APPENDIX, NOTE F, Page 72.

Olenos, the Sin-Bearer.

ΙΝ different portions of this work evidence has been brought to show that Saturn, "the father of gods and men" was in one aspect just our first parent Adam. Now, of Saturn it is said that he devoured all his children. [1] In the exoteric story, among those who knew not the actual fast referred to, this naturally appeared in the myth, in the shape in which we commonly find it—viz., that he devoured them all as soon as they were born. But that which was really couched under the statement, in regard to his devouring his children, was just the Scriptural fast of the Fall—viz., that he destroyed them by eating-not by eating them, but by eating the forbidden fruit. When this was the sad and dismal state of matters, the Pagan story goes on to say that the destruction of the children of the father of gods and men was arrested by means of his wife, Rhea. Rhea, as we have already seen, had really as much to do with the devouring of Saturn's children, as Saturn himself; but, in the progress of idolatry and apostasy, Rhea, or Eve, same to get glory at Saturn's expense. Saturn, or Adam, was represented as a morose divinity; Rhea, or Eve, exceedingly benignant; and, in her benignity, she presented to her husband a stone bound in swaddling bands, which he greedily devoured, and henceforth the children of the cannibal father were safe. [2] The stone bound in swaddling bands is, in the sacred language, "Ebn Harul;" but Ebn-Hat-rul [3] also signifies "A sinbearing son." This does not necessarily mean that Eve, or the mother of mankind, herself actually brought forth the promised seed (although there are many myths also to that effect), but that, having received the glad tidings herself, and embraced it, she presented it to her husband, who received it by faith from her, and that this laid the foundation of his own salvation and that of his posterity. The devouring on the part of Saturn [[@Page:300]]of the swaddled stone is just the symbolical expression of the eagerness with which Adam by faith received the good news of the woman's seed; for the act of faith, both in the Old Testament and in the New, is symbolised by eating. Thus Jeremiah says, "Thy words were found of me, and I did eat them, and thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of my heart" (Jeremiah 15:16). This also is strongly shown by our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, who, while setting before the Jews the indispensable necessity of eating His flesh, and feeding on Him, did at the same time say:" "It is the Spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing:" the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life" (John 6:63). That Adam eagerly received the good news about the promised seed, and treasured it up in his heart as the life of his soul, is evident from the name which he gave to his wife immediately after hearing it:" "And Adam called his wife's name Eve, because she was the mother of all living ones" (Genesis 3:20. See Dr. CANDLlSHs Genesis, p. 108).

The story of the swaddled stone does not end with the swallowing of it, and the arresting of the ruin of the children of Saturn. This swaddled stone was said to be "preserved near the temple of Delphi, where care was taken to anoint it daily with oil, and to cover it with wool" (MAURICE'S Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 348). If this stone symbolised the "sin-bearing son," it of course symbolised also the Lamb of God, slain from the foundation of the world, in whose symbolic covering our first parents were invested when God clothed them in the coats of skins. Therefore, though represented to the eye as a stone, he must have the appropriate covering of wool. When represented as a branch, the branch of God, the branch also was wrapped in wool (POTTER, vol. i., Religion of Greece, chap. v. p. 208). The daily anointing with oil is very significant. If the stone represented the "sin-bearing son," what could the anointing of that "sin-bearing son" daily with oil mean, but just to point him out as the "Lord's Anointed," or the "Messiah," whom the idolaters worshipped in opposition to the trite Messiah yet to be revealed?

One of the names by which this swaddled and anointed stone was called is very strikingly confirmatory of the above conclusion. That name is Bairulos. This we find from Priscian (lib. v., vol. i. p. 180, Note, and lib. vi., vol. i. p. 249), who, speaking of "that stone which Saturn is said to have devoured for Jupiter," adds, "quern Græci βαίτυλον vocant," whom the Greeks called "Bairulos." Now, "B'hai-ruloh" [4] signifies the "Life-restoring child." 1 The father of gods and men had destroyed his children by eating; but the reception of "the swaddled stone" Is said to have "restored them to life" (HESIOD, Theogon., 1. 495, p. 41). Hence the name Bairulos; and this meaning of the name is entirely in accordance with what is said in Sanchuniathon (lib. i., cap. 6, p. 22) about the Baithulia made by the Phenician god Ouranos:" "It was the god Ouranos who devised Baithulia, contriving stones that moved as having life." If the stone Bairulos represented the "life-restoring child," it was natural that that stone should be made, if possible, to appear as having "life" in itself.

