submitted to for the benefit of the world.

It seems to have been now only when the dead hero was to be deified, that the secret Mysteries were set up. The previous form of apostasy during the life of Nimrod appears to have been open and public. Now, it was evidently felt that publicity was out of the question. The death of the great ringleader of the apostasy was not the death of a warrior slain in battle, but an act of judicial rigour, solemnly inflicted. This is well established by the accounts of the deaths of both Tammuz and Osiris. The following is the account of Tammuz, given by the celebrated Maimonides, deeply read in all the learning of the Chaldeans: "When the false prophet named Thammuz preached to a certain king that he should worship the seven stars and the twelve signs of the Zodiac, that king ordered him to be put to a terrible death. On the night of his death all the images assembled from the ends of the earth into the temple of Babylon, to the great golden image of the Sun, which was suspended between heaven and earth. That image prostrated itself in the midst of the temple, and so did all the images around it, while it related to them all that bad happened to Thammuz. The images wept and lamented all the night long, and then in the morning they flew away, each to his own temple again, to the ends of the earth. And hence arose the custom every year on the first day of the month Thammuz, to mourn and to weep for Thammuz." [203] There is here, of course, all [[@Page:63]]the extravagance of idolatry, as found in the Chaldean sacred books that Maimonides had consulted; but there is no reason to doubt the fact stated either as to the manner or the cause of the death of Tammuz. In this Chaldean legend, it is stated that it was by the command of a "certain king" that this ringleader in apostasy was put to death. Who could this king be, who was so determinedly opposed to the worship of the host of heaven? From what is related of the Egyptian Hercules, we get very valuable light on this subject. It is admitted by Wilkinson that the most ancient Hercules, and truly primitive one, was he who was known in Egypt as having, "by the power of the gods" [204] (i.e., by the SPIRIT) fought against and overcome the Giants. Now, no doubt, the title and character of Hercules were afterwards given by the Pagans to him whom they worshipped as the grand deliverer or Messiah, just as the adversaries of the Pagan divinities came to be stigmatised as the "Giants" who rebelled against Heaven. But let the reader only reflect who were the real Giants that rebelled against Heaven. They were Nimrod and his party; for the "Giants" were just the "Mighty ones," of the opposition to the apostasy from the primitive worship? If Shem was at that time alive, as beyond question he was, who so likely as he? In exact accordance with this deduction, we find that one of the names of the primitive Hercules in Egypt was "Sem." [205]

If "Sem," then, was the primitive Hercules, who overcame the Giants, and that not by mere physical force, but by "the power of God," or the influence of the Holy Spirit, that entirely agrees with his character; and more than that, it remarkably agrees with the Egyptian account of the death of Osiris. The Egyptians say, that the grand enemy of their god overcame him, not by open violence, but that, having entered into a conspiracy with seventy-two of the leading men of Egypt, he got him into his power, put him to death, and then cut his dead body into pieces, and sent the different parts to so many different cities throughout the country. [206] The real meaning of this statement will appear, if we glance at the judicial institutions of Egypt. Seventy-two was just the number of the judges, both civil and sacred, who, according to the Egyptian law, were required to determine what was to be the punishment of one guilty of so high an offence as that of Osiris, supposing this to have become a matter of judicial inquiry. In determining such a case, there were necessarily two tribunals concerned. First, there were the ordinary judges, who had power of life and death, and who amounted to thirty, [207] then there was, over and above, a tribunal consisting of forty-two judges, who, if Osiris was condemned to die, had to determine whether his body should be buried or no, for before burial, [[@Page:64]]every one after death had to pass the ordeal of this tribunal. [208] As burial was refused him, both tribunals would necessarily be concerned; and thus there would be exactly seventy-two persons, under Typho the president, to condemn Osiris to die and to be cut in pieces. What, then, does the statement amount to, in regard to the conspiracy, but just to this, that the great opponent of the idolatrous system which Osiris introduced, had so convinced these judges of the enormity of the offence which he had committed, that they gave up the offender to an awful death, and to ignominy after it, as a terror to any who might afterwards tread in his steps. The cutting of the dead body in pieces, and sending the dismembered parts among the different cities, is paralleled, and its object explained, by what we read in the Bible of the cutting of the dead body of the Levite's concubine in pieces (Judges 19:29), and sending one of the parts to each of the twelve tribes of Israel; and the similar step taken by Saul, when he hewed the two yoke of oxen asunder, and sent them throughout all the coasts of his kingdom (1 Samuel 11:7). It is admitted by commentators that both the Levite and Saul acted on a patriarchal custom, according to which summary vengeance would be dealt to those who failed to come to the gathering that in this solemn way was summoned. This was declared in so many words by Saul, when the parts of the slaughtered oxen were sent among the tribes: "Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and after Samuel, so shall it be done to his oxen." In like manner, when the dismembered parts of Osiris were sent among the cities by the seventy-two "conspirators"—in other words, by the supreme judges of Egypt, it was equivalent to a solemn declaration in their name, that "whosoever should do as Osiris had done, so should it be done to him; so should he also be cut in pieces."

When irreligion and apostasy again arose into the ascendant, this act, into which the constituted authorities who had to do with the [[@Page:65]]ringleader of the apostates were led, for the putting down of the combined system of irreligion and despotism set up by Osiris or Nimrod, was naturally the object of intense abhorrence to all his sympathisers; and for his share in it the chief actor was stigmatised as Typho, or "The Evil One." [209] The influence that this abhorred Typho wielded over the minds of the so-called "conspirators," considering the physical force with which Nimrod was upheld, must have been wonderful, and goes to show, that though his deed in regard to Osiris is veiled, and himself branded by a hateful name, he was indeed none other than that primitive Hercules who overcame the Giants by "the power of God," by the persuasive might of his Holy Spirit.

In connection with this character of Shem, the myth that makes Adonis, who is identified with Osiris, perish by the tusks of a wild boar, is easily unravelled. [210] The tusk of a wild boar was a symbol. In Scripture, a tusk is called "a horn;" [211] among many of the Classic Greeks it was regarded in the very same light. [212] When once it is known that a tusk is regarded as a "horn" according to the symbolism of idolatry, the meaning of the boar's tusks, by which Adonis perished, is not far to seek. The bull's horns that Nimrod wore were the symbol of physical power. The boar's tusks were the symbol of spiritual power. As a "horn" means power, so a tusk, that is, a horn in the mouth, means "power in the mouth;" in other words, the power of persuasion; the very power with which "Sem," the primitive Hercules, was so signally endowed. Even from the ancient traditions of the Gael, we get an item of evidence that at once illustrates this idea of power in the mouth, and connects it with that great son of Noah, on whom the blessing of the Highest, as recorded in Scripture, did especially rest. The Celtic Hercules was called [[@Page:66]]Hercules Ogmius, which, in Chaldee, is "Hercules the Lamenter." [213] No name could be more appropriate, none more descriptive of the history of Shem, than this. Except our first parent, Adam, there was, perhaps, never a mere man that saw so much grief as he. Not only did he see a vast apostasy, which, with his righteous feelings, and witness as he had been of the awful catastrophe of the flood, must have deeply grieved him; but he lived to bury Seven GENERATIONS of his descendants. He lived 502 years after the flood, and as the lives of men were rapidly shortened after that event, no less than Seven generations of his lineal descendants died before him (Genesis 11:10-32). How appropriate a name Ogmius, "The Lamenter or Mourner," for one who had such a history! Now, how is this "Mourning" Hercules represented as putting down enormities and redressing wrongs? Not by his club, like the Hercules of the Greeks, but by the force of persuasion. Multitudes were represented as following him, drawn by fine chains of gold and amber inserted into their ears, and which chains proceeded from his mouth. [214] There is a great difference between the two symbols-the tusks of a boar and the golden chains issuing from the mouth, that draw willing crows by the ears; but both very beautifully illustrate the same idea—the might of that persuasive power that enabled Shem for a time to withstand the tide of evil that came rapidly rushing in upon the world.

Now when Shem had so powerfully wrought upon the minds of men as to induce them to make a terrible example of the great Apostate, and when that Apostate's dismembered limbs were sent to the chief cities, were no doubt his system had been established, it will be readily perceived that, in these circumstances, if idolatry was to continue—if, above all, it was to take a step in advance, it was indispensable that it should operate in secret. The terror of an execution, inflicted on one so mighty as Nimrod, made it needful that, for some time to come at least, the extreme of caution should be used. In these circumstances, then, began, there can hardly be a doubt, that system of "Mystery," which, having Babylon for its [[@Page:67]]centre, has spread over the world. In these Mysteries, under the seal of secrecy and the sanction of an oath, and by means of all the fertile resources of magic, men were gradually led back to all the idolatry that had been publicly suppressed, while new features were added to that idolatry that made it still more blasphemous than before. That magic and idolatry were twin sisters, and came into the world together, we have abundant evidence. "He" (Zoroaster), says Justin the historian, "was said to be the first that invented magic arts, and that most diligently studied the motions of the heavenly bodies." [215] The Zoroaster spoken of by Justin is the Bactrian Zoroaster; but this is generally admitted to be a mistake. Stanley, in his History of Oriental Philosophy, concludes that this mistake had arisen from similarity of name, and that from this cause that had been attributed to the Bactrian Zoroaster which properly belonged to the Chaldean, "since it cannot be imagines that the Bactrian was the inventor of those arts in which the Chaldean, who lived contemporary with him, was so much skilled." [216] Epiphanius had evidently come to the same substantial conclusion before him. He maintains, from the evidence open to him in his day, that it was "Nimrod, that established the sciences of magic and astronomy, the invention of which was subsequently attributed to (the Bactrian) Zoroaster." [217] As we have seen that Nimrod and the Chaldean Zoroaster are the same, the conclusions of the ancient and the modern inquirers into Chaldean antiquity entirely harmonise. Now the secret system of the Mysteries have vast facilities for imposing on the senses of the initiated by means of the various tricks and artifices of magic. Notwithstanding all the care and precautions of those who conducted these initiations, enough has transpired to give us a very clear insight into their real character. Everything was so contrived as to wind up the minds of the novices to the highest pitch of excitement, that, after having surrendered themselves implicitly to the priests, they might be prepared to receive anything. After the candidates for initiation had passed through the confessional, and sworn the required oaths, "strange and amazing objects," says Wilkinson, "presented themselves. Sometimes the place they were in seemed to shake around them; sometimes it appeared bright and resplendent with light and radiant fire, and then again covered with black darkness, sometimes thunder and lightning, sometimes frightful noises and bellowings, sometimes terrible apparitions astonished the trembling spectators." [218] Then, at last, the great god, the central object of their worship, Osiris, Tammuz, Nimrod or Adonis, was revealed to them in the way most fitted to soothe their feelings and engage their blind affections. An account of such a manifestation is thus given by an ancient Pagan, cautiously indeed, but yet in such a way as shows the nature of the magic secret by which such an [[@Page:68]]apparent miracle was accomplished: "In a manifestation which one must not reveal … there is seen on a wall of the temple a mass of light, which appears at first at a very great distance. It is transformed, while unfolding itself, into a visage evidently divine and supernatural, of an aspect severe, but with a touch of sweetness. Following the teachings of a mysterious religion, the Alexandrians honour it as Osiris or Adonis." [219] From this statement, there can hardly be a doubt that the magical art here employed was not other than that now made use of in the modern phantasmagoria. Such or similar means were used in the very earliest periods for presenting to the view of the living, in the secret Mysteries, those who were dead. We have statements in ancient history referred to the very time of Semiramis, which imply that magic rites were practised for this very purpose; [220] and as the magic lantern, or something akin to it, was manifestly used in later times for such an end, it is reasonably to conclude that the same means, or similar, were employed in the most ancient times, when the same effects were produced. Now, in the hands of crafty, designing men, this was a powerful means of imposing upon those who were willing to be imposed upon, who were averse to the holy spiritual religion of the living God, and who still hankered after the system that was put down. It was easy for those who controlled the Mysteries, having discovered secrets that were then unknown to the mass of mankind, and which they carefully preserved in their own exclusive keeping, to give them what might seem ocular demonstration, that Tammuz, who had been slain, and for whom such lamentations had been made, was still alive, and encompassed with divine and heavenly glory. From the lips of one so gloriously revealed, or what was practically [[@Page:69]]the same, from the lips of some unseen priest, speaking in his name from behind the scenes, what could be too wonderful or incredible to be believed? Thus the whole system of the secret Mysteries of Babylon was intended to glorify a dead man; and when once the worship of one dead man was established, the worship of many more was sure to follow. This casts light upon the language of Psalm 106, where the Lord, upbraiding Israel for their apostasy, says: "They joined themselves to Baalpeor, and ate the sacrifices of the dead" Thus, too, the way was paved for bringing in all the abominations and crimes of which the Mysteries became the scenes; for, to those who liked not to retain God in their knowledge, who preferred some visible object of worship, suited to the sensuous feelings of their carnal minds, nothing could seem a more cogent reason for faith or practice than to hear with their own ears a command given forth amid so glorious a manifestation apparently by the very divinity they adored.

The scheme, thus skilfully formed, took effect. Semiramis gained glory from her dead and deified husband; and in course of time both of them, under the names of Rhea and Nin, or "Goddess-Mother and Son," were worshipped with an enthusiasm that was incredible, and their images were everywhere set up and adored. [221] Wherever the negro aspect of Nimrod was found an obstacle to his worship, this was very easily obviated. According to the Chaldean doctrine of the transmigration of souls, all that was needful was just to teach that Ninus had reappeared in the person of a posthumous son, of a fair complexion, supernarurally borne by his widowed wife after the father had gone to glory. As the licentious and dissolute life of Semiramis gave her many children, for whom no ostensible father on earth would be alleged, a plea like this would at once sanctify sin, and enable her to meet the feelings of those who were disaffected to the true worship of Jehovah, and yet might have no fancy to bow down before a Negro divinity. From the light reflected on Babylon by Egypt, as well as from the form of the extant images of the Babylonian child in the arms of the goddess-mother, we have every reason to believe that this was actually done. In Egypt the fair Horus, the son of the black Osiris, who was the favourite object of worship, in the arms of the goddess Isis, was said to have been miraculously born in consequence of a connection, on the part of that goddess, who Osiris after his death, [222] and, in point of fact, to have been a new incarnation of that god, to avenge his death on his murderers. It is wonderful to find in what widely-severed countries, and amongst what millions of the human race at this day, who never saw a negro, a negro god is worshipped. But yet, as we shall afterwards see, among the civilised nations of antiquity, Nimrod almost everywhere fell into disrepute, and was deposed from his original pre-eminence, [[@Page:70]]expressly ob deformitatem, [223] "on account of his ugliness." Even in Babylon itself, the posthumous child, as identified with his father, and inheriting all his father's glory, yet possessing more of his mother's complexion, came to be the favourite type of the Madonna's divine son.

This son, thus worshipped in his mother's arms, was looked upon as invested with all the attributes, and called by almost all the names of the promised Messiah. As Christ, in the Hebrew of the Old Testament, was called Adonai, The Lord, so Tammuz was called Adon or Adonis. Under the name of Mithras, he was worshipped as the "Mediator." [224] As Mediator and head of the covenant of grace, he was styled Baal-berith, Lord of the Covenant—(Figure 24)—(Judges 8:33). In this character he is represented in Persian monuments as seated on the rainbow, the well-known symbol of the covenant. [225] In India, under the name of Vishnu, the Preserver or Saviour of men, though a god, he was worshipped as the great "Victim-Man," who before the worlds were, because there was nothing else to offer, offered himself as a sacrifice. [226] The Hindu

Fig. 24.

sacred writings teach that this mysterious offering before all creation is the foundation of all the sacrifices that have ever been offered since. [227] Do any marvel at such a statement being found in sacred books of a Pagan mythology? Why should they? Since sin entered the world there has been only one way of salvation, and that through the blood of the everlasting covenant—a way that all mankind once knew, from the days of righteous Abel downwards. When Abel, "by faith," offered unto God his more excellent sacrifice than that of Cain, it was his faith "in the blood of the Lamb slain," in the purpose of God "from the foundation of the world," and in [[@Page:71]]due time to be actually offered up on Calvary, that gave all the "excellence" to his offering. If Abel knew of "the blood of the Lamb," why should Hindoos not have known of it? One little word shows that even in Greece the virtue of "the blood of God" had once been known, though that virtue, as exhibited in its poets, was utterly obscured and degraded. That word is Ichor. Every reader of the bards of classic Greece knows that Ichor is the term peculiarly appropriated to the blood of a divinity. Thus Homer refers to it:—

"From the clear vein the immortal Ichor flowed,
Such stream as issues from a wounded god,
Pure emanation, uncorrupted flood,
Unlike our gross, diseased terrestrial blood." [228]

Now, what is the proper meaning of the term Ichor? In Greek it has no etymological meaning whatever; but, in Chaldee, Ichor signifies "The precious thing." Such a name, applied to the blood of a divinity, could have only one origin. It bears its evidence on the very face of it, as coming from that grand patriarchal tradition, that led Abel to look forward to the "precious blood" of Christ, the most "precious" gift that live Divine could give to a guilty world, and which, while the blood of the only genuine "Victim-Man," is at the same time, in deed and in truth, "The blood of God" (Acts 20:28). Even in Greece itself, though the doctrine was utterly perverted, it was not entirely lost. It was mingled with falsehood and fable, it was hid from the multitude; but yet, in the secret mystic system it necessarily occupied an important place. As Servius tells us that the grand purpose of the Bacchic orgies "was the purification of souls," [229] and as in these orgies there was regularly the tearing asunder and the shedding of the blood of an animal, in memory of the shedding of the life's blood of the great divinity commemorated in them, could this symbolical shedding of the blood of that divinity have no bearing on the "purification" from sin, these mystic rites were intended to effect? We have seen that the sufferings of the Babylonian Zoroaster and Belus were expressly represented as voluntary, and as submitted to for the benefit of the world, and that in connection with crushing the great serpent's head, which implied the removal of sin and the curse. If the Grecian Bacchus was just another form of the Babylonian divinity, then his sufferings and blood-shedding must have been represented as having been undergone for the same purpose—viz., for the "purification of souls." From this point of view, let the well-known name of Bacchus in Greece be looked at. The name was Dionysus or Dionusos. What is the meaning of that name? Hitherto it has deified all interpretation. But deal with it as belonging to the language of that land from which the god himself originally came, [[@Page:72]]and the meaning is very plain. D'ion-nuso-s signifies "THE SlN-BEARER," [230] a name entirely appropriate to the character of him whose sufferings were represented as so mysterious, and who was looked up to as the great "purifier of souls."

Now, this Babylonian God, known in Greece as "The sin-bearer," and in India as the "Victim-Man," among the Buddhists of the East, the original elements of whose system are clearly Babylonian, was commonly addressed as the "Saviour of the world." [231] It has been all along well enough known that the Greeks occasionally worshipped the supreme god under the title of "Zeus the Saviour;" but this title was thought to have reference only to deliverance in battle, or some such-like temporal deliverance. But when it is known that "Zeus the Saviour" was only a title of Dionysus, [232] the "sin-bearing Bacchus," his character, as "The Saviour," appears in quite a different light. In Egypt, the Chaldean god was held up as the great object of love adoration, as the god through whom "goodness and truth were revealed to mankind." [233] He was regarded as the predestined heir of all things; and, on the day of his birth, it was believed that a voice was heard to proclaim, "The Lord of all the earth is born." [234] In this character he was styled "King of kings, and Lord of lords," it being as a professed representative of this hero-god that the celebrated Sesostris caused this very title to be added to his name on the monuments which he erected to perpetuate the fame of his victories. [235] Not only was he honoured as the great "World King," he was regarded as Lord of the invisible world, and "Judge of the dead;" and it was taught that, in the world of spirits, all must appear before his dread tribunal, to have their destiny assigned them. [236] As the [[@Page:73]]true Messiah was prophesied of under the title of the "Man whose name was the branch," he was celebrated not only as the "Branch of Cush," but as the "Branch of God," graciously given to the earth for healing all the ills that flesh is heir to. [237] He was worshipped in Babylon under the name of Eli-Bar, or "God the Son." Under this very name he is introduced by Berosus, the Chaldean historian, as the second in the list of Babylonian sovereigns. [238] Under this name he has been found in the sculptures of Nineveh by Layard, the name Bar "the Son," having the sign denoting El or "God" prefixed to it. [239] Under the same name he has been found by Sir H. Rawlinson, the names "Beltis" and the "Shining Bar" being in immediate juxtaposition. [240] Under the name of Bar he was worshipped in Egypt in the earliest times, though in later times the god Bar was degraded in the popular Pantheon, to make way for another more popular divinity. [241] In Pagan Rome itself, as Ovid testifies, he was worshipped under the name of the "Eternal Boy." [242] Thus daringly [[@Page:74]]and directly was a mere mortal set up in Babylon in opposition to the "Son of the Blessed."


NOW while the mother derived her glory in the first instance from the divine character attributed to the child in her arms, the mother in the long-run practically eclipsed the son. At first, in all likelihood, there would be no thought whatever of ascribing divinity to the mother. There was an express promise that necessarily led mankind to expect that, at some time or other, the Son of God, in amazing condescension, should appear in this world as the Son of man. But there was no promise whatever, or the least shadow of a promise, to lead any one to anticipate that a woman should ever be invested with attributes that should raise her to a level with Divinity. It is in the last degree improbably, therefore, that when the mother was first exhibited with the child in her arms, it should be intended to give divine honours to her. She was doubtless used chiefly as a pedestal for the upholding of the divine Son, and holding him forth to the adoration of mankind; and glory enough it would be counted for her, alone of all the daughters of Eve, to have given birth to the promised seed, the world's only hope. But while this, no doubt, was the design, it is a plain principle in all idolatries that that which most appeals to the senses must make the most powerful impression. Now the Son, even in his new incarnation, when Nimrod was believed to have reappeared in a fairer form, was exhibited merely as a child, without any very particular attraction; while the mother in whose arms he was, was set off with all the art of painting and sculpture, as invested with much of that extraordinary beauty which in reality belonged to her. The beauty of Semiramis is said on one occasion to have quelled a rising rebellion among her subjects on her sudden appearance among them; and it is recorded that the memory of the admiration excited in their minds by her appearance on that occasion was perpetuated by a statue erected in Babylon, representing her in the guise in which she had fascinated them so much. [243] This Babylonian queen was not merely in character [[@Page:75]]coincident with the Aphrodite of Greece and the Venus of Rome, but was, in point of fact, the historical original of that goddess that by the ancient world was regarded as the very embodiment of everything attractive in female form, and the perfection of female beauty; for Sanchuniathon assures us that Aphrodite or Venus was identical with Astarte, [244] and Astarte being interpreted, [245] is none other than "The woman that made towers or encompassing walls"—i.e., Semiramis. The Roman Venus, as is well known, was the Cyprian Venus, and the Venus of Cyprus is historically proved to have been derived from Babylon. (See Chap. IV. Sect. III.) Now, what in these circumstances might have been expected actually took place. If the child was to be adored, much more the mother. The mother, in point of fact, became the favourite object of worship. [246] To justify this worship, the mother was raised to divinity as well as her son, and she was looked upon as destined to complete that bruising of the serpent's head, which it was easy, if such a thing was needed, to find abundant and plausible reasons for alleging that Ninus or Nimrod, the great Son, in his mortal life had only begun.

The Roman Church maintains that it was not so much the seed of the woman, as the woman herself, that was to bruise the head of the serpent. In defiance of all grammar, she renders the Divine denunciation against the serpent thus: "She shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise her heel." The same was held by the ancient Babylonians, and symbolically represented in their temples. In the uppermost storey of the tower of Babel, or temple of Belus, Diodorus Siculus tells us there stood three images of the great divinities of [[@Page:76]]Babylon; and one of these was of a woman grasping a serpent's head. [247] Among the Greeks the same thing was symbolised; for Diana, whose real character was originally the same as that of the great Babylonian goddess, [248] was represented as bearing in one of her hands a serpent deprived of its head. [249] As time wore away, and the facts of Simiramis's history became obscured, her son's birth was boldly declared to be miraculous: and therefore she was called "Alma Mater," [250] "the Virgin Mother." That the birth of the Great Deliverer was to be miraculous, was widely known long before the Christian era. For centuries, [[@Page:77]]some say for thousands of years before that event, the Buddhist priests had a tradition that a Virgin was to bring forth a child to bless the world. [251] That this tradition came from no Popish or Christian source, is evident from the surprise felt and expressed by the Jesuit missionaries, when they first entered Thibet and China, and not only found a mother and a child worshipped as at home, but that mother worshipped under a character exactly corresponding with that of their own Madonna, "Virgo Deipara," "the Virgin mother of God," [252] and that, too, in regions where they could not find the least trace of either the name or history of our Lord Jesus Christ having ever been known. [253] The primeval promise that the "seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head," naturally suggested the idea of a miraculous birth. Priest-craft and human presumption set themselves wickedly to anticipate the fulfilment of that promise; and the Babylonian queen seems to have been the first to whom that honour was given. The highest titles were accordingly bestowed upon her. She was called the "queen of heaven." (Jeremiah 44:17-19, 25.) [254] In Egypt she was styled Athor—i.e., "the Habitation of God," [255] to signify that in her dwelt all the "fulness of the Godhead." To point out the great goddess-mother, in a Pantheistic sense, as at once the Infinite and Almighty one, and the Virgin mother, this inscription was engraven upon one of her temples in Egypt: "I am all that has been, or that is, or that shall be. No mortal has removed my veil. The fruit which I have brought forth is the Sun." [256] In Greece she had the name of Hestia, and amongst the Romans, Vesta, which is just a modification of the same name—a name which, though it has been commonly understood in a different sense, really meant "The Dwelling-place." [257] As the Dwelling-place of Deity, thus is Hestia or Vesta addressed in the Orphic Hymns:—

[[@Page:78]]"Daughter of Saturn, venerable dame,
Who dwell'st amid great fire's eternal flame,
In thee the gods have frx'd their DWELLING-PLACE,
Strong stable basis of the mortal race." [258]

Even when Vesta is identified with fire, this same character of Vesta as "The Dwelling-place" still distinctly appears. Thus Philolaus, speaking of a fire in the middle of the centre of the world, calls it "The Vesta of the universe, The HOUSE of Jupiter, The mother of the gods." [259] In Babylon, the title of the goddess-mother as the Dwelling-place of God was Sacca, [260] or in the emphatic form, Sacta, that is, "The Tabernacle." Hence, at this day, the great goddesses in India, as wielding all the power of the god whom they represent, are called "Sacti," or the "Tabernacle." [261] Now in her, as the Tabernacle or Temple of God, not only all power, but all grace and goodness were believed to dwell. Every quality of gentleness and mercy was regarded as centred in her; and when death had closed her career, while she was fabled to have been deified and changed into a pigeon, [262] to express the celestial benignity of her nature, she was called by the name of "D'lune," [263] or "The Dove," or without the [[@Page:79]]article, "Juno,"—the name of the Roman "queen of heaven," which has the very same meaning; and under the form of a dove as well as her own, she was worshipped by the Babylonians. The dove, the chosen symbol of this deified queen, is commonly represented with an olive branch in her mouth (Figure 25, above), as she herself in her human form also is seen bearing the olive branch in her hand; [264] and from this form of representing her, it is highly probably that she has derived the name by which she is commonly known, for "Z'emir-amit" means "The branch-bearer." [265] When the goddess was thus represented as the Dove with the olive branch, there can be no doubt that the symbol had partly reference to the story of the flood; but there was much more in the symbol than a mere memorial of that great event. "A branch," as had been already proved, was the symbol of the deified son, and when the deified mother was represented as a Dove, what could the meaning of this representation be but just to identify her with the Spirit of all grace, that brooded, dove-like, over the deep at the creation; for in the sculptures at Nineveh, as we have seen, the wings and tail of the dove represented the third member of the idolatrous Assyrian trinity. [266] In confirmation of this

Fig. 25.

view, it must be stated that the Assyrian "Juno," or "The Virgin Venus," [267] as she was called, was identified with the air. Thus Julius Firmicus says:—"The Assyrians and part of the Africans wish the air to have the supremacy of the elements, for they have consecrated this same [element]under the name of Juno, or the Virgin Venus." Why was air thus identified with Juno, whose symbol was that of the third person of the Assyrian trinity? Why, but because in Chaldee the same word which signifies the air signifies also the "Holy Ghost" The knowledge of this entirely accounts for the [[@Page:80]]statement of Proclus, that "Juno imports the generation of soul." [268] Whence could the soul—the spirit of man—be supposed to have its origin, but from the Spirit of God. In accordance with this character of Juno as the incarnation of the Divine Spirit, the source of life, and also as the goddess of the air, thus is she invoked in the "Orphic Hymns":—

"O royal Juno, of majestic mien,
Aerial formed, divine, Jove's blessed queen,
Throned in the bosom of cerulean air,
The race of mortals is thy constant care;
The cooling gales, thy power alone inspires,
Which nourish life, which every life desires;
Mother of showers and winds, from thee alone
Producing all things, mortal life is known;
All natures show thy temperament divine,
And universal sway alone is thine,
With sounding blasts of wind, the swelling sea
And rolling rivers roar when shook by thee." [269]

Thus, then, the deified queen, when in all respects regarded as a veritable woman, was at the same time adored as the incarnation of the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of peace and love. In the temple of Hierapolis in Syria, there was a famous statue of the goddess Juno, to which crowds from all quarters flocked to worship. The image of the goddess was richly habited, on her head was a golden dove, and she was called by a name peculiar to the country, "Semeion." [270] What is the meaning of Semeion? It is evidently "The Habitation;" [271] and the "golden dove" on her head shows plainly who it was that was supposed to dwell in her—even the Spirit of God. When such transcendent dignity was bestowed on her, when such winning characters were attributed to her, and when, over and above all, her images presented her to the eyes of men as Venus Urania, "the heavenly Venus," the queen of beauty, who assured her worshippers of salvation, while giving loose reins to every unholy passion, and every depraved and sensual appetite—no wonder that everywhere she was enthusiastically adored. Under the name of the "Mother of the gods," the goddess queen of Babylon became an object of almost universal worship. "The Mother of the gods," says Clericus, "was worshipped by the Persians, the Syrians, and all the kings of Europe and Asia, with the most profound religious [[@Page:81]]veneration." [272] Tacitus gives evidence that the Babylonian goddess was worshipped in the heart of Germany, [273] and Caesar, when he invaded Britain, found that the priests of this same goddess, known by the name of Druids, had been there before him. [274] Herodotus, from personal knowledge, testifies, that in Egypt this "queen of heaven" was "the greatest and most worshipped of all the divinities." [275] Wherever her worship was introduced, it is amazing what fascinating power it exerted. Truly, the nations might be said to be "made drunk" with the wine of her fornications. So deeply, in particular, did the Jews in the days of Jeremiah drink of her wine cup, so bewitched were they with her idolatrous worship, that even after Jerusalem had been burnt, and the land desolated for this very thing, they could not be prevailed on to give it up. While dwelling in Egypt as forlorn exiles, instead of being witnesses for God against the heathenism around them, they were as much devoted to this form of idolatry as the Egyptians themselves. Jeremiah was sent of God to denounce wrath against them, if they continued to worship the queen of heaven; but his warnings were in vain. "Then," saith the prophet, "all the men which knew that their wives had burnt incense unto other gods, and all the women that stood by, a great multitude, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, in Pathros, answered Jeremiah, saying, As for the word that thou hast spoken unto us in the name of the Lord, we will not hearken unto thee; but we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth, to burn incense unto the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto her, as we have done, we, and our fathers, our kings, and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem: for then had we plenty of victuals, and were well, and saw no evil" (Jeremiah 44:15-17). Thus did the Jews, God's [[@Page:82]]own peculiar people, emulate the Egyptians in their devotion to the queen of heaven.