Now, there is a great analogy between this swaddled stone that represented the "sin-bearing son," and that Olenos mentioned by OVID, who took on him guilt not his own, and in consequence was changed into a stone. We have seen already that Olenos, when changed into [[@Page:301]]a stone, was set up in Phrygia on the holy mountain of Ida, We have reason to believe that the stone which was fabled to have done so much for the children of Saturn, and was set up near the temple of Delphi, was just a representation of this same Olenos. We find that Olen was the first prophet at Delphi, who founded the first temple there (PAUSAIAS, lib. x., Phocica, cap. 5, p. 321). As the prophets and priests generally bore the names of the gods whom they represented (Hesychius expressly tells us that the priest who represented the great god under the name of the branch in the mysteries was himself called by the name of Bacchus, p. 179), this indicates one of the ancient names of the god of Delphi. If, then, there was a sacred stone on Mount Ida called the stone of Olenos, and a sacred stone in the precincts of the temple of Delphi, which Olen founded, can there be a doubt that the sacred stone of Delphi represented the same as was represented by the sacred stone of Ida? The swaddled

Fig. 60.                       
stone set up at Delphi is expressly called by Priscian, in the place already cited, "a god." This god, then, that in symbol was divinely anointed, and was celebrated as having restored to life the children of Saturn, father of gods and men, as identified with the Idsean Olenos, is proved to have been regarded as occupying the very place of the Messiah, the great Sin-bearer, who came to bear the sins of men, and took their place and suffered in their room and stead; for Olenos, as we have seen, voluntarily took on him guilt of which he was personally free. While thus we have seen how much of the patriarchal faith was hid under the mystical symbols of Paganism, there is yet a circumstance to be noted in regard to the swaddled stone, that shows how the Mystery of Iniquity in Rome has contrived to import this swaddled stone of Paganism into what is called Christian symbolism. The Baitulos, or swaddled stone, was στρογγθλος λίθος (BRYANT, vol. ii. p. 20, Note), a round or globular stone. This globular stone is frequently represented swathed and hound, sometimes with more, sometimes with fewer bandages. In BRYANT, vol. hi. p. 246, where the goddess Cybele is represented as "Spes Divina," or Divine hope, we see the foundation of this divine hope held out to the world in the representation of the swaddled stone at her right hand, bound with four different swathes. In DAVID''s Antiquites Etrusques, vol. iv. plate 27, we find a goddess represented with Pandora's box, the source of all ill, in her extended hand, and the swaddled globe depending from it; and in this case that globe has only two bandages, the one crossing the other. And what is this bandaged globe of Paganism but just the counterpart of that globe, with a hand around it, and the mystic Tau, or cross, on the top of it, that is called "the type of dominion," and is frequently represented, as in the accompanying woodcut (See Figure 60), [5] in the hands of the profane representations of God the Father. The reader does not now need to be told that the cross is the chosen sign and mark [[@Page:302]]of that very God whom the swaddled stone represented; and that when that God was born, it was said, "The Lord of all the earth is born" (WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 310). As the god symbolised by the swaddled stone not only restored the children of Saturn to life, but restored the lordship of the earth to Saturn himself, which by transgression he had lost, it is not to be wondered at that it is said of "these consecrated stones," that while "some were dedicated to Jupiter, and others to the sun," "they were considered in a more particular manner sacred to Saturn," the Father of the gods (MAURICE, vol. ii. p. 348), and that Rome, in consequence, has put the round stone into the hand of the image, bearing the profaned name of God the Father attached to it, and that from this source the bandaged globe, surmounted with the mark of Tammuz, has become the symbol of dominion throughout all Papal Europe.


[1]             Sometimes he is said to have devoured only his male children; but see SMITH'S (Larger) Classical Dictionary, sub voce "Here," whore it will be found that the female as well as the male were devoured.

[2]             Hesiod, Theogonia, 11. 485, &c, pp. 38-41.

[3]             Hata "sin,"is found also in Chaldee, Hat.—See Clavis Stochii, p. 1329.) Tel is from Ntl, "to support." If the reader will look at Horns with his swathes (Bryant, vol. lu. plate 22); Diana with the bandages round her legs (see ante, p. 29); the symbolic bull of the Persians swathed in like manner (Bryant, vol. 1. plate 5, p. 367), and even the shapeless log of the Tahitians, used as a god and bound about with ropes (WILLIAMS, p. 81); he will see, I think, that there must be some important mystery in this swathing.

[4]             From Tli, Tleh, or Tloh, "Infans puer" (Clavis Stockii, Chard., p. 1342), and Hia, or Hays, "to live, to restore life."— (Gesenius, p. 310.) From Hia, "to live," with digamma prefixed, comes the Greek βίος, life. That Hia, when adopted into Greek, was also pronounced Hays, we have evidence in the noun Hiim, "life," pronounced Hayyim, which in Greek is represented by αἷμα, "blood." The Mosaic principle, that "the blood was the life," is thus proved to have been known by others besides the Jews. Now Haya, "to live or restore life," with the digamma prefixed, becomes B'haya:" and so in Egypt, we find that Bai signified "soul,1 or "spirit" (Bunsen, vol. i. p. 375), which is the living principle. B'haitulos, then, is the "Life-restoring child." P'haya-n is the same god.

[5]             From DlDRON's Iconography, vol. 1. p. 301.