The worship of the goddess-mother with the child in her arms continued to be observed in Egypt till Christianity entered. If the Gospel had come in power among the mass of the people, the worship of this goddess-queen would have been overthrown. With the generality it came only in name. Instead, therefore, of the Babylonian goddess being cast out, in too many cases her name only was changed. She was called the Virgin Mary, and, with her child, was worshipped with the same idolatrous feeling by professing Christians, as formerly by open and avowed Pagans. The consequence was, that when, in A.D. 325, the Nicene Council was summoned to condemn the heresy of Arius, who denied the true divinity of Christ, that heresy indeed was condemned, but not without the help of men who gave distinct indications of a desire to put the creature on a level with the Creator, to set the Virgin-mother wide by side with her Son. At the Council of Nice, says the author of "Nimrod," "The Melchite section"—that is, the representatives of the so-called Christianity of Egypt—"held that there were three persons in the Trinity—the Father, the Virgin Mary, and Messiah their Son." [276] In reference to this astounding fact, elicited by the Nicene Council, Father Newman speaks exultingly of these discussions as tending to the glorification of Mary. "Thus," says he, "the controversy opened a question which it did not settle. It discovered a new sphere, if we may so speak, in the realms of light, to which the Church had not yet assigned its inhabitant. Thus, there was a wonder in Heaven; a throne was seen far above all created powers, mediatorial, intercessory, a title archetypal, a crown bright as the morning star, a glory issuing from the eternal throne, robes pure as the heavens, and a sceptre over all. And who was the predestined heir of that majesty? Who was that wisdom, and what was her name, the mother of fair love, and fear, and holy hope, exalted like a palm-tree in Engaddi, and a rose-plant in Jericho, created from the beginning before the world, in God's counsels, and in Jerusalem was her power? The vision is found in the Apocalypse 'a Woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars.'" [277] "The votaries of Mary," adds he, "do not exceed the true faith, unless the blasphemers of her Son came up to it. The Church of Rome is not idolatrous, unless Arianism is orthodoxy." [278] This is the very poetry of blasphemy. [[@Page:83]]It contains an argument too; but what does that argument amount to? It just amounts to this, that if Christ be admitted to be truly and properly God, and worthy of Divine honours, His mother, from whom He derived merely His humanity, must be admitted to be the same, must be raised far above the level of all creatures, and be worshipped as a partaker of the Godhead. The divinity of Christ is made to stand or fall with the divinity of His mother. Such is Popery in the nineteenth century; yea, such is Popery in England. It was known already that Popery abroad was bold and unblushing in its blasphemies; that in Lisbon a church was to be seen with these words engraven on its front, "To the virgin goddess of Loretto, the Italian race, devoted to her Divinity, have dedicated this temple." [279] But when till now was such language ever heard in Britain before? This, however, is just the exact reproduction of the doctrine of ancient Babylon in regard to the great goddess-mother. The Madonna of Rome, then, is just the Madonna of Babylon. The "Queen of Heaven" in the one system is the same as the "Queen of Heaven" in the other. The goddess worshipped in Babylon and Egypt as the Tabernacle or Habitation of God, is identical with her who, under the name of Mary, is called by Rome "the HOUSE consecrated to God," "the awful Dwelling-place," [280] "the Mansion of God," [281] the "Tabernacle of the Holy Ghost," [282] the "Temple of the Trinity." [283] Some may possibly be inclined to defend such language, by saying that the Scripture makes every believer to be a temple of the Holy Ghost, and, therefore, what harm can there be in speaking of the Virgin Mary, who was unquestionably a saint of God, under that name, or names of a similar import? Now, no doubt it is true that Paul says (1 Corinthians 3:16), "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?" It is not only true, but it is a great truth, and a blessed one—a truth that enhances every comfort when enjoyed, and takes the sting out of every trouble when it comes, that every genuine Christian has less or more experience of what is contained in these words of the same apostle (2 Corinthians 6:16), "Ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them and walk in them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people." It must also be admitted, and gladly admitted, that this implies the indwelling of all the Persons of the glorious Godhead; for the Lord Jesus hath said (John 14:23), "If a man love me, he will keep my words; and my Father will love him, and WE will come unto him, and make our abode with him." But while admitting all this, on examination it will be found that the Popish and the Scriptural ideas conveyed [[@Page:84]]by these expressions, however apparently similar, are essentially different. When it is said that a believer is "a temple of God," or a temple of the Holy Ghost, the meaning is (Ephesians 3:17) that "Christ dwells in the heart by faith." But when Rome says that Mary is "The Temple" or "Tabernacle of God," the meaning is the exact Pagan meaning of the term—viz., that the union between her and the Godhead is a union akin to the hypostatical union between the divine and human nature of Christ. The human nature of Christ is the "Tabernacle of God," inasmuch as the Divine nature has veiled its glory in such a way, by assuming our nature, that we can come near without overwhelming dread to the Holy God. To this glorious truth John refers when he says (John 1:14), "The Word was made flesh, and dwelt (literally tabernacled) among us, and we beheld Hid glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth." In this sense, Christ, the God-man, is the only "Tabernacle of God." Now, it is precisely in this sense that Rome calls Mary the "Tabernacle of God," or of the "Holy Ghost." Thus speaks the author of a Popish work devoted to the exaltation of the Virgin, in which all the peculiar titles and prerogatives of Christ are given to Mary: "Behold the tabernacle of God, the mansion of God, the habitation, the city of God is with men, and in men and for men, for their salvation, and exaltation, and eternal glorification. … Is it most clear that this is true of the holy church? and in like manner also equally true of the most holy sacrament of the Lord's body? Is it (true) of every one of us in as far as we are truly Christians? Undoubtedly; but we have to contemplate this mystery (as existing) in a peculiar manner in the most holy Mother of our Lord." [284] Then the author, after endeavouring to show that "Mary is rightly considered as the Tabernacle of God with men," and that in a peculiar sense, a sense different from that in which all Christians are the "temple of God," thus proceeds with express reference to her in this character of the Tabernacle: "Great truly is the benefit, singular is the privilege, that the Tabernacle of God should be with men, In Which men may safely come near to God become man." [285] Here the whole mediatorial glory of Christ, as the God-man in whom dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, is given to Mary, or at least is shared with her. The above extracts are taken from a work published upwards of two hundred years ago. Has the Papacy improved wince then? Has it repented of its blasphemies? No, the very reverse. The quotation already given from Father Newman proves this; but there is still stronger proof. In a recently published work, the same blasphemous idea is even more clearly unfolded. While Mary is called "The HOUSE consecrated to God," and the "Temple of the Trinity," the following versicle and response will show in what sense she is regarded as the temple of the Holy Ghost: "V. Ipse [deus]creavit illam in Spiritu Sancto. R. Et Effudit Illam inter omnia opera sua. V. Domina, exaudi." &c, which is thus [[@Page:85]]translated: "V. The Lord himself created Her in the Holy Ghost, and POURED Her out among all his works. V. O Lady, hear," &c.3 This astounding language manifestly implies that Mary is identified with the Holy Ghost, when it speaks of her "being poured out" on "all the works of God;" and that, as we have seen, was just the very way in which the Woman, regarded as the "Tabernacle" or House of God by the Pagans, was looked upon. Where is such language used in regard to the Virgin? Not in Spain; not in Austria; not in the dark places of Continental Europe; but in London, the seat and centre of the world's enlightenment.

The names of blasphemy bestowed by the Papacy on Mary have not one shadow of foundation in the Bible, but are all to be found in the Babylonian idolatry. Yea, the very features and complexions of the Roman and Babylonian Madonnas are the same. Till recent times, when Raphael somewhat departed from the beaten track, there was nothing either Jewish or even Italian in the Romish Madonnas. Had these pictures or images of the Virgin Mother been intended to represent the mother of our Lord, naturally then would have been cast either in the one would or the other. But it was not so. In a land of dark-eyed beauties, with raven locks, the Madonna was always represented with blue eyes and golden hair, a complexion entirely different from the Jewish complexion, which naturally would have been supposed to belong to the mother of our Lord, but which precisely agrees with that which all antiquity attributes to the goddess queen of Babylon. In almost all lands the great goddess has been described with golden or yellow hair, showing that there must have been one grand prototype, to which they were all made to correspond. "Flava ceres" the "yellow-haired Ceres," might not have been accounted of any weight in this argument if she had stood alone, for it might have been supposed in that case that the epithet "yellow-haired" was borrowed from the corn that was supposed to be under her guardian care. But many other goddesses have the very same epithet applied to them. Europa, whom Jupiter carried away in the form of a bull, is called "The yellow-haired Europa." [286] Minerva is called by Homer "the blue-eyed Minerva," [287] and by OVID "the yellow-haired;" [288] the huntress Diana, who is commonly identified with the moon, is addressed by Anacreon as "the yellow-haired daughter of Jupiter," [289] a title which the pale face of the silver moon could surely never have suggested. Dione, the mother of Venus, is described by Theocritus as "yellow-haired." [290] Venus herself is frequently called "Aurea Venus," the "golden Venus." [291] The Indian goddess Lakshmi, the "Mother of the Universe," is described [[@Page:86]]as of "a golden complexion." [292] Ariadne, the wife of Bacchus, was called "the yellow-haired Ariadne." [293] Thus does Dryden refer to her golden or yellow hair:—

"Where the rude waves in Dian's harbour play,
The fair forsaken Ariadne lay;
There, sick with grief and frantic with despair,
Her dress she rent, and tore her golden hair." [294]

The Gorgon Medusa before her transformation, while celebrated for her beauty, was equally celebrated for her golden hair:—

"Medusa once had charms: to gain her love
A rival crowd of anxious lovers strove.
They who have seen her, own they ne'er did trace
More moving features in a sweeter face;
But above all, her length of hair they own
In golden ringlets waved, and graceful shone." [295]

The mermaid that figured so much in the romantic tales of the north, which was evidently borrowed from the story of Atergatis, the fish goddess of Syria, who was called the mother of Semiramis, and was sometimes identified with Semiramis herself, [296] was described with hair of the same kind. "The Ellewoman," such is the Scandinavian name for the mermaid, "is fair," says the introduction to the "Danish Tales" of Hans Andersen, "and gold-haired, and plays most sweetly on a stringed instrument." [297] "She is frequently seen sitting on the surface of the waters, and combing her long golden hair with a golden comb." [298] Even when Athor, the Venus of Egypt, was represented as a cow, doubtless to indicate the complexion of the goddess that cow represented, the cow's head and neck were gilded. 6 When, therefore, it is known that the most famed pictures of the Virgin Mother in Italy represented her as of a fair complexion and with golden hair, and when over all Ireland the Virgin is almost invariably represented at this day in the very same manner, who can resist the conclusion that she must have been thus represented, only because she had been copied from the same prototype as the Pagan divinities?

Nor is this agreement in complexion only, but also in features. Jewish features are everywhere marked, and have a character peculiarly their own. But the original Madonna's have nothing at all of Jewish form or feature; but are declared by those who have personally compared both, [299] entirely to agree in this respect, as well as in complexion, with the Babylonian Madonnas found by Sir Robert Ker Porter among the ruins of Babylon.

[[@Page:87]]There is yet another remarkable characteristic of these pictures worthy of notice, and that is the nimbus or peculiar circle of light that frequently encompasses the head of the Roman Madonna. With this circle the heads of the so-called figures of Christ are also frequently surrounded. Whence could such a device have originated? In the case of our Lord, if His head had been merely surrounded with rays, there might have been some pretence for saying that that was borrowed from the Evangelic narrative, where it is stated, that on the holy mount His face became resplendent with light. But where, in the whole compass of Scripture, do we ever read that His head was surrounded with a disk, or a circle of light ? But what will be searched for in vain in the Word of God, is found in the artistic representations of the great gods and goddesses of Babylon. The disk, and particularly the circle, where the will-known symbols of the Sun-divinity, and figured largely in the symbolism of the East. With the circle or the disk the head of the Sun-divinity was encompassed. The same was the case in Pagan Rome. Apollo, as the child of the Sun, was often thus represented. The goddesses that claimed kindred with the Sun were equally entitled to be adorned with the nimbus or luminous circle. We give from Pompeii a representation of Circe, "the daughter of the Sun" (See Figure 26), with her head surrounded with a circle, in the very same way as the head of the Roman Madonna is at this day surrounded. Let any one compare the nimbus around the head of Circe, with that around the head of the Popish Virgin, and he will see how exactly they correspond. [300]

Now, could any one possible believe that all this coincidence could be accidental. Of course, if the Madonna had ever so exactly [[@Page:88]]resembled the Virgin Mary, that would never have excused idolatry. But when it is evident that the goddess enshrined in the Papal Church for the supreme worship of its votaries, is the very Babylonian queen who set up Nimrod, or Ninus "the Son," as the rival of Christ, and who in her own person was the incarnation of every kind of licentiousness, how dark a character does that stamp on the Roman idolatry. What will it avail to mitigate the heinous character of that idolatry, to say that the child she holds forth to adoration is called by the name of Jesus? When she was worshipped with her child in Babylon of old, that child was called by a name as peculiar to Christ, as distinctive of His glorious character, as the name of Jesus. He was called "Zoro-ashta," "the seed of the woman." But that did not hinder the hot anger of God from being directed against those in the days of old who worshipped that "image of jealousy, provoking to jealousy." [301] Neither can the giving of the

Fig 26.

name of Christ to the infant in the arms of the Romish Madonna, make it less the "image of Jealousy," less offensive to the Most High, less fitted to provoke His high displeasure, when it is evident that that infant is worshipped as the child of her who was adored as Queen of Heaven, with all the attributes of divinity, and was at the same time the "Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth." Image-worship in every case the Lord abhors; but image-worship of such a kind as this must be peculiarly abhorrent to His holy soul. Now, if the facts I have adduced be true, is it wonderful that such dreadful threatenings should be directed in the Word of God against the Romish apostasy, and that the vials of this tremendous wrath are [[@Page:89]]destined to be outpoured upon its guilty head? If these things be true (and gainsay them who can), who will venture now to plead for Papal Rome, or to call her a Christian Church? Is there one, who fears God, and who reads these lines, who would not admit that Paganism alone could ever have inspired such a doctrine as that avowed by the Melchites at the Nicene Council, that the Holy Trinity consisted of "the Father, the Virgin Mary, and the Messiah their Son"? [302] Is there one who would not shrink with horror from such a thought? What, then, would the reader say of a Church that teaches its children to adore such a Trinity as that contained in the following lines?—

"Heart of Jesus I adore thee;
Heart of Mary, I implore thee;
Heart of Joseph, pure and just;
In These Three Hearts I Put My Trust." [303]

If this is not Paganism, what is there that can be called by such a name? Yet this is the Trinity which now the Roman Catholics of Ireland from tender infancy are taught to adore. This is the Trinity which, in the latest books of catechetical instruction is presented as the grand object of devotion to the adherents of the Papacy. The manual that contains this blasphemy comes forth with the express "Imprimatur" of "Paulus Cullen," Popish Archbishop [[@Page:90]]of Dublin. Will any one after this say that the Roman Catholic Church must still be called Christian, because it holds the doctrine of the Trinity? So did the Pagan Babylonians, so did the Egyptians, so do the Hindoos at this hour, in the very same sense in which Rome does. They all admitted A trinity, but did they worship THE Triune Jehovah, the King Eternal, Immortal, and Invisible? And will any one say with such evidence before him, that Rome does so? Away then, with the deadly delusion that Rome is Christian! There might once have been some palliation for entertaining such a supposition; but every day the "Grand Mystery" is revealing itself more and more in its true character. There is not, and there cannot be, any safety for the souls of men in "Babylon." "Come out of her, my people," is the loud and express command of God. Those who disobey that command, do it at their peril.


[1]             See Herodotus, lib. ii. cap. 109, and Diogenes Laertius, Proem, p. 2.

[2]             Lib. i. 6, p. 34.

[3]             Bunsen's Egypt, vol. i. p. 444.

[4]             Layard's Ninevah and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 440..

[5]             Ibid, pp. 439,440.

[6]             Ouvaroff's Eleusinian Mysteries, sect. ii. p. 20.

[7]             Saturnalia, lib. i. cap. 21, p. 79.

[8]             Jamblichus, sect viii. chap. ii. Macrobius, Saturnalia, p. 65.

[9]             Mallet's Northern Antiquities, vol. i. pp. 79, 79.

[10]            Moor's Pantheon, p. 4

[11]            Col. Vans Kennedy's Hindoo Mythology, p.270.

[12]            See Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon, sub voce. No V.

[13]            Ibid. No. II.

[14]            Ibid. No. IV.

[15]            Moor's Pantheon, "Chrishna," p. 211.

[16]            Git a, p. 86, apud Moor.

[17]            For further evidence as to Hindu knowledge on this subject, see near the end of next section.

[18]            Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 294. London, 1807.

[19]            The word in the original of Exodus is the very same as rahm, only in a participial form.

[20]            While such is the meaning of Brahm, the meaning of Deva, the generic name for "God" in India, is near akin to it. That name is commonly derived from the Sanscrit, Die, "to shine,"—only a different form of Shiv, which has the Same moaning, which again comes from the Chaldee Ziv, "brightness or splendour" (Daniel 2:31); and, no doubt, when sun-worship was engrafted on the Patriarchal faith, the visible splendour of the deified luminary might be suggested by the name. But there is reason to believe that "Deva" has a much more honourable origin, and that it really came originally from the Chaldee, Thav, "good," which is also legitimately pronounced Thev, and in the emphatic form is Theva or Them, 'The Good." The first letter, represented by Th, as shown by Donaldson in his New Cratylus, is frequently pronounced Dh. Hence, from Dheva or Theva, "The Good," naturally comes the Sanscrit, Deva, or, without the digamma, as it frequently is, Deo, "God," the Latin, Deus, and the Greek, Theos, the digamma in the original Thevo-s being also dropped, as novas in Latin is neon in Greek. This view of the matter gives an emphasis to the saying of our Lord (Matthew 19:17): "There is none good but One, that is (Theos) God"—"The Good."

[21]            The words in our translation are, "behind one tree," but there is no word in the original for "tree;" and it is admitted by Lowth, and the best orientalists, that the rendering Should be, "after the rites of Achad," i.e., "The Only One." I am aware that Some object to making "Achad" signify, "The Only One," on the ground that it wants the article. But how little weight is in this, may be Seen from the fact that it is this very term "Achad," and that without the article, that is used in Deuteronomy, when the Unity of the Godhead is asserted in ti e most emphatic manner, "Hear, 0 Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah," i.e., "only Jehovah." When it is intended to assert the Unity of the Godhead in the strongest possible manner, the Babylonians used the term "Adad."—Macrobii Saturnalia, lib. i. cap. 23, p. 73.

[22]            Layard's Babylon and Nineveh, p. 605. The Egyptians also used the triangle as a symbol of their "triform divinity." See Maurice's Indian Antiquities, vol. iv. P. 445. London, 1794.

[23]            PARKHURST's Hebrew Lexicon, sub voce, "Cherubim." From the following extract from the Dublin Catholic Layman, a very able Protestant paper, describing a Popish picture of the Trinity, recently published in that city, it will he seen that something akin to this mode of representing the Godhead is appearing nearer home:—" At the top of the picture is a representation of the Holy Trinity. We beg to speak of it with duo reverence. God the Father and God the Son are represented as a Man with two heads, one body, and two arms. One of the heads is like the ordinary pictures of our Saviour. The other is the head of an old man, Surmounted by a triangle. Out of the middle of this figure is proceeding the Holy Ghost in the form of a dove. We think it must be painful to any Christian mind, and repugnant to Christian feeling, to look at this figure."—Catholic Layman, 17th July, 1856.

[24]            Japhet, p. 184.

[25]            Col. Kennedy's Hindoo Mythology, p. 211. Col. Kennedy objects to the application of the name "Eko Deva" to the triform image in the cave-temple at Elephants, on the ground that that name belongs only to the supreme Brahm. But in so doing he is entirely inconsistent, for he admits that Brahma, the first person in that triform image, is identified with the supreme Drab cc; and further, that a curse is pronounced upon all who distinguish between Brahma, Vishnu, and Seva, the three divinities represented by that image.

[26]            Gillespie's Sinim, p. 60.

[27]            The threefold invocation of the sacred name in the blessing of Jacob bestowed on the eons of Joseph is very striking : "And he blessed Joseph, and said, God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this day, the Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads" (Genesis 48:15-16). If the angel hero referred to had not been God, Jacob could never have invoked him as on an equality with God. In Hosea 12:3-5, "the Angel who redeemed" Jacob is expressly called God:—"He (Jacob) had power with God:—yea, he had power over the Angel, and prevailed; be wept and mach supplication unto him : he found him in Bethel, and there he spake with us; even the Lord God of Hosts; The Lord is his memorial."

[28]            In our own language we have evidence that Zero had signified a circle among the Chaldeans; for what is Zero, the name of the cypher, but just a circle? And whence can we have derived this term but from the Arabians, as they, without doubt, had themselves derived it from the Chaldees, the grand original cultivators at once of arithmetic, geometry, and idolatry 1 Zero, in this sense, had evidently come from the Chaldee, err, 'to encompass," from which, also, no doubt, was derived the Babylonian name for a great cycle of time, called a "saros."—(Bunsen, vol. i. pp. 711, 712.) As he, who by the Chaldeans was regarded as the great "Seed," was looked upon as the sun incarnate (see chap. iii. sect, i.), and as the emblem of the sun was a circle (Bunsen, vol. i. p. 335, and p. 537, No. 4), the hieroglyphical relation between zero, "the circle," and zero, "the seed," was easily established.

[29]            From the Statement in Genesis. 1:2, that "the Spirit of God fluttered on the face of the deep" (for that is the expression in the original), it is evident that the dove had very early been a Divine emblem for the Holy Spirit.

[30]            JAMBLICHUS, On the Mysteries, sect. viii. chap. iii.

[31]            Ward's View of the Hindus, apud.


[33]            Kennedy's researches into Ancient and modern Mythology, p. 196.

[34]            Figure 5:—From Babylon. From KlTTO's Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. p. 31.

[35]            Figure 6:—From India. Indrani, the wife of the Indian god Indra, from Asiatic Researches, vol. vi. p. 393.

[36]            Osiris, as the child called most frequently Horns. Bunsen, vol. i. p. 438, compared with pp. 433, 434.

[37]            Kennedy's Hindoo Mythology. Though Iswara is the husband of Isi, he is also represented as an infant at her breast. Ibid. p. 338, Note.

[38]            Dymock's Classical Dictionary, "Cybele" and "Deoius."

[39]            Cicero's Works, De Divinatione, lib. ii. Cap. 41, vol. hi. p. 77.

[40]            Sophocles, Antigone, v. 1133.

[41]            Pausanias, lib. i. Attica, cap. 8.

[42]            The very name by which the Italians commonly designate the Virgin, is just the translation of one of the titles of the Babylonian goddess. As Baal or Belus was the name of the great male divinity of Babylon, so the female divinity was called Beltis. (FIESYCHIUS, Lexicon) This name has been found in Nineveh applied to the "Mother of the gods" (Vaux's Nineveh and Persepolis); and in a speech attributed to Nebuchadnezzar, preserved in EUSEBII Prceparatio Evangelii, both titles "Belus and Beltis" are conjoined as the titles of the great Babylonian god and goddess. The Greek Belus, as representing the highest title of the Babylonian god, was undoubtedly Baal, "The Lord." Beltis, therefore, as the title of the female divinity, was equivalent to "Baalti," which, in English, is "My Lady," in Latin, "Mea Domina," and, in Italina, is corrupted into the well known "Madonna." In connection with this, it may be observed, that the name of Juno, the classical "Queen of Heaven," which, in Greek, was Hera, also signified "The Lady;" and that the peculiar title of Cybele or Rhea at Rome, was Domina or "The Lady." (Ovid, Fasti) Further, there is strong reason to believe, that Athena, the well known name of Minerva at Athens, had the very same meaning. The Hebrew Adon, "The Lord," is, with the points, pronounced Athon. We have evidence that this name was known to the Asiatic Greeks, from whom idolatry, in a large measure, came into European Greece, as a name of God under the form of "Athan." Eustathius, in a note on the Periergesis of Dionysius, speaking of local names in the district of Laodicea, says the "Athan is god." The feminine of Athan, "The Lord," is Athan, "The Lady," which in the Attic dialect, is Athena. No doubt, Minerva is commonly represented as a virgin; but, for all that, we learn from Strabo that at Hierapytna in Crete (the coins of which city, says Muller, Dorians have the Athenian symbols of Minerva upon them), she was said to be the mother of the Corybantes by Helius, or "The Sun." It is certain that the Egyptian Minerva, who was the prototype of the Athenian goddess, was a mother, and was styled "Goddess Mother," or "Mother of the Gods." —See WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 285.

[43]            CRABB's Mythology, p. 150. Gutzlaff thought that Shing Moo must have been borrowed from a Popish source; and there can be no doubt, that in the individual case to which he refers, the Pagan and the Christian stories had been amalgamated. But Sir J. F. Davis Shows that the Chinese of Canton find such an analogy between their own Pagan goddess Kuanyin and the Popish Madonna, that, in conversing with Europeans, they frequently call either of thorn indifferently by the same title—Davis's China, vol. ii. p. 56. The first Jesuit missionaries to China also wrote home to Europe, that they found mention in the Chinese sacred books—books unequivocally Pagan—of a mother and child, very similar to their own Madonna and child at home.—See LePereLafitan, LesMaeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains, vol. i. p- 235, Note.

[44]            Sir H. Rawlinson having found evidence at Nineveh, of the existence of a Semiramis about six or seven centuries before the Christian era, seems inclined to regard her as the only Semiramis that ever existed. But this is Subversive of all history—The fact that there was a Semiramis in the primeval ages of the world, is beyond all doubt (See JUSTIN, Historia, p. 615, and the historian Castob in Cory's Fragments, p. 65), although Borne of the exploits of the latter queen have evidently been attributed to her predecessor. Mr. Layard dissents from Sir H. Rawlinson's opinion.

[45]            See Diodorus Siculus, lib. ii- p. 76.

[46]            Athenagoras, Legatio, pp. 178, 179.

[47]            Paschal, Chronicle, vol. i. p. 65.

[48]            From Bakhah "to weep" or "lament." Among the Phenicians, says Hesychius, "Bacchus means weeping," p. 179. As the women wept for Tammuz, so did they for Bacchus.

[49]            SERVIUS, in Georg., lib. i. vol. ii. p. 197, and in ÆNEID, lib. vi. vol. i. p. 400.

[50]            From Nin, in Hebrew, "A Son."

[51]            As such Rhea was called by the Greeks, Ammas; see HESYClUS, sub voce "Ammas." Ammas is evidently the Greek form of the Chaldee Ama, "Mother."

[52]            Layard's Nineveh and its Remains, vol- ii. p. 480.

[53]            BUNSEN, vol. i. pp. 438, 439. It may be observed that this very name "Husband of the Mother," given to Osiris, seems even at this day to be in common use among ourselves, although there is not the least suspicion of the meaning of the term, or whence it has come. Herodotus mentions that when in Egypt, he was astonished to hear the very same mournful but ravishing "Song of Lines, sung by the Egyptians (although under another name), which he had been accustomed to hear in his own native land of Greece (HEROD., lib. ii. cap. 79). Linus was the same god as the Bacchus of Greece, or Osiris of Egypt; for Homer introduces a boy singing the song of Linus, while the vintage is going on (Iliac, lib. xviii. v. 569-571, pp. 725, 726), and the Scholiast says that this song was sung in memory of Linus, who was torn in pieces by dogs- The epithet "dogs," applied to those who tore Linus in pieces, is evidently used in a mystical sense, and it will afterwards be seen how thoroughly the other name by which he is known—Narcissus—identifies him with the Greek Bacchus and Egyptian Osiris. In some places in Egypt, for the song of Linus or Osiris, a peculiar melody seems to have been used. Savary says that, in the temple of Abydos, "the priest repeated the seven vowels in the form of hymns, and that musicians were forbid to enter;'/."— letters, p. 566- Strabo, whom Savary refers to, calls the god of that temple Memnon, but we learn from Wilkinson, vol. iv. pp. 344, 345, that Osiris was the great god of Abydos, whence it is evident that Memnon and Osiris were only different names of the same divinity. Now the name of Linus or Osiris, as the "husband of his mother," in Egypt; was Kamut (BlJNSEN, vol. i- pp. 373, 374). When Gregory the Great introduced into the Church of Rome what are now called the Gregorian Chants, he got them from the Chaldean mysteries, which had long been established in Rome; for the Roman Catholic priest, Eustace, admits that these chants were largely composed of "Lydian and Phrygian tunes" (Classical Tour, vol. i. p. 379), Lydia and Phrygia being among the chief seats in later times of those mysteries, of which the Egyptian mysteries wars only a branch. These tunes were sacred-the music of the great god, and in introducing them Gregory introduced the music of Kamut. And thus, to all appearance, has it come to pass, that the name of Osiris or Kamut, "the husband of the mother," is in every-day use among ourselves as the name of the musical scale ; for what is the melody of Osiris, consisting of the "seven vowels" formed into a hymn, but-the Gamut?

[54]            The name, "Assyrians," as has already been noticed, has a wide latitude of meaning among the classic authors, taking in the Babylonians as well as the Assyrians proper.

[55]            Justin's Trogus Pompeius, Hist. Rom. Script., vol. ii. p. 615.

[56]            Diodorus, Bibliotheca, lib. ii. p. 63.

[57]            See Chaldee Lexicon in Clavis Stockii, whore the verb "asher" is rendered "firmavit roboravit." Ashur, the passive participle, is consequently "firmatus, roboratus." Even in Hebrew this sense seems to be inherent it the verb, as may be concluded from the noun te-ashur, the name of the box-tree (Isaiah 60:13), the wood of that tree being remarkable for its firmness and compactness. Even in the ordinary Hebrew sense, the meaning is substantially the same; for as Ashei means "to prosper," or "make prosperous," Ashur, in the participle passive, must signify "prospered," or "made prosperous."

[58]            Justin, Hist. Rom. Script, vol. ii. p. 615. The words of the original are the following:—"Ninus magnitudinem quaesitae dominationis continua possessions firmavit. Cum accessione virum fortior, ad alios transiret et proxima quaeque victoria instrumentum sequentis asset totius Orientis populos subegit."

[59]            Nin-neveh, "The habitation of Ninus."

[60]            Layard's Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 7, et passim.

[61]            See Gregorius Turonensis, De rerum Franc, lib. i., apud, Bryant. Vol. ii. pp. 403, 404. Gregory attributes to Cush what was said more generally to have befallen his son; but his statement shows the belief in his day, which is amply confirmed from other sources, that Cush had a pre-eminent share in leading mankind away from the true worship of God.

[62]            The composition of Her-mes is, first, from "Her," which, in Chaldee, is synonymous with Ham, or Khem, "The burnt one." As "Her" also, like Ham, signified "The hot or burning one," this name formed a foundation for covertly identifying Ham with the "Sun," and so deifying the great patriarch, after whose name the land of Egypt was called, in connection with the sun. Khem, or Ham, in his own name was openly worshipped in later ages in the land of Ham (Bunsen, vol. i. p. 373); but this would have been too daring at first. By means of "Her," the synonym, however, the way was paved for this. "Her" is the name of Horns, who is identified with the sun (Bunsen, vol. i. p. 607), which shows the real etymology of the name to be from the verb to which I have traced it. Then, secondly, "Mes," is from Mesheh (or, without the last radical, which is omissible, see Parkhurst, sub voce, p. 416), Mesh, "to draw forth. " In Egyptian, we have Sts in the sense of "to bring forth" (Bunsen, vol. i., Nieroglyphical Signs, Append., b. 43, p. 540), which is evidently a different form of the same word. In the passive sense, also, we find Ms used (Bunsen, Vocabulary, Appendix i. p. 470, at bottom, &c, "Ms … born"). The radical meaning of Mesheh in Stockii Lexicon, is given in Latin "Extraxit," and our English word "extraction," as applied to birth or descent, shows that there is a connection between the generic meaning of this word and birth. This derivation will he found to explain the meaning of the names of the Egyptian kings, Ramesses and Thothmes, the former evidently being "The Son of Ra," or the Sun; for Ramesses is Ἡλίου παῖς, (AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, lib. 17, cap. 4, p. 162); the latter, in like manner, being "The son of Thoth." For the very same reason Her-cues is the "Son of Her, or Ham," the burnt one—that is, Cush.

[63]            Hyginus, Fab. 143, p. 114. Phoroneus is represented as king at this time.

[64]            Janus was so called in the most ancient hymns of the Salii.—Macrob., Saturn., lib. i. cap. 9, p. 54, col. 2, H.

[65]            By Terentianus Maurus he is called "Principium Deorum."—Bryant, vol. iii. p. 82.

[66]            Me Chaos antiqui nam res sum prieca vocabant. Fasti, lib. i. v. 104. vol. iii. p. 19.

[67]            The name of Cush is also Khus, for sh frequently passes in Chaldee into s, and Khus, in pronunciation, legitimately becomes Khawos, or, without the digamma, Khaos.

[68]            Figure 7:—The Symbol of Janus.

[69]            From Sir Wm. Betbam's Etruscan Literature and Antiquities Investigated, Plate II., vol. ii. p. 120. 1842. The Etruscan
name on the reverse of the above medal—Bel-athri, "Lord of spies," is probably given to Janus, in allusion to his well-known title "Janus Tuens," which may be rendered "Janus the Seer," or "All-seeing Janus."

[70]            In Proverbs 25:18, a maul or club is "Mephaitz." In Jeremiah 51:20, the same word, without the Jod, is evidently used for a club (though, in our version, it is rendered battle-axe); for the use of it is not to cut asunder, but to "break in pieces." See the whole passage.

[71]            Genesis 11:9.

[72]            There are many instances of a similar change. Thus Botzra becomes in Greek, Bostra; and Mitzraim, Mestraim. For last, see Bunsen, vol. i. pp. 606-609.

[73]            Vulcan, in the classical Pantheon, had not commonly so high a plane, but in Egypt Hephaistos, or Vulcan, was called "Father of the gods."—AmmianusMarcellinus, lib. xvii.

[74]            Merodach comes from Mered, to rebel; and Dakh, the demonstrative pronoun affixed, which makes it emphatic, signifying "That" or "The great."

[75]            While the names Bel and Hephaistos had the origin above referred to, they were not inappropriate names also, though in a different sense, for the war-gods descending from Cush, from whom Babylon derived its glory among the nations. The warlike deified kings of the line of Cush gloried in their power to carry con. fusion among their enemies, to scatter their armies, and to "break the earth in pieces" by their resistless power. To this, no doubt, as well as to the sots of the primeval Bel, there is allusion in the inspired denunciations of Jeremiah on Baby. Ion. The physical sense also of these names was embodied in the club given to the Grecian Hercules—the very club of, Janus—when, in a character quite different from that of the original Hercules, he was set up as the great reformer of the world, by mere physical force. When two-headed Janus with the club is represented, the twofold representation was probably intended to represent old Cush, and young Cush or Nimrod, as combined. Hut the two-fold representation with other attributes, bad reference also to another "Father of the gods," afterwards to be noticed, who had specially to do with water.

[76]            In our version, Ala Mahozim is rendered alternatively "god of forces," or "gods protectors." To the latter interpretation, there is this insuperable objection, that Ala is in the singular. Neither can the former be admitted; for Mahozim, or Mauzzim, does not signify "forces," or "armies," but "munitions," as it is also given in the margin-that is "fortifications." Stockius, in his Lexicon, gives us the definition ofMahoz in the singular, robur, arx, locus munitus, and in proof of the definition, the following examples Judges 6:26, "And build an altar to the Lord thy God upon the top of this rock" (Mahoz, in the margin "strong place"); and Daniel 11:19, "Then shall he turn his face to the fort (Mahoz) of his own land." See also GESENIUS, Zexicon, p. 533.

[77]            Ovid, Opera, vol. iii.; Fasti, iv. 219-221.

[78]            Ibid. Vol. ii., Metam., lib. iv., Fab. Pyramus and Thisbe.

[79]            Figure 8 Diana of Ephesus.

[80]            A scholiast on the Periergesis of Dionysius, says Layard (Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 480, Note), makes
Semiramis the same as the goddess Artemis or Despoina. Now, Artemis was Diana, and the title of Despoina given to her, shows that it was in the character of the Ephesian Diana she was identified with Semiramis; for Despoina is the Greek for Domina, "The Lady," the peculiar title of Rhea or Cybele, the tower-bearing goddess, in ancient Rome.—Oven, Faso, lib. iv. 340.

[81]            See Layard's Nineveh, &c, vol. ii. pp. 451, 457.

[82]            See ante, p. 21.

[83]            Cory's Fragments, pp. 45, 46.

[84]            Layard's Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. pp. 456, 457.

[85]            In the Greek mythology, Kronos and Rhea are commonly brother and sister. Ninus and Semiramis, according to history, are not represented as standing in any such relation to one another; but this is no objection to the real identity of Ninus and Kronos; for, 1st, the relationships of the divinities, in most countries, are peculiarly conflicting—Osiris, in Egypt, is represented at different times, not only as the son and husband of Isis, but also as her father and brother (BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 438); then, secondly, whatever the deified mortals might be before deification, on being deified they came into new relationships. On the apotheosis of husband and wife, it was necessary for the dignity of both that both alike should be represented as of the same celestial origin-as both supernaturally the children of God. Before the flood, the great sin that brought ruin on the human race was, that the Sons of God" married others than the daughters of God,—in other words, those who were not spiritually their "sisters."(Genesis 6:2-3.) In the new world, while the influence of Noah prevailed, the opposite practice must have beer, strongly inculcated ; for a "son of God" to marry any one but a daughter of God, or his own "sister" in the faith, must have been a misalliance and a disgrace. Hence, from a perversion of a spiritual idea, came, doubtless, the notion of the dignity and purity of the royal line being preserved the more intact through the marriage of royal brothers and sisters. This was the case in Peru (Prescott, vol. i. p. 18), in India (Hardy, p. 133), and in Egypt (Wilkinson, vol. iv. p. 385). Hence the relation of Jupiter to Juno, who gloried that she was "soror et conjux" -"sister and wife"—of her husband. Hence the same relation between Isis and her husband Osiris, the former of whom is represented as "lamenting her brother Osiris."—(BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 419.) For the same reason, no doubt, was Rhea, made the sister of her husband Kronos, to show her divine dignity and equality.

[86]            Clericus, De Philosophia Orientali, lib. i. sect. ii. cap. 37.

[87]            EUSEBII, Chronicon, p. 6.

[88]            The scholiast upon EURIPIDES, Orest., v. 963, p. 85, says that "the Cyclops were so called from Cyclops their king." By this scholiast the Cyclops are regarded as a Thracian nation, for the Thracians had localised the tradition, and applied it to themselves; but the following statement of the scholiast on the Prometheus of iEschylus, p. 56, shows that they stood in such a relation to Kronos, as proves that he was their king: "The Cyclops … were the brethren of Kronos, the father of Jupiter."

[89]            "Turres us Aristoteles, Cyclopes (invenerunt)."—Pliny, lib. vii., cap. 56, p. 171.

[90]            For further evidence in regard to the "God of fortifications," see Appendix. Note D.

[91]            From Krn, a horn. The epithet Carncus applied to Apollo (PADSANIAS, lib. (ii., Laconica, cap. 13), is just a different form of the same word. In the Orphic Hymns, Apollo is addressed as the "Two-horned god" {Hymn to Apollo).

[92]            See ante. D. 28.

[93]            The name for a bull or ruler, is in Hebrew without points, Shur, which in Chaldee becomes Tur. From Tur, in the sense of a bull, comes the Latin Taurus; and from the same word, in the sense of a ruler, Turannus, which originally had no evil meaning. Thus, in these well-known classical words, we have evidence of the operation of the very principle which caused the deified Assyrian kings to be represented under the form of the man-bull.

[94]            Orphic Hymns: Hymn li., To Trietericus, Greek, p. 117.

[95]            From Hyde's Religio Veterum Persarum, cap. 4, p. 116.

[96]            Sharon Turner's Anglo-Saxons, vol. i. p. 217.

[97]            Layard's Nineveh and Babylon, p. 605.

[98]            KlTTO's Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. p. 53.

[99]            In Lares and Penates ofdlicia, p. 151, Barker identifies the Assyrian Hercules with "Dayyad the Hunter." that is evidently Nimrod.

[100]          "Saturnum Pherocydes ante omnes refert coronatum."—TERTULIAN, De CoronaMilitis, cap. 7, vol. ii. p. 85.

[101]          See KlTTO's Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. pp. 280-282. In Fig. 11, the two male figures are Abyssinian Chiefs. The two females, whom Kitto ha grouped along with them, are ladies of Mount Lebanon, whose horned heads dresses Walpole regards as relics of the ancient worship of Astarte. (See above—and WALPOLE's Ansayri, vol. iii.- p. 16.)

[102]          EUSEBIUS, Prceparatio Evangclii, lib. i. cap. 10, vol. i. p. 45.

[103]          Layard's Nineveh, vol. ii. p. 446.

[104]          Maurice, vol. hi. p. 353. London, 1793.

[105]          Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 260.

[106]          Ibid. "Agni," Plate 80.

[107]          Layard's Nineveh, &c, vol. ii. p. 451.

[108]          From KlTTO's Illust. Com., vol. ii. p. 301. The groove in the middle of the central prominence seems to prove that it is not really a horn, but a leaf.

[109]          Catlin's North American Indians, vol. ii. p. 128.

[110]          Bryant, vol. iv. p. 250. The Satyrs were the companions of Bacchus, and "danced along with him" JElian Hist., p. 22). When it is considered who Bacchus was, and that his distinguishing epithet was "Bull-horned," the horns of the "Satyrs" will appear in their true light. For a particular mystic reason the Satyr's horn was commonly a gnat's horn, but originally it must have been the same as Bacchus's.

[111]          This is according to a peculiar Oriental idiom, of which there are many examples. Thus, Baal-aph, "Lord of wrath," signites "an angry man;" Baal lashon, "lord of tongue," "an eloquent man; "Baal-hutzim, "ford of arrows," "an archer;" and in like manner, Baal-aberin, "lord of wings," signifies "a winged one."

[112]          Herodotus, lib. f cap. 209, p. 96.

[113]          Aristophanes Avas, v. 695-705, p. 404.

[114]          Aristophanes says that Eros or Cupid produced the "birds" and "gods" by "mingling all things." This evidently points to the meaning of the name Bel, which signifies at once "the minglef and "the confounder." This name properly belonged to the father of Nimrod, but, as the son was represented as identified with the father, we have evidence that the name descended to the son and others by inheritance.

[115]          See Chap. V. Sect. IV.

[116]          Apollodori, Fragm. 68, in Muller, vol. i. p. 440.

[117]          Diodorus, lib. ii. p. 69.

[118]          See Bryant, vol. ii. p. 377.

[119]          Bunsen, vol. i. p. 392, and Vocabulary, p. 488. The Coptic for "to hunt" is Κωνς, σ being pronounced as s.

[120]          The distinguishing decoration of Maut was the vulture head-dress. Now the name of Rhea, in one of its meanings,

signifies a vulture. For the mystic meaning of this name, see Appendix. Note C.

[121]          How Nimrod came to be regarded as the god of the sea will afterwards appear. See Chap. IV. Sect. I.

[122]          Fuss's Roman Antiquities, chap. iv. p. 347.

[123]          The meaning which the Romans attached to the name Saturn in evident from the account they give of the origin of the name of Latium. It was given, they said, because "Saturn had safely lain hid in its coasts." VIRGIL, iEneid, lib. viii. See also Ovid, Fasti, lib. i.

[124]          Plutarch, De hide et Osiride, vol. ii. p. 354.

[125]          In illustration of the principle that led to the making of the image of the Centaur, the following passage may be given from Prescott's Mexico, vol. i. p. 259, as showing the feelings of the Mexicans on first Seeing a man on horseback: "He [Cortes]ordered his men [who were cavalry]to direct their lances at the faces of their opponents, who, terrified at the monstrous apparition-for they supposed the rider and the horse, which they had never before seen, to be one and the same—were seized with a panic."

[126]          See Nineveh and Babylon, p. 250, and Bryant, vol. iii. Plate, p. 248.

[127]          The above is the Hindoo Sagittarius, as found in the Indian Zodiac, which is proved by Sir William Jones to be substantially the same as the Zodiac of the Greeks. See Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 303.

[128]          Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 440, Note. The name there given N Sagittarius. See Note below.

[129]          Berosus apudBimsEH, p. 708.

[130]          Scholiast in Lycophron, v. 1200, apud Bryant, vol. iii. p. 315. The Scholiast says that Chiron was the son of "Centaurus, that is, Kronos." If any one objects that, as Chiron is said to have lived in the time of the Trojan war, this shows that his father Kronos could not be the father of gods and men, Xenophon answers by saying "that Kronos was the brother of Jupiter."—De Venatione, p. 973.

[131]          See coins already referred to, also the figure in the Zodiac. See alsoManiliuas, i. 270, where he describes Sagittarius as "mixtus equo." Hence, says Smith, in his Classical Dictionary, Sagittarius is "frequently termed Centaurus."

[132]          Layard's Nineveh and its Remain, vol. ii. p. 448. For the meaning of the name Centaurus, see Appendix. Note E.

[133]          See Wilkinson, vol. vi. Plate 20.

[134]          One of the symbols with which Khonso was represented, shows that even he was identified with the child-god; "for," says Wilkinson, "at the side of his head fell the plaited lock of Harpocrates, or childhood." Vol. v. p. 19.

[135]          Bunsen, vol. i. p. 425.

[136]          Plutarch, De hid. et Os., vol. ii. p. 359.

[137]          Ibid.

[138]          Wilkinson, vol. vi. Plate 33.

[139]          "Nimr-rod' from Nimr, a "leopard," and rada or rad "to subdue." According to invariable custom in Hebrew, when two consonants come together as the two rs in Nimr-rod, one of them is sunk. Thus Nin-neveh, "The habitation of Ninus," becomes NineVeh. The name Nimrod is commonly derived from Mered, "to rebel;" but a difficulty has always been found in regard to this derivation, as that would make the name Nimrod properly passive not "the rebel," but "he who was rebelled against." There is no doubt that Nimrod was rebel, and that his rebellion was celebrated in ancient myths; but his name in that character was not Nimrod, but Merodach, or, as among the Romans, Mars, "the rebel;" or among the Oscans of Italy, Mamers (SMITH, sub voce), "The causer of rebellion." That the Roman Mars was really, in his original, the Babylonian god, is evident from the name given to the goddess, who was recognised sometimes as his "Sister," and sometimes as his "wife Bellona (See Ibid., sub voce), which, in Chaldee, signifies, "The Lamenter of Bel" (from .Bel and onah, to lament). The Egyptian Isis, the sister and wife of Osiris, is in like manner represented, as we have Seen, as "lamenting her brother Osiris."—BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 419, Nuts.

[140]          WILKINSON, vol. 111. p. 17.

[141] KITTO'S illustrated Commntary, vol. iv. pp. 271, 272.

[142]          Works, vol. xii. p. 400.

[143]          WILKINSON, vol. iv. pp. 341, 363.

[144]          The name of Apia in Egyptian is Hepi or Hapi. which is evidently from the Chaldee "Hop," "to cover." In Egyptian, Hap signifies "to conceal."—Bunsen, vol. i. Vocab. p. 462.

[145]          Davies's Druids, p. 121.

[146]          Wilkinson, vol. iv. p. 387, and vol. Vi. Plate 36.

[147]          Biblical Cyclopaedia, vol. i. p. 388. The flagellum or lash-the emblem of the great Egyptian god-suspended to the yoke about the neck of the calf, shows that this calf represented that god in one of his different forms.

[148]          Herodotus, lib. ii. cap. 42.

[149]          Bibliotheca, lib. i. p. 9.

[150]          Vaux's Nineveh andPersepolis, chap. viii. p. 233.

[151]          Damascius, in Cosy's Fragments, p. 318.

[152]          In the Greek Septuagint, translated in Egypt, the name of Nimrod in "Nebrod."—(P. 17.)

[153]          Nebros, the name of the fawn, signifies "the spotted one." Nmr, in Egypt, would also become Nor; for Bunsen shows that m and b in that land were often convertible. See vol. i. p. 449.

[154]          Anacreon, p. 296. The words of Anacreon are διονθσθν Αιθιοπαιδα,

[155]          Eusebius, Chronicon, vol. i. p. 109.

[156]          Epiphanius, lib. i. vol. i. p. 7.

[157]          Everyone knows that Homer is odzos Areos, or "Branch of Mars," is the same as a " Son of Mars." The hieroglyphic above was evidently formed on the same principle. That the cup alone in the hand of theyouthful Bacchus was intended to designate him "as the young Chus," or "the boy Chus," we may fairly conclude from a Statement of Pausanias, in which he represents "the boy Kuathos" as acting the part of a cup-bearer, and presenting a cup to Hercules.— (Pausanias, lib. ii.; Corinthiaca, cap. 13, p. 142.) Kuathos is the Greek for a "cup," and is evidently derived from the Hebrew Khus, "a cup," which, in one of its Chaldee forms, becomes Khuth or Khuath. Now, it is well known that the name of Cush is often found in the form of Cuth, and that name, in certain dialects, would be Cuath. The "boy Kuathos," then, is just the Greek form of the "boy Cush," or "the young Cush." The reader will not fail to notice the spots on the robe of the figure 22 on previous page. [The berries or unopened flower-buds at the end of the twigs (figure 22), may indicate the Ivy plant. This, however, would not invalidate, but rather strengthen the general argument.]

[158]          Smith's Classical Dictionary, "Dionysus," p. 227.

[159]          Euripid., in Strabo, lib. x. p. 452.

[160]          KITTO'S Illust. Com., vol. iv. p. 144.—Potter, vol. i. p. 75. Edm. 1808.

[161]          Pausanias, Attica, cap. 31, p. 78.

[162]          Strabo, lib. xv. p. 691. In Hesychius, the name is Kissaioi, p. 531. The epithot applied to the land of Cush in Æschylus is Kissinos—ÆSCHYL., Pers. v. 16. The above accounts for one of the unexplained titles of Apollo. "Kisseus Apollon" is plainly "The Cushite Apollo."

[163]          Heschius, p. 179.

[164]          See ante, for what is said of Janus, Note, p. 28.

[165]          The chaplet, or head-band of Ivy, had evidently a similar hieroglyphical meaning to the above, for the Greek "Zeira Kissou" is either a "band or circlet of Ivy," or "The seed of Cush." The formation of the Greek "Zeira," a zone or enclosing band, from the Chaldee Zer, to encompass, shows that Zero "the seed," which was also pronounced Zeraa, would, in like manner, in some Greek dialects, become Zeira. Kissos, "Ivy," in Greek, retains the radical idea of the Chaldee Khesha or Khesa, "to cover or hide," from which there is reason to believe the name of Cush is derived, for Ivy is characteristically "The coverer or hider." In connection with this, it may be stated that the second person of the Phenician trinity was Chusorus (Wilkinson, vol. iv. p. 191), which evidently is Chus-zoro, "The seed of Cush." We have already seen (p. 13) that the Phenicians derived their mythology from Assyria.

[166]          Bassareus is evidently from the Chaldee Batzar, to which both Gesenius, pp. 150, 151, and Parkhurst, p. 77, give the two­fold meaning of "gathering in grapes," and "fortifying." Batzai Is softened into Bazzar in the very same way as Nebuchadnezzar is pronounced Nebuchadnezzar. In the sense of "rendering a defence inaccessible," Gesenius adduces Jeremiah 51:53, "Though Babylon should mount up to heaven, and though she should fortify (tabatzar) the height of her strength, yet from me shall spoilers come unto her, saith the Lord." Here is evident reference to the two great elements in Babylon's strength, first her tower; secondly, her massive fortifications, or encompassing walls. In making the meaning of Batzar to be, "to render inaccessible," Gesenius seems to have missed the proper generic meaning of the term. Batzar is a compound verb, from Ba, "in," and Tzar, "to compass." exactly equivalent to our English word "en-compass."

[167]          See ante, p. 25, and Note.

[168]          PADSANIAS, lib. ii.; Corinthiaca, cap. 15, p. 145.

[169]          Hyginus, Fab. 143, p. 114.

[170]          Lutatids Plaoidus, in Slat. Theb., lib. iv. v. 589, aped Bryant, vol. hi. p. 65, Note. The words are" Primus Junoni sacrificassc dicitur." The meaning of this probably is, that he first set up the dove (lune) as a material and visible symbol of the Holy Spirit. See next Section.

[171]          From Pharo, also pronounced Pharang, or Pharong, "to cast off, to make naked, to apostatise, to set free." These meanings are not commonly given in this order, but as the sense of "casting off" explains all the other meanings, that warrants the conclusion that "to cast off" is the generic sense of the word. Now "apostasy" is very near akin to this sense, and therefore is one oft lie most natural.

[172]          The Sabino goddess Feronia had evidently a relation to Phoroneus, as the "Emancipator." She was believed to be the "goddess of liberty," because at Terracina (or Anzur) slaves were emancipated in her temple (Servius, in JEneid, viii. v. 564, vol. i. p. 490), and because the freedmen of Rome are recorded on one occasion to have collected a sum of money for the purpose of offering it in her temple.—Smith's Classical Dictionary (the larger one), sub voce "Feronia." The Chaldee meaning of the name "Feronia," strikingly confirms this conclusion. Her eontemplar divinity, who was worshipped along with her in a grove, was, like Ninus, a youthful divinity. He was regarded as a "youthful Jupiter."— Smith's Classical Dictionary, sutvoce "Anxurus," p. 60.

[173]          Thus we read of "Zeus Aphesio" (PAUSANIAS, lib. i. Attica, cap. 44), that is "Jupiter Liberator" (see also ARRIAN, who speaks of "Jovi Aphesio Liberators scilicet," apud BRYANT, vol. v. p. 25), and of "Dionysus Eleuthereus" (PAUSANJAS, Attica, cap. 20, p. 46), or "Bacchus the Deliverer." The name of Theseus seems to have had the same origin, ixomnthes "to loosen," and so to set free (the n being omissible). "The temple of Theseus" [at Athens]says Potter (vol. i. p. 36) … "was allowed the privilege of being a Sanctuary for slaves, and all those of mean condition that fled from the persecution of men in power, in memory that Theseus, while he lived, was an assister and protector of the distressed."

[174]          WILLIAMS' Narrative of Missionary Enterprises, chap. xxxi. p. 142.

[175]          The hearing of this name, Phoroneus, "The Emancipator," will be seen in Chap. Ill, Sect. I, "Christmas," where it is shown that slaves had a temporary emancipation at his birthday.

[176]          In the Polynesian story the heavens and earth are said to have been "bound together with cords," and the "severing" of these cords is said to have been effected by myriads of "dragon flies," which, with their "wings," bore an import, ant share in the great work.—(WILLIAMS, p. 142.) Is there not here a reference to Nimrod's "nighties" or "winged ones"? The deified "mighty ones" were often represented as winged serpents. See WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 232, where the god Agathodasmon is represented as a "winged asp." Among a rude people the memory of such a representation might very naturally be kept up in connection with the "dragon-fly;" and as all the mighty or winged ones of Nimrod's age, the real golden age of paganism,—when "dead, became dasmons" (Hesiod, Work and Days, v. 120, 121), they would of course all alike be symbolised in the same way. If any he stumbled at the thought of such a connection between the mythology of Tahiti and of Babel, let it not be overlooked that the name of the Tahitian god of war was Oro (WILLIAMS, Ibid.), while "Horns (or Orus)," as Wilkinson calls the son of Osiris, in Egypt, which unquestionably borrowed its system from Babylon, appeared in that very character.—(WlLKlNSON, vol, iv. p. 402.) Then what could the severing of the" cords" that bound heaven and earth together be, but just the breaking of the bands of the covenant by which God bound the earth to Himself, when on smelling a sweet savour in Noah's sacrifice, He renewed His covenant with him as head of the human race. This covenant did not merely respect the promise to the earth securing it against another universal deluge, but contained in its bosom a promise of all spiritual blessings to those who adhere to it. The smelling of the sweet savour in Noah's Sacrifice had respect to his faith in Christ. When, therefore, in consequence of smelling that sweet savour, "God blessed Noah and his sons" (Genesis 9:1), that had reference not merely to temporal but to spiritual and eternal blessings. Every one, there, fore, of the sons of Noah, who had Noah's faith, and who walked as Noah walked, was divinely assured of an interest in "the everlasting covenant, ordered in all things and sure." Blessed were those bands by which God bound the believing children of men to Himself-by which heaven and earth were so closely joined together. Those, on the other hand, who joined in the apostasy of Nimrod broke the covenant, and in casting off the authority of God, did in effect say, "Let us break His bands asunder, and cast. His cords from us." To this very act of severing the covenant connection between earth and heaven there is very distinct allusion, though veiled, in the Babylonian history of Berosus. There Belus, that is Nimrod, after having dispelled the primeval darkness, is said to have separated heaven and earth from one another, and to have orderly arranged the world.—(Berosus, in Bunsen, vol. i. p. 709.) These words were intended to represent Belus as the "Former of the world." But then it is a new world that he forms; for there are creatures in existence before his Demiurgic power is exerted. The new world that Belus or Nimrod formed, was just the new order of things which he introduced when, setting at nought all Divine appointments, he rebelled against Heaven. The rebellion of the Giants is represented as peculiarly a rebellion against Heaven. To this ancient quarrel between the Babylonian potentates and Heaven, there is plainly an allusion in the words of Daniel to Nebuchadnezzar, when announcing that sovereign's humiliation and subsequent restoration, he says (Daniel 4:26), "Thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, when thou best known that the HEAVENS do rule."

[177]          Smith's Lesser Dictionary, "Gigantes," pp. 282, 283.

[178]          In the Greek Septuagint, translated in Egypt, the term "mighty" as applied in Genesis 10:8, to Nimrod, is rendered yiyac,, the ordinary name for a "Giant."

[179]          Ivan and Kallery, in their account of Japan, show that a similar story to that of Atlas was known there, for they say that once a day the Emperor "sits on his throne upholding the world and the empire." Now something like this came to be added to the story of Atlas, for PAUSANIAS shows (lib. v. cap. 18, p. 423) that Atlas also was represented as upholding both earth and heaven.

[180]          Bryant, vol. iv. Pp. 61, 62.

[181]          Hyginus, Fab. 184, p. 138.

[182]          Ibid. Fab. 132, p. 109. Lycurgus, who is commonly made the enemy of Bacchus, was, by the Thracians and Phrygians, identified with Bacchus, who it is well known, was torn in pieces. See STRABO, lib. x. p. 463.

[183]          APOLLODORUS, Bibliotheca, lib. i. cap. 3 and 7, p. 17.

[184]          LUNOVICUS VrVES, Commentary on Augustine, lib. vi. chap. ix. Note, p. 239. Ninus as referred to by Vives is called "King of India." The word "India" in classical writers, though not always, yet commonly means ^Ethiopia, or the land of Cush. Thus the Choaspes in the land of the eastern Cushites is called an "Indian River" (DiONYSlUS Afer. Periergesis, v. 1073-4, p. 32); and the Nile is said by Virgil to come from the "coloured Indians" (Georg., lib. iv. v., 293, p. 230)—i.e., from the Cushites, or (Æthiopians of Africa. Osiris also is by Diodorus Siculus (Bibliotheca, lib. I. p. 16), called "an Indian by extraction." There can be no doubt, then, that "Ninus, king of India," is the Cushite or Æthiopian Ninus.

[185]          See Wilkinson's Egyptians, vol. v. p. 3. The statement of Plato amounts to this, that the famous Thoth was a counselor of Thamus, king of Egypt. Now Thoth is universally known as the "counsellor" of Osiris. (WILKINSON, vol. v. e. xiii. p. 10.) Hence it may be concluded that Thamus and Osiris are the same.

[186]          KlTTO's Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. p. 141.

[187]          Photius, under the head "Nebridzion" quotes Demosthenes as saying that "spotted fawns (or nebroi) were torn in pieces for a certain mystic or mysterious reason;" and he himself tells us that "the tearing in pieces of the nebroi (or spotted fawns) was in imitation of the suffering in the case of Dionysus" or Bacchus.—PHOTIUS, Lexicon, Pars. i. p. 291.

[188]          See Ovid's Fasti, lib. v. lines 540-b44. Ovid represents Orion as so puffed up with pride on account of his great strength, as vain-gloriously to boast that no creature on earth could cope with him, whereupon a scorpion appeared, "and," says the poet, "he was added to the stars." The name of a scorpion in Chaldee is Akrab; but Ak-rab, thus divided, signifies "The Great Oppressor," and this is the hidden meaning of the Scorpion as represented in the Zodiac. That sign typifies him who qut off the Babylonian god, and suppressed the system he set up. It was while the sun was in Scorpio that Osiris in Egypt "disappeared" (WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 331), and great lamentations were made for his disappearance. Another subject was mixed up with the death of the Egyptian god; but it is specially to be noticed that, as it was in consequence of a conflict with a scorpion that Orion was "added to the stars," so it was when the scorpion was in the ascendant that Osiris "disappeared."

[189]          See Paschal Chronicle, torn i. p. 64.

[190]          Gillespie's Sinim, p. 71.

[191]          In Theocritus, also, the boar that killed Adonis is represented an having done so accidentally. See next section.

[192]          Scandinavia, vol. i. pp. 93, 94.

[193]          Zero—in Chaldee, "the seed"—though we have seen reason to conclude that in Greek it sometimes appeared as Zeira, quite naturally passed also into Zoro, as may be seen from the change of Zerubbabel in the Greek Septuagint to Zoro-babel; and hence Zuro-ashta, "the seed of the woman" became Zoroaster, the well-known name of the head of the fire-worshippers. Zoroaster's name is also found as Zeroastes (JOHANNES Clericus, torn, ii., De Chaldceis, sect. i. cap. 2, p. 194). The reader who consults the able and very learned work of Dr. Wilson of Bombay, on the Parsi Religion, will find that there was a Zoroaster long before that Zoroaster who lived in the reign of Darius Hystaspes.-(See note to Wilson's Parsi Religion, p. 398.) In general history, the Zoroaster of Bactria is most frequently referred to; but the voice of antiquity is clear and distinct to the effect that the first and great Zoroaster was an Assyrian or Chaldean (SuiDAS, torn. i. p. 1133), and that he was the founder of the idolatrous system of Babylon, and therefore Nimrod. It is equally clear also in stating that he perished by a violent death, even as was the case with Nimrod, Tammuz, or Bacchus. The identity of Bacchus and Zoroaster is still further proved by the epithet Pyrisporus, bestowed on Bacchus in the Orphic Hymns (Hymn xliv. 1). When the primeval promise of Eden began to be forgotten, the meaning of the name Zero-ashta was lost to all who knew only the exoteric doctrine of Paganism; and as "ashta" signified "fire" in Chaldee, as well as "the woman," and the rites of Bacchus had much to do with fire-worship, "Zero-ashta" came to be rendered "the seed of fire;" and hence the epithet Pyri-porus, or Ignigena, "fire-born," as applied to Bacchus. From this misunderstanding of the meaning of the name Zero-ashta, or rather from its wilful perversion by the priests, who wished to establish one doctrine for the initiated, and another for the profane vulgar, came the whole story about the unborn infant Bacchus having been rescued from the flames that consumed his mother Semele, when Jupiter carne in his glory to visit her.-(Note to Ovid's Metam., lib. iii. v. 254, torn. ii. p. 139.)
There was another name by which Zoroaster was known, and which is not a little instructive, and that is Zar-adas, "The only seed."—(Johannes Clericus, torn. ii. De Chaldceis, sect. i. cap. 2, p. 191.) In Wilson's Parsi Religion the name is given either Zoroadus, or Zarades (p. 400). The ancient Pagans, while they recognised supremely one only God, knew also that there was one only seed, on whom the hopes of the world were founded. In almost all nations, not only was a great god known under the name of Zero or Zer, "the seed," and a great goddess under the name of Ashta or Isha, "the woman;" but the great god Zero is frequently characterised by some epithet which implies that he is "The only One." Now what can account for such names or epithets, Genesis iii. 15 can account for them; nothing else can. The name Zar-ades, or Zoro­adus, also strikingly illustrates the saying of Paul : "He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ."
It is worthy of notice, that the modern system of Parseeism, which dates from the reform of the old fire-worship in the time of Darius Hystaspes, having rejected the worship of the goddess-mother, cast out also from the name of their Zoroaster the name of the "woman;" and therefore in the Zend, the sacred language of the Parsecs, the name of their great reformer is Zarathustra (see Wilson, p. 201, and passim)—i.e., "The Delivering Seed," the last member of the name coming from Thusht (the root being—Chaldee—nthsh, which drops the initial n), "to loosen or set loose," and so to free. Thusht is the infinitive, and ra appended to it is, in Sanscrit, with which the Zend has much affinity, the well-known sign of the doer of an action, just as er is in English. The Zend Zarathushtra, then, seems just the equivalent of Phoroneus, "The Emancipator."

[194]          Wilkinson, vol. iv. p. 396.

[195]          Humboldt's Mexican Researches, vol. i. p. 228.

[196]          Mallet's Northern Antiquities, Fab. li. p. 453.

[197]          Landsefr's Sabean Researches, pp. 132-134.

[198]          From E, "the," nko, "to crush," and nahash, "a serpent,"—E nko-nahash." The Arabic name of the constellation, "the Kneeler," is "Al Gethi," which, in like manner, signifies "The Crusher."

[199]          Pococke's India in Greece, p. 300.

[200]          Coleman's Indian Mythology, Plate xii. p. 34. See ante, p 60.

[201]          Suidas, tom."i. pp. 1133. 113s.

[202]          Berosus, opud Bunsen, vol. i. p. 709.

[203]          Mors Nevochim, p. 426.

[204]          The name of the true God (Elohim) is plural. Therefore, "the power of the gods," and "of God," is expressed by the same term.

[205]          Wilkinson, vol. v. p. 17.

[206]          Ibid. vol. iv. pp. 330-332.

[207]          Diodorus. lib. i. n. 48.

[208]          DlODORUS, lib. i. p. 68. The words of Diodorus, as printed in the ordinary editions, make the number of the judges simply "more than forty," without specifying how many more. In the Codex Coislianus, the number is stated to be "two more than forty." The earthly judges, who tried the question of burial, are admitted both by WILKINSON (vol. v. p. 75) and Bunsen (vol. i. p. 27), to have corresponded in number to the judges of the infernal regions. Now, these judges, over and above their president, are proved from the monuments to have been just forty-two. The earthly judges at funerals, therefore, must equally have been forty-two. In reference to this number as applying equally to the judges of this world and the world of spirits, Bunsen, speaking of the judgment on a deceased person in the world unseen, uses these words in the passage above referred to: "Forty-two gods {the number composing the earthly tribunal of the dead) occupy the judgment-seat." Diodorus himself, whether he actually wrote "two more than forty," or simply "more than forty," gives reason to believe that forty-two was the number lie had present to his mind; for he says, that "the whole of the fable of the shades below," as brought by Orpheus from Egypt, was "copied from the ceremonies of the Egyptian funerals," which he had witnessed at the judgment before the burial of the dead.—(DIODORUS, lib. i. p. 68.)—If, therefore, there were just forty-two judges in "the shades below," that even, on the showing of Diodorus, whatever reading of his words be preferred, proves that the number of the judges in the earthly judgment must have been the same.

[209]          Wilkinson admits chat different individuals at different times bore this hated name in Egypt. Ono of the most noted names by which Typho, or the Evil One, was called, was Seth (EPlPHANrus, Adv. Hceres., lib. iii.). Now Seth and Shem are synonymous, both alike signifying "The appointed one." As Shorn was a younger son of Noah, being "the brother of Japhet the elder" (Genesis 10:21), and as the pre-eminence was divinely destined to him, the name Shem, "the appointed one," had doubtless been given him by Divine direction, either at his birth or afterwards, to mark him out as Seth had been previously marked out as the "child of promise." Shem, however, seems to have been known in Egypt as Typho, not only under the name of Seth, but under his own name; for Wilkinson tolls us that Typho was characterised by a name that signified "to destroy and render desert."—{Egyptians, vol. iv. p. 434.) Now the name of Shem also in one of its meanings signifies "to desolate" or lay waste. So Shorn, the appointed one, was by his enemies made Shem, the Desolator or Destroyer—i.e., the Devil.

[210]          In India, a demon with a "boar's face" is said to have gained such power through his devotion, that he oppressed the "devotees" or worshippers of the gods, who had to hide themselves.—(Moor's Pantheon, p. 19.) Even in Japan there seems to be a similar myth. For Japanese boar, see LllustratedNews, 15th Dec, 1860.

[211]          Ezekiel 27:15:— "They brought thee for a present horns of ivory."

[212]          Pausanias admits that some in his day regarded tusks as teeth; but he argues strongly, and, I think, conclusively, for their being considered as "horns."—See PAUSANIAS, lib. v., Eliaca, cap. 12. p. 404; also, Varro, De LinguaLatina, lib. vi. apud Parkhurst, sub voce "Krn."

[213]          The Celtic scholars derive the name Ogmius from the Celtic word Ogum, which is said to denote "the secret of writing;" but Ogum is much more likely to be derived from the name of the god, than the name of the god to be derived from it.

[214]          Sir W. Betham's Gael and Cymbri, pp. 90-93. In connection with this Ogmius, one of the names of "Sem," the great Egyptian Hercules who overcame the Giants, is worthy of notice. That name is Chon. In the Etymologicum Magnum, apud Bryant, vol. ii. p. 33, we thus read:— "They say that in the Egyptian dialect Hercules is called Chon." Compare this with Wilkinson, vol. v. p. 17, where Chon is called "Sem." Now Khon signifies "to lament" in Chaldee, and as Shorn was Khon—i.e., "Priest" of the Most High God, his character and peculiar circumstances as Khon "the lamenter" would form an additional reason why he should be distinguished by that name by which the Egyptian Hercules was known. And it is not to be overlooked, that on the part of those who seek to turn sinners from the error of their ways, there is an eloquence in tears that is very impressive. The tears of Whitefield formed one great part of his power; and, in like manner, the tears of Khon, "the lamenting" Hercules, would aid him mightily in overcoming the Giants.

[215]          JUSTINUS, Historic, lib. i. cap. 1, vol. ii. p. 615.

[216] Stanley, p. 1031, col. 1.

[217]          Epiphanius, Adv. Hceres., lib. i. torn, i., vol. i. p. 7 0.

[218]          Wilkinson's Manners and Customs of Egyptians, vol. v. p. 326.

[219]          * Damascius, apud Photium, Bibliotheca, cod. 242, p. 343.

[220]          One of the statements to which I refer is contained in the following words of Moses of Chorene in his, Armenian History, referring to the answer made by Semiramis to the friends of Arasus, who had been slain in battle by her:— "Diis inquit [Semiramis]meis mendata dedi, ut Arasi vulnera lamberent, et ab inferis excitarent … Dii, inquit, Arasum lamberunt, et ad vitam revocarunt;" "I have given commands, says Semiramis, to my gods to lick the wounds of Araeus, and to raise him from the dead. The gods, says she, have licked Arasus, and recalled him to life."—(MOSES CHORONEN, lib. i. cap. 14, p. 42.). If Semiramis had really done what she said she had done, it would have been a miracle. The effects of magic were sham miracles; and Justin and Epiphanius show that sham miracles came in at the very birth of idolatry. Now, unless the sham miracle of raising the dead by magical arts had already been known to be practised in the days of Semiramis, it is not likely that she would have given such an answer to those whom she wished to propitiate; for, on the one hand, how could she ever have thought of such an answer, and on the other, how could she expect that it would have the intended effect, if there was no current belief in the practices of necromancy 1 We find that in Egypt, about the same age, such magic arts must have been practised, if Manetho is to be believed. "Manetho says," according to Josephus, "that he [the elder Horus, evidently spoken of as a human and mortal king]was admitted to the sight of the gods, and that Amenophis desired the same privilege." θεῶν γεσεσθαι θεατὴν ὥσπερ ὥρα so it stood in the old copies.—(Josephus, contra Apion, lib. i. p. 932.) This pretended admission to the sight of the gods evidently implies the use of the magic art referred to in the text.

[221]          It would seem that no public idolatry was ventured upon till the reign of the grandson of Semiramis, Arioch or Arius.— Cedreni Compendium, vol. i. pp. 29, 30.

[222]          Plutarchi Opera, vol. ii. p. 366.

[223]          These are the words of the Gradus ad Parnassum, referring to the cause o. the downfall of Vulcan, whose identity with Nimrod is shown in Chapter VII. Section I.

[224]          Plutarch, De hide, vol. ii. p. 369.

[225]          Thevenot, Voyages, Partie ii., chap. vii. p. 514.

[226]          Col. Kennedy's Hindoo Mythology, pp. 221 and 247, with Note.

[227]          Ibid. pp. 200, 204, 205. In the exercise of his office as the Remedial god, Vishnu is said to "extract the thorns of the three worlds."—Moor's Pantheon, p. 12. "Thorns" were a symbol of the curse.—(Genesis 3:18).

[228]          Pope's Homer, corrected by Parkhurst. See the original in Iliad, lib. v. 11. 339, 340, pp. 193, 199.

[229]          See ante, p. 22.

[230]          The expression used in Exodus 28:38, for "bearing iniquity" or sin in a vicarious manner is "nsha eon" (the first letter eon being ayn). A synonym for eon, "iniquity," is aon (the first letter being aleph).—(See PARKHURST sub coca "An," No. IV.) In Chaldee the first letter a becomes ;', and therefore aon, "iniquity," is ion. Then nsha "to bear," in the participle active is "nusha." As the Greeks had no sh, that became nusa. De, or Da, is the demonstrative pronoun signifying "That" or "The great." And thus "D'ion-nusa" is exactly "The great sin-bearer." That the classic Pagans had the very idea of the imputation of sin, and of vicarious suffering, is proved by what OVID says in regard to Olenos. Olenos is said to have taken upon him and willingly to have borne the blame of guilt of which he was innocent:—
Quique in se crimen traxit, voluitque videri, Olenos esse noeces."
(Oven, Metam., vol. ii. p. 486.) Under the load of this imputed guilt, voluntarily taken upon himself, Olenos is represented as having suffered such horror as to have perished, being petrified or turned into stone. As the stone into which Olenos was changed was erected on the holy mountain of Ida, that shows that Olenos must have been regarded as a sacred person. The real character of Olenoe, as the "sin-bearer," can be very fully established. See Appendix. Note F

[231]          Mahawanso, xxxi. apud pococke's India in Greece, p. 185.

[232]          Atheneus, lib. xv. p. 675.

[233]          Wilkinson's Egyptians, vol. iv. p. 139.

[234]          Ibid. p. 310.

[235]          Russell's Egypt, p. 79.

[236]          Wilkinson, vol. iv. pp. 310, 314.

[237]          This is the esoteric moaning of Virgil's "Golden Branch," and of the Misletoe Branch of the Druids. The proof of this must be reserved to the Apocalypse of the Past. I may remark, however, in passing, on the wide extent of the worship of a sacred branch. Not only do the Negroes in Africa in the worship of the Feticho, on certain occasions, make use of a sacred branch (Hurd's Rites and Ceremonies, p. 375), but even in India there are traces of the same practice. My brother, S. Hislop, Free Church Missionary at Nagpore, informs me that the late Rajah of Nagpore used every year, on a certain day, to go in state to worship the branch of a particular species of tree, called Apta, which had been planted for the occasion, and which, after receiving divine honours, was plucked up, and its leaves distributed by the native Prince among his nobles. In the streets of the city numerous boughs of the same kind of tree were sold, and the leaves presented to friends under the name of sona, or "gold."

[238]          Berosus, in Bunsen's Egypt, vol. i. p. 710, Note 5. The name "El-Bar" is given above in the Hebrew form, as being more familiar to the common reader of the English Bible. The Chaldee form of the name is Ala-Bar, which in the Greek of Berosus, is Ala-Par, with the ordinary Greek termination as affixed to it. The change of Bar into Par in Greek is just on the same principle as Ab, "father," in Greek becomes Appa, and Bard, the "spotted one," becomes Pardos, &c. This name, Ala-Bar, was probably given by Berosus to Ninyas as the legitimate son and successor of Nimrod. That Ala-Par-os was really intended to designate the sovereign referred to, as "God the Son," or "the Son of God," is confirmed by another reading of the same name as given in Greek (in p. 712 of BUNSEN, Note). There the name is Alasparos. Now Pyrisporus, as applied to Bacchus, means Ignigena, or the "Seed of Fire;" and Ala-sporos, the "Seed of God," is just a similar expression formed in the same way, the name being Grocised. It is well known that the Greek σπειρω pocomes from the Hebrew Zero, both signifying as verbs to sow. The formation of σπειρω pocomes thus:— The active participle of Zero is Zuro, which, used as a verb, becomes Zwero, Zvero, and Zpero. "Alasparos," then; naturally signifies, "The Seed of God"—a mere variation of Ala-Par-os, "God the Son," or "the Son of God."

[239]          Nineveh and Babylon, p. 629.

[240]          Vaux's Nineveh, p. 457.

[241]          BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 426. Though Bunsen does not mention the degradation of the god Bar, yet by making him Typhon he implies his degradation. See EPIPHANIUS, Adv. Hasreses, lib. iii. torn, ii., vol. i. p. 1093.

[242]          To understand the true meaning of the above expression, reference must be had to a remarkable form of oath among the Romans. In Rome the most sacred form of an oath was (as we learn from Aulus Gellius, i. 21, p. 192), "Per Jovers Lapidem," "By Jupiter the Stone." This, as it stands, is nonsense. But translate lapidem back into the sacred tongue, or Chaldee, and the oath stands, "By Jove, the Son," or "By the son of Jove." Ben, which in Hebrew is Son, in Chaldee becomes Eben, which also signifies a stone, as may be seen in "Ebenezer," "The stone of help." Now as the most learned inquirers into antiquity (Sir G. Wilkinson evidently being included among them, see Egyptians, vol. iv. p. 186), have admitted that the Roman Jovis, which was anciently the nominative, is just a form of the Hebrew Jehovah, it is evident that the oath had originally been, "by the son of Jehovah." This explains how the most solemn and binding oath had been taken in the form above referred to; and, it shows, also, what was really meant when Bacchus, "the son of Jovis," was called "The Eternal Boy."—OYJD,Metam., iv. 17, 18.


[244]          Valerius Maximus, lib. ix., cap. 3, leaf 193, p. 2. Valerius Maximum does not mention anything about the representation of Semiramis with the child in her arms; but as Semiramis was deified as Rhea, whose distinguishing character was that of goddess Mother, and as we have evidence that the name, "Seed of the Woman," or Zoroastes, goes back to the earliest times—viz., her own day (Cleri. cus, De Chaldceis, lib. i. sect, i., cap. 3, torn. ii. p. 199), this implies that if there was any image-worship in these times, that "Seed of the Woman" must have occupied a prominent place in it. As over all the world the Mother and the child appear in some shape or other, and are found on the early Egyptian monuments, that shows that this worship must have had its roots in the primeval ages of the world. If, therefore, the mother was represented in so fascinating a form when singly represented, we may be sure that the same beauty for which she was celebrated would be given to her when exhibited with the child in her arms.

[245]          Sanchuniathon, p. 25.

[246]          From Asht-trt. See Appendix. Note J. "On the meaning of the name Astarte."

[247]          Diodorus, Bibliotheca, lib. ii. p. 70. See Figure 23, p. 60. ante, where an Egyptian goddess, in imitation of Horus, pierces a serpent's head, t See ante, pp. 29, 30.

[248]          How extraordinary, yea, frantic, was the devotion in the minds of the Babylonians to this goddess queen, is sufficiently proved by the statement of Hero, dotus, lib. i. cap. 199, as to the way in which she required to be propitiated. That a whole people should ever have consented to such a custom as is there de. scribed, shows the amazing hold her worship must have gained over them. Non. nus, speaking of the same goddess, calls her "The hope of the whole world,"— ἑ λαῷ λούω κόσμοιο(Dionusiaca, lib. xii., in Bryant, vol. iii. p. 226.) It was the same goddess, as we have seen (pp. 29, 30), who was worshipped at Ephesus, whom Demetrius the silversmith characterised as the goddess "whom all Asia and the world worshipped" (Acts 19:27). So great was the devotion to this goddess queen, not of the Babylonians only, but of the ancient world in general, that the fame of the exploits of Semiramis has, in history, cast the exploits of her husband Ninus or Nimrod, entirely into the shade.
In regard to the identification of Rhea or Cybele and Venus, see Appendix. Note G

[249]          See Smith's Classical Dictionary, p. 320.

[250]          The term Alma is the precise term used by Isaiah in the Hebrew of the Old Testament, when announcing, 700 years before the event, that Christ should be born of a Virgin. If the question should be asked, how this Hebrew term Alma (not in a Roman, but a Hebrew sense) could find its way to Rome, the answer is, Through Etruria, which had an intimate connection with Assyria (see Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, p. 190). The word "mater" itself, from which comes our own "mother," is originally Hebrew. It comes from Heb. Msh, "to draw forth," in Egyptian Me, "to bring forth" (Bunsen, Vol. I. P. 540), which in the Chaldee form becomes Mt, whence the Egyptian Maut, "mother." Erh or Er, as in English (and a similar form is found in Sanecrit), is, "The doer." So that Mater or Mother signifies "The bringer forth."
It may be thought an objection to the above account of the epithet Alma, that this term is often applied to Venus, who certainly was no virgin. But this objection is more apparent than real. On the testimony of Augustine, himself an eye-witness, we know that the rites of Vesta, emphatically "the virgin goddess of Rome," under the name of Terra, were exactly the same as those of Venus, the goddess of impurity and licentiousness (Aug. De Civitate Dei, lib. ii. cap. 26). Augustine elsewhere says that Vesta, the virgin goddess, "was by some called Venus" (Ibid. lib. iv. cap. 10).
Even in the mythology of our own Scandinavian ancestors, we have a remarkable evidence that Alma Mater, or the Virgin Mother, had been originally known to them. One of their gods called Heimdal, who is described in the roost exalted terms, as having such quick perceptions as that he could hear the grass growing on the ground, or the wool on the sheep's back, and whose trumpet, when it blew, could be heard through all the worlds, is called by the paradoxical name, "the son of nine virgins."—(Mallet, p. 95.) Now this obviously contains an enigma. Let the language in which the religion of Odin was originally delivered-viz., the Chaldee, be brought to bear upon it, and the enigma is solved at once. In Chaldee "the son of nine virgins" is Ben-Alrnut-Teshaali. But in pronunciation this is identical with "Ben-Almet-Isaaa," "the son of the virgin of salvation." That son was everywhere known as the "saviour seed." "Zera-hosha" in (Z, nd, "cra-osha"), and his virgin mother consequently claimed to be "the virgin of salvation." Even in the very heavens the God of Providence has constrained His enemies to inscribe a testimony to the great Scriptural truth proclaimed by the Hebrew prophet, that a "virgin should bring forth a son, whose name should be called Immanuel." The constellation Virgo, as admitted by the most learned astronomers, was dedicated to Ceres (Dr. John Hill, in his Urania, and Mr. A. Jamieson, in his Celestial Atlas, see LANDSEER's Sabean Researches, p. 201), who is the same as the great goddess of Babylon, for Ceres was worshipped with the babe at her breast (SOPHOCLES, Antigone, v. 1133), even as the Babylonian goddess was. Virgo was originally the Assyrian Venus, the mother of Bacchus or Tammuz. Virgo then, was the Virgin Mother. Isaiah's prophecy was carried by the Jewish captives to Babylon, and hence the new title bestowed upon the Babylonian goddess.

[251]          Asiatic Researches, vol. x. p. 27.

[252]          See Sir J. F. Davis's China, vol. ii. p. 66, and Lafitan, who says that the accounts sent home by the Popish missionaries bore that the sacred books of the Chinese spoke not merely of a Holy Mother, but of a Virgin Mother (vol. i. p. 235, Note). See also Salverte, De Sciences Occultes, Appendix. Note A. Sect. 12, p. 490. The reader may find additional testimonies to the very same effect in Prescott's Conquent of Mexico, vol. i. pp. 53, 54, Note. For further evidence on this subject, see Appendix. Note H.

[253]          Parson's Japhet, pp. 205, 206.

[254]          When Ashta, or "the woman," came to be called the "queen of heaven," the name "woman" became the highest title of honour applied to a female. This accounts for what we find so common among the ancient nations of the East, that queens and the most exalted personages were addressed by the name of "woman." "Woman" is not a complimentary title in our language; but formerly it had been applied by our ancestors in the very same way as among the Orientals; for our word "Queen" is derived from Cwino, which in the ancient Gothic just signified a woman.

[255]          Bunsen, vol. i. p. 401.

[256]          Ibid. vol. 1. pp. 356, 387.

[257]          Hestia, in Greek, signifies "a house" or "dwelling."—(See SCUREVELIUS and Photius, sub voce.) This is usually thought to be a secondary meaning of the word, its proper meaning being believed to be "fire." But the statements made in regard to Hestia, show that the name is derived from Hes or Hese, "to cover, to shelter," which is the very idea of a house, which "covers" or "shelters" from the inclemency of the weather. The verb "Hes" also signifies "to protect," to "show mercy," and from this evidently comes the character of Hestia as "the protectress of suppliants."—(See Smith.) Taking Hestia as derived from Hes, "to cover," or "shelter," the following statement of Smith is easily accounted for:—"Hestia was the goddess of domestic life, and the giver of all domestic happiness; as such she was believed to dwell in the inner part of every house, and to have invented the art of building houses." If "fire" be supposed to be the original idea of Hestia, how could "fire" ever have been supposed to be "the builder of houses" ? But taking Hestia in the sense of the Habitation or Dwelling-place, though derived from Hes, "to shelter," or "cover," it is easy to see how Hestia would come to be identified with—"fire." The goddess who was regarded as the "Habitation of God" was known by the name of Ashta, "The Woman;" while "Ashta" also signified "The fire;" and thus Hestia or Vesta, as the Babylonian system was developed, would easily come to be regarded as "Fire," or "the goddess of fire." For the reason that suggested the idea of the Goddess-mother being a Habitation, see Appendix. Note I.

[258]          Taylor's Orphic Hymns: Hymn to Vesta, p. 175. Though Vesta is here called the daughter of Saturn, she is also identified in all the Pantheons with Cybele or Rhea, the wife of Saturn.

[259]          Note to Taylor's Orphic Hymns, p. 156.

[260]          For the worship of Sacca, in the character of Anaitis—i.e., Venus, see Cresney's Euphrates Expedition, vol. i. p. 351.

[261]          KENNEDY and MOOR, passim. A synonym for Sacca, "a tabernacle," is "Abel," which, with the points, is pronounced " Ohel." From the first form of the word, the name of the wife of the god Buddha seems to be derived, which, in KENNEDY, is Ahalya (pp. 246, 256), and in Moor's Pantheon, Ahilya (p. 264). From the second form, in like manner, seems to be derived the name of the wife of the Patriarch of the Peruvians, "Mama Oello." (Prescott's Peru, vol. i. pp. 7, 8.) Mama was by the Peruvians used in the Oriental sense; Oello, in all likelihood, was used in the same sense.

[262]          DlODORUS Sic, lib. ii. p. 76. In connection with this the classical reader will remember the title of one of the fables in
Ovid's Metamorphoses. "Semiramis in columbam" (Metam. iv.) "Semiramis into a pigeon."

[263]          Dione, the name of the mother of Venus, anti frequently applied to Venus herself, is evidently the same name as the
above. Dione, as meaning Venus, is clearly applied by OVID to the Babylonian goddess. Fasti, lib. ii. 461-464, vol iii. p.

[264]          Layard's Nineveh and Babylon, p. 260.

[265]          From Ze, "the" or "that," emir, "branch," and omit, "bearer," in the feminine.—HESYCHIOS, sub voce, says that Semiramis is a name for a "wild pigeon." The above explanation of the original meaning of the name Semiramis, as referring to Noah's wild pigeon (for it was evidently a wild one, as the tame one would not have suited the experiment), may account for its application by the Greeks to any wild pigeon.

[266]          Bryant, vol. iii. p. 84. The branch in the hand of Cybele in the above cut is only a conventional branch; but in the figure given by Layard it is distinctly an olive branch.

[267]          FlRMlOUS, De Errore, cap. 4, p. 9.

[268]          Proclus, lib. vi. cap. 22, vol. ii. p. 76.

[269]          Taylor's Orphic Hymns, p. 50. Every classical reader must be aware of the identification of Juno with the air. The following, however, as still further illustrative of the subject from Proclus, may not be out of place:—" The series of our sovereign mistress Juno, beginning from on high, pervades the last of things, and her allotment in the sublunary region is the air; for air is a symbol of soul, according to which also soul is called a spirit, πνεῦμα.—PROCLUS. Ibid. p. 197.

[270]          Bryant, vol. hi. p. 145.

[271]          From Ze, "that," or "the great," and "Mason," or Maion, "a habitation," which, in the Ionic dialect, in which Lucian, the describer of the goddess, wrote, would naturally become Melon.

[272]          Joannes Clericus, Philos. Orient., lib. ii., De Persis, cap. 9, vol. ii. p. 340.

[273]          Tacitus, Germania, ix. torn. ii. p. 386.

[274]          CAESAR, De Bello Gallico, lib. vi. cap. 13, p. 121. The name Druid has been thought to be derived from the GreekDrus, an oak tree, or the Celtic Deru, which has the same meaning; but this is obviously a mistake. In Ireland, the name for a Druid is Droi, and in Wales Dry w; and it will be found that the connection of the Druids with the oak was more from the mere similarity of their name to that of the oak, than because they derived their name from it. The Druidic system in all its parts was evidently the Babylonian system. Dionysius informs us, that the rites of Bacchus were duly celebrated in the British Islands—(PERIERGESIS, v. 666, p. 29)—and Strabo cites Artemidorus to show that, in an island close to Britain, Ceres and Proserpine were venerated with rites similar to the orgies of Samoth-race.-(Lib. iv. p. 190.) It will be seen from the account of the Druidic Ceridwen and her child, afterwards to be noticed—(see Chap. IV. Sect. III.)—that there was a great analogy between her character and that of the great goddess—mother of Babylon. Such was the system; and the name Dryw, or Droi, applied to the priests, is inexact accordance with that system. The name Zero, given in Hebrew or the early Chaldee, to the son of the great goddess queen, in later Chaldee became "Dero." The priest of Dero, "the seed," was called, as is the case in almost all religions, by the name of his god; and hence the familiar name "Druid" is thus proved to signify the priest of "Dero"—the woman's promised "seed." The classical Hamadryads were evidently in like manner priestesses of "Hamed-dero,"—"the desired seed"—i.e., "the desire of all nations."

[275]          Herodotus, Historia, lib. ii. cap. 66, p. 117, D.

[276]          Nimrod, iii. p. 329, quoted in Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, July, 1852, p. 244.

[277]          Newman's Development, pp. 405, 406. The intelligent reader will see at a glance the absurdity of applying this vision of the "woman" of the Apocalypse to the Virgin Mary. John expressly declares that what he saw was a "sign" or "symbol" isemeion). If the woman here is a literal woman, the woman that site on the seven hills must be the same. "The woman" in both cases is a "symbol." "The woman" on the seven hills is the symbol of the false church; the woman clothed with the sun, of the true church—the Bride, the Lamb's wife.

[278]          Ibid.

[279]          Journal of Professor Gibson, in Scottish Protestant, vol. i. p. 464.

[280]          The Golden Manual, in Scottish Protestant, vol. ii. p. 271. The word here used for "Dwelling-place" in the Latin of this work is a pure Chaldee word "Zabulo," and is from the same verb as Zebulun (Genesis 30:20), the name which was given by Leah to her son, when she said "Now will my husband dwell with me."

[281]          PancarpiumMarice,p. 141.

[282]          Garden of the Soul, p. 488.

[283]          Golden Manual, in Scottish Protestant, vol. ii. p. 272.

[284]          Pancorpium Marian, orMarianum,pp. 141, 142.

[285]          Ibid. p. 142. Golden Manual, p. 649. This work has the imprimatur of" Nicholas, Bishop of Melipotamus," now Cardinal Wiseman.

[286]          Ovid, Fasti, lib. v. 1. 609, torn. iii. p. 330.

[287]          Iliad, lib. v. v. 420, torn. i. p. 206.

[288]          Ovid, Tristium, lib. i.; Elegia, p. 44; and Fasti, lib. vi. v. 652, torn, iii p. 387.

[289]          Anacreon, Od. Ix. p. 204.

[290]          Idyll vn.v. 116, p. 157.

[291]          Homer's Iliad, lib. v. v. 427.

[292]          Asiatic Researches, vol. xi. p. 134.

[293] Hesiod, Theogonia, v. 947, p. 74.

[294]          Heathen Mythology Illustrated, p. 58.

[295]          Ibid. p. 90.

[296]          Lucian de Dea Syria, vol. iii. pp. 460, 461. The name mentioned by Lucian is Derketo, but it is well known that Derketo and Atergatis, are the same.

[297]          Danish Tales, p. 36.

[298]          Ibid. p. 37.

[299]          Herodotus, lib. ii. p. 158, and Wilkinson, vol. i., Note to p. 128. H. J. Jones, in Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, October, 1852, p. 331.

[300]          The explanation of the next woodcut is thus given in Pompeii, vol. ii. pp. 91, 92: "One of them [the paintings]is taken from the Odyssey, and represents Ulysses and Circe, at the moment when the hero, having drunk the charmed cup with impunity, by virtue of the antidote given him by Mercury [it is well known that Circe had a 'golden cup,' oven as the Venus of Babylon had], draws his sword, and advances to avenge his companions," who, having drunk of her cup, had boon changed into swine. The goddess, terrified, makes her submission at once, as described by Homer; Ulysses himself being the narrator:—

"'Hence, seek the sty, there wallow with thy friends,'
She spake, f drawing from beside my thigh
My falchion keen, with death-denouncing looks,
Rushed on her; she, with a shrill scream of fear,
Ran under my raised arm, seized fast my knees,
And in winged accents plaintive, thus began:
'Say, who art thou,." &C.—Cowper's Odyssey, x. 320.

"This picture," adds the author of Pompeii, "is remarkable, as teaching us the origin of that ugly and unmeaning glory by which tjie heads of saints are often surrounded … This glory was called nimbus, or aureola, and is defined by Servius to be "the luminous fluid which encircles the heads of the gods.' (On ÆNElD, lib. ii. v. 616, vol. i. p. 165.) It belongs with peculiar propriety to Circe, as the daughter of the Sun. The emperors, with their usual modesty, assumed it as the mark of their divinity ; and under this respectable patronage it passed, like many other Pagan superstitions and customs, into the use of the Church." The emperors here get rather more than a fair share of the blame due to them. It was not the emperors that brought "Pagan superstition" into the Church, so much as the Bishop of Rome. See Chap. VII. Sect. II.

[301]          Ezekiel 8:3. There have been many speculations about what this "image of jealousy" could be. But when it if; known that the grand feature of ancient idolatry was just the worship of the Mother and the child, and that child as the Son of God incarnate, all is plain. Compare Ezekiel 8:3; 5 with Ezekiel 8:14, and it will be seen that the "women weeping for Tammuz" were weeping close beside the image of jealousy.

[302]          Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, July, 1852, p. 244.

[303]          What every Christian must Know and Do. By the Rev. J. Furness. Published by James Duffy, Dublin. The edition of this Manual of Popery quoted above, besides the blasphemy it contains, contains most immoral principles, teaching distinctly the harmlessness of fraud, if only kept within due bounds. On this account, a great outcry having been raised against it, 1 believe this edition has been withdrawn from general circulation. The genuineness of the passage above given is, however, beyond all dispute. I received myself from a friend in Liverpool a copy of the edition containing these words, which is now in my possession, having previously soon them in a copy in the possession of the Rev. Richard Smyth of Armagh. It is not in Ireland, however, only, that such a trinity is exhibited for the worship of Romanists. In a Card, or Fly-leaf, issued by the Popish priests of Sunderland, now lying before me, with the heading "Paschal Duty, St. Mary's Church, Bishop-wearmouth, 1859," the following is the 4th admonition given to the "Dear Christians" to whom it is addressed:—
"4. And never forget the acts of a good Christian, recommended to you so often during the renewal of the Mission.

Blessed be Jesus, Mary, and Joseph.
Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, I give you my heart, my life, and my soul Jesus,
Mary, and Joseph, assist me always; and in my last agony,
Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, receive my last breath. Amen."

To induce the adherents of Rome to perform this "act of a good Christian," a considerable bribe is hold out. In p. 30 of Furness's Manual above referred to, under the head "Rule of Life," the following passage occurs:—"In the morning, before you get up, make the sign of the cross, and say, Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, I give you my heart and my soul. (Each time you say this prayer, you get an indulgence of 100 days, which you can give to the souls in Purgatory) !" I must add that the title of Furness's book, as given above, is the title of Mr. Smyth's copy. The title of the copy in my possession is "What every Christian must Know." London: Richardson & Son, 147 Strand. Both copies alike have the blasphemous words given in the text, and both have the "Imprimatur" of "Paulus Cullen."